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  • 1. Chapter : Historical Timeline (1893-present)
  • 2. 1890s: Art Movements and Artists/Designers (1 of 2)
    • Arts and Crafts Movement proponents continued to disseminate information about design.
    • European art was deeply affected by an influx of Japanese prints.
    • American artists and designers were influenced by European trends and movements.
    • The Art Nouveau movement influenced all the visual arts, from design through architecture.
    • Toulouse-Lautrec embraced the poster.
  • 3. 1890s: Art Movements and Artists/Designers (2 of 2)
    • Companies hired Art Nouveau artists, such as Alphonse Mucha, to create posters to advertise their products.
    • American advertising agency, N.W. Ayer & Son, opened a design department to “design” their own ads.
    • Ethel Reed -- an American woman –became a noted graphic designer and illustrator.
  • 4. 1890s: Technology
    • Advances in printing technology in both Europe and American
      • In France, color lithography significantly advanced by Jules Cheret, allowed for great color and nuance in poster reproduction.
      • Advances in lithography helped give rise to the poster as a visual communications vehicle.
  • 5. 1890s: Key Dates
    • 1870s-1890s – (last decades of the nineteenth century) Art and Crafts movement
    • 1890 – Art Nouveau movement begins
    • 1891 – “La Goulue” Toulouse-Lautrec’s first poster
    • 1893 – Coca-Cola registered as a trademark
    • 1897 – Vienna Secession formed
    • 1898 – Advertising agency N.W. Ayer created the slogan, "Lest you forget, we say it yet, Uneeda Biscuit," to launch the first prepackaged biscuit, Uneeda, produced by the National Biscuit Co. (today, a company called Nabisco).
  • 6. 1900s: Fine Art (1 of 2)
    • Two groups of German painters form art philosophies.
      • Die Brücke ( The Bridge ), with Ernst Ludwig Kirchner as a leading proponent
      • Der Blaue Reiter ( The Blue Rider ) with Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky, a leading member
    • Kandinsky is credited with the first non-objective painting and was a great influence on modern art.
    • In France, major artists Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso (b. Spain) create rippling, everlasting effects in all the visual arts.
  • 7. 1900s: Fine Art (2 of 2)
    • A very noteworthy influence (to this day), on typography was the Italian Futurists’ challenge to grammatical and typographic conventions.
      • They saw typography as a way to “redouble the force of expressive words.”
    • Dadaists used type and image as expressive visual elements.
    • Artists such as Kurt Schwitters in his Merz magazine, used the idea of “randomness” as a guiding principle.
  • 8. 1900s: Design (1 of 2)
    • Milestones in graphic design history occurred.
    • Principles of grid composition were taught in Germany.
      • Birth of pictorial modernism
    • The work of architect/designer Peter Behrens is watershed, exemplifying the relationship between design and industry.
      • He sought a ‘modern’ visual language to express the age of mass production.
      • In 1907, Peter Behrens designed what might be thought of as the first corporate identity for AEG, a German electrical manufacturing corporation.
  • 9. 1900s: Design (2 of 2)
    • In 1919, Gropius founded the Weimar Bauhaus in Germany.
      • The Weimar Bauhaus – very influential design school – laid the foundation for much of modern thinking about architecture and design.
  • 10. 1900s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1901-1905 – Picasso’s ‘Blue’ period
    • 1905 – Lucien Bernhard designs the Priester match poster
    • 1905 – Salon d’Automne, Paris, important French art exhibit
    • 1907 - Peter Behrens’ corporate identity for AEG
    • 1909-1914 – Pablo Picasso and George Braque, the period of ‘Analytical Cubism’
    • 1909 – Futurist Manifesto proclaims enthusiasm for speed, war, and the machine age
  • 11. 1900s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1910-1914 – Die Brücke (The Bridge) flourishes in Berlin
    • 1910 – Kandinsky and Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)
    • 1910 – Analytical Cubism
    • 1913 – Synthetic Cubism
    • 1916 – Dada founded
    • 1919-1933 – Bauhaus; founded in Weimar, 1919, under the direction of architect Walter Gropius.
