Job Creation: Reuse and Recycling vs . Landfill and Incineration Source: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Washington DC, 1997; “Wasting and Recycling in the United States 2000”; GrassRoots Recycling Network, Prepared by Brenda Platt and Neil Seldman 1 Landfill and Incineration 4 Composting 10 Conventional Materials Recovery Facilities 93 Plastic Product Manufacturers 26 Glass Product Manufacturers 18 Paper Mills 25 Recycling-Based Manufacturers 28 Wooden Pallet Repair 62 Misc. Durable Reuse 85 Textile Reclamation 296 Computer reuse Product Reuse Type of Operation Jobs per 10,000 TPY
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan Divert 75% of discarded materials from landfills or incinerators by 2010 and achieve Zero Waste, or close to it, by 2020. SUPPORTING OBJECTIVES
Increase reuse, recycling and composting collection and processing options and develop new markets that add value to materials recovered and minimize residues requiring disposal. Zero Waste systems should be particularly encouraged that provide the greatest economic development benefit for the region (e.g., jobs, increased tax base).
Develop programs and policies to address specific needs of each major sector in Palo Alto: manufacturers; retailers; restaurants; medical services; offices; and single-family and multi-family residential dwellings.
Increase incentives for waste generators and service providers to design out waste and separate materials for their highest and best uses.
Design and manage products and processes to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and materials, conserve and recover all resources, and not burn or bury them. Ask product designers and marketers to consider Zero Waste to be a critical design criterion.
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan SUPPORTING OBJECTIVES Continued
City lead by example to achieve Zero Waste goals for all facilities owned or leased by the City.
Minimize environmental impacts and City liabilities from wasting and ensure that the burdens and benefits of zero waste systems are equitably distributed. Eliminate all discharges to land, water or air that may be a threat to planetary, human, animal or plant health.
Engage community-wide support to achieve Zero Waste through more interactive community participation, outreach and education programs. Encourage people to emulate sustainable natural cycles, where all discarded materials are resources for others to use. Coordinate outreach programs for sustainability and pollution prevention with Zero Waste, waste prevention and recycling programs, and use Zero Waste Business Principles as basis for their evaluation of business performance. (Obtain input and include recommendations from City staff and Zero Waste Task Force on other opportunities for local, countywide and regional education and outreach programs that would support Zero Waste messages.)
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan ( 1 ) http://www.grrn.org/zerowaste/business/ Adopt policies and economic incentives to restructure the marketplace to encourage waste prevention, reuse, recycling & composting. Change Ordinances, contracts, franchises, permits, zoning, General Plans and garbage rate structures so that it is cheapest to stop discarding materials, and reusing, recycling or composting discarded materials is cheaper than landfilling or incineration. STRATEGY 3: Ask local businesses to adopt Zero Waste goals, to develop Zero Waste plans, to adhere to Zero Waste Business principles, ( 1 ) to meet waste diversion targets, and to source separate designated materials that can be reused, recycled or composted. STRATEGY 2: Determine how and where materials are discarded, and establish a monitoring and tracking database system to evaluate performance of diversion and source reduction programs by material type and sector. Identify the value of materials that are currently being landfilled, and the potential for additional recovery through expanded reuse, recycling and composting. STRATEGY 1: KEY STRATEGIES, Years 2005-10
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan ( 2 ) Whenever referenced, also includes food contaminated paper (e.g., pizza boxes and frozen food containers) and assumes CIWMB hierarchy for food scrap management is followed, to (1) prevent food waste, (2) feed people, (3) convert to animal feed and/or rendering, and (4) compost (see http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/FoodWaste/).
Develop programs and policies to address specific needs
Residential discarded food ( 2 ) collection and composting
Expanded institutional and commercial recycling; particularly for paper recycling and other services needed for top 4 waste generating sectors (Medical/Health Services; Restaurants; Other Retail Trade; and Business Services)
Institutional and commercial discarded food collection and composting
Expanded emphasis on deconstruction and support for adaptive reuse
Expanded recovery, reuse and recycling of used building materials
Expanded support for collection and drop-off of other reusable products
Successful implementation of City’s new ordinance to encourage construction, remodeling, landclearing and demolition debris recycling.
STRATEGY 4: KEY STRATEGIES, Years 2005-10 Continued
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan ( 3 ) http://www.crra.com/irc/guide.html Adopt Precautionary Principle and expand focus on purchasing environmentally preferable products. Help City’s Sustainable Purchasing Committee to expand the purchase of environmentally preferable products. Encourage or require all new private construction and major renovation projects in Palo Alto to follow the lead of the City’s Green Building policy and build only LEED-certified Green Buildings. STRATEGY 7: Extend use of landfills (Palo Alto and Kirby Canyon) as long as possible, so don’t have to arrange for more capacity elsewhere. Minimize long-term landfill liabilities by ensuring that full capital and operating, closure and post-closure costs are factored into current rates and financial assurances. STRATEGY 6: Support existing reuse, recycling and composting businesses and nonprofit organizations and help them expand to the degree the operators of them want to do so, to minimize public investments required. Develop locally owned and independent infrastructure, on an open, competitive basis. ( 3 ) Develop local or regional resource recovery park(s) to provide locations for expansion of reuse, recycling and composting businesses. STRATEGY 5: KEY STRATEGIES, Years 2005-10 Continued
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan Fund community Zero Waste initiatives with fees levied on the transport, transfer and disposal of wastes and by leveraging the investments of the private sector. Structure fees and taxes in ways that provide additional incentives for designing out waste, reuse, recycling and composting. STRATEGY 10: Adopt Zero Waste as an economic development priority to make Palo Alto businesses more sustainable and globally competitive. STRATEGY 9: Support state and federal policies to eliminate subsidies, internalize externalities for virgin material production and wasting, and involve producers in taking physical and/or financial responsibility for their products and packaging to reuse, repair or recycle them back into nature or the marketplace. Work with other local governments and businesses to build useful alliances and share successes. STRATEGY 8: KEY STRATEGIES, Years 2005-10 Continued
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan Develop Zero Waste Implementation Plan (ZWIP) after the City updates its detailed 1997 waste characterization study (scheduled for FY2005-2006), to detail proposed policies and programs, budget and cost implications, and timing of implementation. Identify City priorities for additional publicly financed facilities to support to be developed, including appropriate reuse, recycling and/or composting activities for Palo Alto Landfill site consistent with existing zoning once the landfill is closed. Recommendations must be environmentally sustainable, practically implementable, economically viable, and socially responsible. Do not implement local bans, mandates and required product stewardship policies until the adoption of the ZWIP and evaluation of progress over the course of the year after adoption of the City’s Zero Waste Policy. However, immediately support state and federal producer responsibility and advanced recycling charges for difficult to recycle or toxic materials. Evaluate implementation of new policies and programs and recommend how to continuously improve them after adoption of the ZWIP. STRATEGY 11: KEY STRATEGIES, Years 2005-10 Continued
Palo Alto Zero Waste Strategic Plan Include appropriate tactics from “Menu of Policy Options” and program recommendations after agreeing on Mission, Objectives and Strategies (similar to those suggested in Draft 1 of the “Outline of Palo Alto ZW Action Plan”). KEY STRATEGIES with TACTICS
Del Norte Discard Composition Analysis * Source: Based on data from 1999 Del Norte County Discard Generation Study and Urban Ore “Clean Dozen” scrap categories. ** 360 days/year 49.5 100 17,817 Total 0.7 1.3 236 12. Chemicals 1.4 2.8 507 11. Textiles 4.6 9.4 1,671 10. Polymers 1.9 3.8 673 9. Glass 4.6 9.3 1,662 8. Metals 2.9 5.9 1,045 7. Soils 4.9 9.9 1,772 6. Ceramics 0.9 1.8 328 5. Wood 10.5 21.2 3,781 Other 2.4 4.9 876 Sludge 4. Putrescibles 1.3 2.6 472 3. Plant Debris 10.5 21.2 3,780 2. Paper 2.8 5.7 1,014 1. Reusables Discarded Tons/Day ** Discarded % Discarded Tons/Year Categories *
Source Separation Categories/Clusters and Destination Points Metals; scrap metals and auto bodies Inerts; Rock, soils, concrete, asphalt, brick, land clearing debris, and mixed construction and demolition materials Household Hazardous Wastes; Used motor oil, paint, pesticides, cleaners, and other chemicals Recyclables; Papers, plastic, glass and metal containers Organics; Food, vegetable debris, and food paper, putrescibles, untreated wood and sheetrock Reuse & Repair; Reuse, repair, dismantling, reconditioning, remanufacturing, manufacturing and resale of furniture, large and small appliances, electronics, textiles, toys, tools, metal and ceramic plumbing, fixtures, lighting, lumber and other used building materials Paper and Containers; Paper, Metals, Glass, Polymers Organics; Food, vegetative debris, food dirty paper, paper, plant debris, putrescibles, wood Discarded Items; Furniture, appliances, clothing, toys, tools, reusable goods, textiles Special Discards; Chemicals, construction and demolition materials, wood, ceramics, soils
PROCESSING CENTERS CLUSTERS TWELVE MASTER CATEGORIES of DISCARD MATERIAL
Cost/Benefit Analysis of Resource Recovery Park by Cluster * Amortization; 20 years land and structures, 6 years equipment and fixtures ** $75 dollar per ton savings from avoided transfer and disposal. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Resource Recovery Park by Cluster +$48 12,534 596,150 940,050 933,572 761,167 172,405 Total +$51 6,796 74,040 509,000 238,041 158,928 79,113 RRP Organics +$47 4,319 108,410 323,925 228,403 169,928 58,475 Recycling +$37 1,419 413,700 106,425 467,128 432,311 34,817 Reuse Benefits/ (Costs) $/Ton Tons/ Year Captured Sales $/Year Trans/ Disp. **Savings Annual Costs O&M $/Year Capital $/Year * Cluster
“ Site Plan for Del Norte Resource Recovery Park” Prepared in March 2001 by Mark Gorell, Urban Ore