      • Staff included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Vasily Kandinsky, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy.
  • 12. 1920s: Fine Art (1 of 2)
    • Fine art movements
      • Cubism, Futurism, De Stijl, Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism
      • Greatly affected design and advertising
    • Picasso’s work continued to have a powerful effect on the visual arts.
    • The popular geometric style of the 1920s was Art Deco.
      • Significantly manifested in all the visual arts
  • 13. 1920s: Fine Art (2 of 2)
    • In 1921, a group of Russian artists led by Constructivists Vladimir Tatlin and Alexander Rodchenko rejected “art for art’s sake,” to pursue the duty of artist as citizen.
    • Constructivists viewed visual communications, industrial design, and the applied arts as mediums that could best serve their ideals and ideas for society.
  • 14. 1920s: Design (1 of 2)
    • Many graphic designers absorbed artistic movements creating a popular visual aesthetic.
      • A.M. Cassandre, who was a renowned poster designer, created a visual language clearly influenced by Cubism, and brought it to the greater public via poster design.
    • Cassandre’s success in both typeface design and poster design, established him as a purveyor of style.
  • 15. 1920s: Design (2 of 2)
    • Also greatly influenced by Cubism, Futurism and Art Deco movements, American graphic designer E. McKnight Kauffer created a body of work that, included 141 posters for the London Underground, as well as others for major corporations.
    • American advertising reflected designers’ great interest in Modernism and European art ideas as well.
    • Charles Coiner for the N. W. Ayer agency reflected an avant-garde influence.
    • In an attempt to visually express their dynamic modern age, both artists and designers are highly concerned with the relationship between form and function.
  • 16. 1920s: Key Dates (1 of 3)
    • 1922 – Aleksei Gan’s brochure on Constructivist ideology Konstruktivizm
    • 1922. – E. McKnight Kauffer poster for London Underground
    • 1922 – Piet Mondrian mature “Composition”
    • 1923 – Herbert Bayer cover design for Bauhaus catalog
    • 1924 – El Lissitzy poster for the Pelikan corporation
  • 17. 1920s: Key Dates (2 of 3)
    • 1924 – Andre Breton’s Manifesto of Surrealism
    • 1924 – Charles Coiner joins N.W.Ayer’s art department
    • 1926 – Fritz Lang’s film “Metroplis”
    • 1927 – Paul Renner designs Futura typeface
    • 1927 – A. M. Cassandre railway poster
  • 18. 1920s: Key Dates (3 of 3)
    • 1928 – Dr. Mehemed Fehmy Agha is made art director at Vogue magazine.
    • 1928 – Jan Tschichold advocates new ideas about typography in his book Die Neue Typographie
    • William H. Bradley, American, designed a series of covers for the Chap Book (influenced by the British Arts and Crafts movement and art)
  • 19. 1930s: Design (1 of 3)
    • At the end of the 1920s, the modern movement hit America.
    • Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were American-born designers such as:
      • Lester Beall
      • William Goldin
      • Alvin Lustig
      • Paul Rand
      • BradburyThompson
  • 20. 1930s: Design (2 of 3)
    • Pioneering visual ideas in the United States were émigrés such as:
      • Mehemed Fehmy Agha (Russian-born, emigrated in 1928)
      • Alexey Brodovitch (Russian-born, emigrated in 1930)
      • Will Burtin (German-born, emigrated in 1938)
      • Leo Lionni (Dutch-born, emigrated in 1939)
      • Herbert Matter (Swiss-born, moved to New York in 1936)
      • Sutnar Ladislav (Czech-born, traveled to U.S. in 1939 and stayed)
  • 21. 1930s: Design (3 of 3)
    • Many fled the Nazis and immigrated to America, including esteemed Bauhaus members:
      • Mies van der Rohe
      • Josef Albers
      • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
      • Walter Gropius.
  • 22. Paul Rand: A Seminal American Designer
    • Paul Rand, started in 1935, as the art director of Esquire and Apparel Arts magazines.
    • Rand also designed covers for Direction , a cultural journal, from 1938 until 1945.
    • Rand’s influence holds to this day.
    • Rand was greatly influenced by the European avant-garde thinkers and designers, though he established his own indelible point of view and visual vocabulary.
  • 23. 1930s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1934 – Herbert Matter designs Swiss travel posters.
    • 1934 – Alexey Brodovitch is art director at Harper’s Bazaar .
    Magazine spread Designer: Alexey Brodovitch
  • 24. 1930s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1935 – WPA hires designers to work for the project.
    • 1937 – Lester Beall designs Rural Electrification Administration poster.
    • 1937 – Picasso’s “Guernica” painting portrays the devastation of the Spanish Civil War.
    • 1939 – Bradbury Thompson designs first Westvaco Inspirations.
    • 1939 – Leo Lionni becomes art director at N.W. Ayer.
  • 25. 1940s: Fine Art and Design (1 of 2)
    • In the U.S., during 1940s and 1950s, Abstract Expressionism is the primary artistic movement (overshadowing any representational artists), with leading artists such as:
      • Jackson Pollack
      • Willem de Kooning
      • Franz Kline
      • Mark Rothko
  • 26. 1940s: Fine Art and Design (2 of 2)
    • In the post World War II years, New York City became the art capital of the world.
    • In Italy, Olivetti corporation hired Giovanni Pintori, who contributed enormously to Italian design.
      • Pintori’s vision, drawing on Futurist visual forms, manifested itself in corporate identity design and advertising.
  • 27. 1940s: Design and War (1 of 3)
    • In 1939, World War II began.
      • Many artists and designers were called into active duty
      • Others used their great talents to create posters to disseminate public information, support the war effort, pump up morale, and create anti-Nazi vehicles, including:
        • Ben Shahn
        • E. McKnight Kauffer
        • Joseph Binder
        • Abram Games
    • In England, The British Ministry of Information recruited available pre-eminent designers to this cause.
  • 28. 1940s: Design and War (2 of 3)
    • Many designers embraced Surrealism using photomontage and bold typography to create war posters, including German graphic artist John Heartfield, whose strong anti-war work satirized the Nazi party.
  • 29. 1940s: Design and War (3 of 3)
    • What would eventually become the Advertising Council, a public service advertising organization, began in 1942 as the War Advertising Council, which was organized to help prepare voluntary advertising campaigns for wartime efforts.
    PSA The Advertising Council
  • 30. 1940s: Key Dates
    • 1940s – Paul Rand designs Directions covers.
    • 1946 – Lou Dorfsman joins CBS.
    • 1947 – Armin Hofmann begins teaching graphic design at the Basel School of Design.
    • 1947 – Giovanni Pintori is hired by Olivetti.
    • 1949 – Doyle Dane Bernbach opens.
    • 1949 – Cipe Pineles cover for Seventeen .
  • 31. 1950s (1 of 4)
    • The International Typographic Style, or Swiss design, plays a pivotal role in design with an emphasis on clear communication and grid construction, with Max Bill and Ernst Keller as major proponents.
    • In 1959, the movement became a unified international one disseminating ideas in a journal, New Graphic Design.
      • The editors included Josef Muller-Brockmann, Richard P. Lohse, Carlo L. Vivarelli and Hans Neuburg.
  • 32. 1950s (2 of 4)
    • Important work created in America by seminal designers such as:
      • Paul Rand
      • William Goldin
      • Lou Dorfsman
      • Saul Bass
      • Bradbury Thompson
      • George Tscherny
      • Ivan Chermayeff
      • Tom Geismar
      • Cipe Pineless
      • Otto Storch
      • Henry Wolf
  • 33. 1950s (3 of 4)
    • Saul Bass’ movie titles and film promotions set new standards for motion graphics and promotional design.
  • 34. 1950s (4 of 4) Magazine spread Designer: Bradbury Thompson
  • 35. 1950s: Corporate Identity (1 of 2)
    • Corporate (visual) identity becomes gospel at corporations with in-house designers such as:
      • William Goldin and Lou Dorfsman at CBS
      • Giovanni Pintori at Olivetti
  • 36. 1950s: Corporate Identity (2 of 2)
    • Corporations begin to rely on designers to create visual identities that would differentiate them within a competitive marketplace.
    • Designers, such as Paul Rand created visual identities for IBM, Westinghouse, and ABC.
  • 37. 1950s: Advertising
    • Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) rocked the advertising world.
    • DDB’s Volkswagen campaign began the creative revolution in advertising.
    • DDB teamed art directors and copywriters to generate creative ideas to drive their advertising.
    • DDB didn’t use a hard sell – it set a new standard that winked at the consumer with greater respect.
  • 38. 1950s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1949 – Hermann Zapf designs Palatino typeface.
    • 1955 – Jackson Pollack’s creates “Autumn Rhythm.”
    • 1950 – William Goldin designs the CBS symbol.
    • 1955 – Roy Kuhlman designs Grove Press paperback covers.
    • 1955 – Rudy deHarak opens his New York studio.
  • 39. 1950s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1955 – Fogleman defines “corporate identity.”
    • 1954 – Adrian Frutiger creates a family 21 sans-serif fonts named Univers.
    • 1954 – Push Pin Studios is formed.
    • 1955 – Saul Bass designs Man with the Golden Arm film graphics.
    • 1950s – Henryk Tomaszewski creates Cryk.
  • 40. 1960s: Corporate Identity
    • Corporate identity design grows in importance, work by:
      • Lester Beall for International Paper Company
      • Chermayeff & Geismar for Mobil, The Chase Manhattan Bank
      • Saul Bass for AT&T, Continental Airlines, and the Girl Scouts
      • Massimo Vignelli and the Unimark office for Knoll
  • 41. 1960s: Changes in Design (1 of 3)
    • The poster was extremely popular with great work from:
      • Gunter Rambow, in Germany
      • Wes Wilson, in California
      • Victor Moscosco in California
      • George Lois’ designs covers for Esquire magazine
      • Milton Glaser
    Poster Designer: Milton Glaser
  • 42. 1960s: Changes in Design (2 of 3)
    • Pop Art movement
      • A movement drawing upon imagery from popular culture, with leading artists Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Robert Indiana
      • Challenged the conventions of Modernist thinking
    • Push Pin in New York and Haight Ashbury/San Francisco music scene designers rocked Modernism’s structural boat.
  • 43. 1960s: Changes in Design (3 of 3)
    • Wolfgang Weingart was at the forefront of those slowly challenging Modernism’s core.
    • American graphic designers, including the Push Pin Studios, Saul Bass, and Herb Lubalin redefined American graphic design.
  • 44. 1960s: Advertising
    • Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB) continued to be the force behind creative advertising.
    • Employed at DDB were some of the most brilliantly creative art directors and writers of the twentieth century.
      • Bob Gage
      • Helmut Krone
      • George Lois
      • Mary Wells Lawrence
      • Phyllis K. Robinson
      • Julian Koenig
    • Some of these creatives left DDB to open their own creative agencies, such as:
      • George Lois & Julian Koenig (together)
      • Mary Wells Lawrence
  • 45. 1960s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1960 – John Berg becomes art director at CBS records.
    • 1960 – Lester Beall designs International Paper logo.
    • 1961 – Edouard Hoffman and Max Miedinger design Helvetica typeface.
    • 1962 – Herb Lubalin designs Eros magazine.
    • 1962 – Carl Ally opens Allly & Gargano.
    • 1963 – “The Pepsi Generation” ad
  • 46. 1960s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1964 – “First Things First” manifesto signed by 22 signatories.
    • 1965 – Andy Warhol’s “Campbell’s Soup”
    • 1967 – Jay Chiat opens Chiat/Day.
    • 1968 – Herb Lubalin designs Avante Garde magazine.
    • 1969 – George Lois’ composited Esquire cover of Andy Warhol drowning in an oversized can of Campbell's soup.
  • 47. 1970s: Design as Differentiator
    • It became clear to clients that design and advertising was going to distinguish their parity goods and services in a highly competitive international marketplace.
    Identity Design firm: Vignelli Associates
  • 48. 1970s: New Thinking (1 of 2)
    • Some critics see the 1970s as the end of Modernism and the beginning of Postmoderism thinking, especially in the typographic directions taken by designers such as:
      • Wolfgang Weingart
      • April Greiman
      • Willi Kunz
      • Dan Friedman
  • 49. 1970s: New Thinking (2 of 2)
    • Some designers saw the Modernist style as corporate and reacted with alternative creative thinking.
      • Subversive posters emanating from the French design collective GRAPUS in California, April Greiman was experimenting with type, hybrid imagery, and mixing media.
    • A growing response to the perceived ‘objectivity’ of Modernism with highly individual, personal aesthetics grew around the world.
  • 50. 1970s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1970 – GRAPUS studio, a French design collective, is formed by Pierre Bernard, Francois Miehe, and Gerard Paris-Clavel.
    • 1970 – Raymond Loewy designs the U.S. Mail eagle symbol.
    • 1970 – Shigeo Fukuda designs graphics for Expo 70.
    • 1971 – Saul Bass designs the United Way logo.
  • 51. 1970s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1974 – Paula Scher designs covers for CBS records.
    • 1975 – Milton Glaser designs “I LOVE NY” symbol.
    • 1978 – Louise Fili becomes art director of Pantheon Books.
    • 1978 – Pentagram opens their New York office.
    • 1979 – M&Co founded by Tibor Kalman with Carol Bokuniewicz and Liz Trovato.
  • 52. 1980s: Technology (1 of 2)
    • In 1984, Apple computers introduced the Macintosh computer, which provided graphic designers with the most significant tool since the pencil.
    • The digital revolution enabled designers to have more creative control.
      • Design/layout their own type
      • Become their own compositors
      • Easily manipulate imagery (as opposed to using handcrafted photomontage)
      • Imitate visual effects such as airbrushing
  • 53. 1980s: Technology (2 of 2)
      • Easily make changes to layout and color
      • Generate type without a typesetter
      • Substitute hand-lettered comps with digitally produced ‘finished-looking’ comps
    Poster Designer: April Greiman
  • 54. 1980s: Design (1 of 3)
    • Termed the Postmodern (or Late Modernist) period, the 1980s and 1990s were an eclectic and diverse time.
    • Designers experimented with new technology.
    • The political and social climate provided a fertile environment for provocatively creative designers and thinkers, such as Tibor Kalman, founder of M&Co.
  • 55. 1980s: Design (2 of 3)
    • In California, Rudy VanderLans (trained in the Netherlands) and Zuzana Licko (b. Czechoslovakia) collaborated to create experimental typography in Émigré .
    Magazine spread, Émigré Designer: Rudy Vanderlans
  • 56. 1980s: Design (3 of 3)
    • David Carson designed Beach Culture magazine and his typographic methodology will eventually divide designers into ‘camp’ divisions about typographic design philosophy.
      • In England, Neville Brody, art director of The Face magazine, challenged both editorial design and typographic design conventions.
  • 57. 1980s: Advertising (1 of 3)
    • In England, advertising agency Bartle Bogle Hegarty (BBH) created sexy campaigns for Levi’s and Haagen-Dazs.
    • In New York, George Lois’ ad campaign concept “I want my MTV” transforms entertainment.
    • Chiat/Day created one of the great moments in TV advertising with its “1984” spot for Apple Macinstosh.
  • 58. 1980s: Advertising (2 of 3)
    • Advertising agencies outside of the usual ad hubs, made indelible marks, making cities such as Minneapolis and Dallas the homes of creative advertising.
  • 59. 1980s: Advertising (3 of 3) Ad Agency: Doyle Dane Bernbach
  • 60. 1980s: Key Dates (1 of 2)
    • 1981 – MTV logo (art director: Fred Seibert, designers: Frank Olinsky, Pat Gorman, and Patti Rogof /Manhattan Design)
    • 1982 – George Lois’ “I want my MTV"
    • 1983 – R/Greenberg Associates film title sequence “The Dead Zone”
    • 1984 – Apple Macintosh TV spot “1984” by Chiat/Day Agency; directed by Ridley Scott
    • 1984 – Rolling Stone “Perception/Reality” campaign by Fallon McElligott and Rice/Minneapolis
  • 61. 1980s: Key Dates (2 of 2)
    • 1985 – BBH, London, revitalizes Levi’s brand
    • 1986 – Neville Brody designs Typeface Six for The Face
    • 1988 – Motel 6 “We’ll Leave a Light on for You,” The Richards Group, Dallas
    • 1988 – David Carson designs Beach Culture magazine
    • 1989 – Jonathan Hoefler and Tobias Frere-Jones create type foundry
  • 62. 1990s: Technology (1 of 2)
    • As the century came to a close, the technological boom continued to deeply affect all the visual arts.
    • In 1990, Adobe released Photoshop, imaging software, providing a tool that enabled individual designers to manipulate imagery effectively, inexpensively, and rapidly.
    • The web would become the home to every brand worldwide as well as set new design challenges.
  • 63. 1990s: Technology (2 of 2)
    • Designers would be forced to work closely with IT professionals to launch their visual designs.
    • Design and technology are at aesthetic crossroads that are reconciled in various ways with interesting effects on popular visual culture.
  • 64. 1990s: Design Community Issues
    • There are hot debates on consumerism, typographic design form/function questions.
    • ‘ Green issues’ are arguments that even become known outside the design community.
    • Besides creating design to earn a living, some designers are tackling social and political issues with their independently conceived, created, and produced posters.
    • Design itself takes on new respect in museums and in media coverage.
  • 65. 1990s: Design and Advertising (1 of 4)
    • Irony becomes a truly pervasive postmodern approach to all visual communications.
    • Unusual combinations of form and color juxtapositions mark the work of many.
    Poster Design firm: Sagmesiter Inc.
  • 66. 1990s: Design and Advertising (2 of 4)
    • Historical stylistic references allow visual communicators to hold fast to the end of the century.
    • Corporations continue to count on branding and visual communications to distinguish their brands across borders.
  • 67. 1990s: Design and Advertising (3 of 4)
    • No longer belonging to the marginalized artist, post-modernism is co-opted by major brands seeking to align themselves with hipsters and be perceived as trendsetters.
  • 68. 1990s: Design and Advertising (4 of 4) Poster Design firm: Morla Design
  • 69. 1990s: Key Dates (1 of 3)
    • 1990 – Fabien Baron redesigns Interview magazine.
    • 1991 – Paula Scher joined Pentagram, New York.
    • 1993 – David Carson designs Ray Gun magazine.
    • 1993 – Sagmeister Inc. is founded by Stefan Sagmeister in New York.
  • 70. 1990s: Key Dates (2 of 3)
    • 1994 –“Got Milk?” ad campaign by Goodby, Silverstein & Partners, San Francisco for the California Fluid Milk Processor Advisory Board
  • 71. 1990s: Key Dates (3 of 3)
    • 1995 – Razorfish web design studio is founded
    • 1996 – "Mixing Messages: Graphic Design in Contemporary Culture" at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum
    • 2000 – Steven Brower redesigns Print magazine.
    • 2000 – Émigré magazine (and other magazines) publishes “First Things Manifesto 2000”
  • 72. 2000: Advertising
    • Unconventional advertising formats and solutions are redefining advertising, with agencies leading the way.
      • Crispin Porter + Bogusky / Miami
      • Diabolical Liberties / London
      • KesselsKramer / Amsterdam
      • Strawberryfrog / Amsterdam
    Campaign Agency: Strawberryfrog
  • 73. 2000: Post-9/11 (1 of 2)
    • The convergence of technology in the visual arts has helped redefine what graphic design is, but not what it is not.
    • Visual communications is an ever-evolving discipline that can solve innumerable communications problems.
    Poster Designer: Milton Glaser
  • 74. 2000: Post-9/11 (2 of 2)
    • Post 9/11, visual communicators are finding more and more that, as Paula Scher said, “design matters.”
    • Whether it is to:
      • Disseminate information to the public
      • Enhance understanding of editorial content
      • Design better election ballots
      • Design posters to ‘get out the vote’
      • Communicate across cultures
      • Create public service campaigns to raise awareness
    • There are creative professionals who are constantly challenging us to think and reevaluate.