Teaching and  l earning in a  c ommunity of  t hinking   – challenges and dilemmas Yoram Harpaz  and Adam Lefstein August ...
overview Theory : pictures of teaching, learning, knowledge and educational aims (Yoram) Practice : exemplification of the...
The “atomic pictures” of  traditional education learning is listening teaching is telling knowledge is an object to be edu...
Facts Mathematical Physical Historical Disciplines Mathematics Physics History Subjects Mathematics Science History World ...
Effective learning Involvement + Understanding Involvement :  task involvement  vs.  ego involvement Understanding:  to lo...
<ul><li>intrinsic  motivation </li></ul><ul><li>authentic problems </li></ul><ul><li>undermining </li></ul><ul><li>content...
b asic conditions for effective learning <ul><li>dialogic  environment </li></ul><ul><li>informative ongoing feedback </li...
a lternative “atomic pictures” learning is being involved and understanding teaching is providing the conditions for effec...
questions and problems
Community of Thinking  An educational practice based on  the alternative “atomic pictures” Its primary components include ...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research ...
undermining open A Fertile Question is... <ul><li>Which is preferable, to be a house-pet or a wild animal? ( non-disciplin...
undermining open connected rich charged practical A Fertile Question is... <ul><li>Why did the peasants accept a class sys...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research ...
A good research question is... <ul><li>Open  – requires that the researcher take a position </li></ul><ul><li>Rich  – requ...
? fertile question :  Does competition make us better?  ? ? ? ? Can there be a game without competition? Does testing impr...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Rese...
Inquiry: from School subjects to  Pedagogical Discipline “ Big ideas”: disciplinary insights   and controversies Areas of ...
Inquiry: from School subjects to  Pedagogical Discipline (continued) Personal under-standing Research article Examination ...
research question:  Has business destroyed sports? How would you recommend conducting inquiry?  <ul><li>examples of lines ...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research ...
Understanding performances <ul><li>To explain knowledge in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>To bring examples of knowledge...
More understanding performances <ul><li>To break knowledge into its components (analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>To take a stan...
Policy position paper Concluding performance  A comprehensive understanding performance which builds and exhibits understa...
examples of communal concluding performances Why do people marry?  What should we wear?  “ Thinking about marriage?”  Inst...
more examples of communal performances Why did the peasants accept a class system that exploited and oppressed them?  Does...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research ...
Initiation Developing the common knowledge basis necessary for understanding the fertile question, for creating questions ...
Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research  Question Research ...
Feedback Providing the learner with information and stimulus to further and deepen his or her learning; providing the teac...
questions and problems
for more information Yoram Harpaz:  [email_address]   Adam Lefstein:  [email_address]
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Teaching And Learning In A Community Of Thinking – Challenges And Dilemmas

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Teaching And Learning In A Community Of Thinking – Challenges And Dilemmas

  1. 1. Teaching and l earning in a c ommunity of t hinking – challenges and dilemmas Yoram Harpaz and Adam Lefstein August 2004
  2. 2. overview Theory : pictures of teaching, learning, knowledge and educational aims (Yoram) Practice : exemplification of the community of thinking framework (Adam)
  3. 3. The “atomic pictures” of traditional education learning is listening teaching is telling knowledge is an object to be educated is to know valuable content
  4. 4. Facts Mathematical Physical Historical Disciplines Mathematics Physics History Subjects Mathematics Science History World Scientific knowledge Educational knowledge The “Grand Picture” -- a mimetic chain scientists curriculum designers teachers Lesson plans gluing new knowledge old knowledge Student’s mind
  5. 5. Effective learning Involvement + Understanding Involvement : task involvement vs. ego involvement Understanding: to locate (in context); to perform (thinking operations with knowledge)
  6. 6. <ul><li>intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>authentic problems </li></ul><ul><li>undermining </li></ul><ul><li>contents and process match student profile s and styles </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate challenge </li></ul>b asic conditions for effective learning
  7. 7. b asic conditions for effective learning <ul><li>dialogic environment </li></ul><ul><li>informative ongoing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>supportive climate </li></ul><ul><li>constructive attribution: ability and will vs. other people or luck </li></ul><ul><li>i ncremental learners vs. entity learners </li></ul>
  8. 8. a lternative “atomic pictures” learning is being involved and understanding teaching is providing the conditions for effective learning knowledge is a structure or a “story” that works being educated is knowing how to relate to knowledge
  9. 9. questions and problems
  10. 10. Community of Thinking An educational practice based on the alternative “atomic pictures” Its primary components include Fertile question Inquiry / research Concluding performance
  11. 11. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry
  12. 12. undermining open A Fertile Question is... <ul><li>Which is preferable, to be a house-pet or a wild animal? ( non-disciplinary ) </li></ul><ul><li>Why do people marry? ( sociology ) </li></ul><ul><li>Does competition make us better? ( interdisciplinary ) </li></ul>connected rich charged practical
  13. 13. undermining open connected rich charged practical A Fertile Question is... <ul><li>Why did the peasants accept a class system that exploited and oppressed them? ( history ) </li></ul><ul><li>Can betrayal be forgiven? ( literature ) </li></ul><ul><li>What should we wear? ( chemistry ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry
  15. 15. A good research question is... <ul><li>Open – requires that the researcher take a position </li></ul><ul><li>Rich – requires deep and extensive research </li></ul><ul><li>Connected – to the communal fertile question and to the disciplinary domain </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting – to students, and possibly also &quot;objectively&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Practical – can be coped with in the context of time, material and other constraints </li></ul>
  16. 16. ? fertile question : Does competition make us better? ? ? ? ? Can there be a game without competition? Does testing improve achievement? Does too much competition lead to cheating? Has business destroyed competitive sports? What does competition do to friendship?
  17. 17. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance
  18. 18. Inquiry: from School subjects to Pedagogical Discipline “ Big ideas”: disciplinary insights and controversies Areas of uncertainty and controversy “ Basic” and “accepted” knowledge Knowledge focus Developing thinking and understanding Producing new knowledge Inculcating existing knowledge Central aim Pedagogic discipline Research discipline School Subject
  19. 19. Inquiry: from School subjects to Pedagogical Discipline (continued) Personal under-standing Research article Examination Preferred perfor-mance “ the world is a text ” Primary sources privileged by discipline Secondary sources (e.g. text-book) Sources of infor-mation Pedagogic discipline Research discipline School Subject
  20. 20. research question: Has business destroyed sports? How would you recommend conducting inquiry? <ul><li>examples of lines of inquiry: </li></ul><ul><li>case study based on news reports </li></ul><ul><li>interviews with athletes and/or fans </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of a team’s financial report </li></ul><ul><li>comparison of athletes’ biographies – “then” and “now” </li></ul><ul><li>critical review of sports films </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry
  22. 22. Understanding performances <ul><li>To explain knowledge in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>To bring examples of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To generalize from an item of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To identify knowledge in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>To explain phenomena by the use of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To give arguments to justify knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To predict on the basis of knowledge </li></ul>
  23. 23. More understanding performances <ul><li>To break knowledge into its components (analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>To take a stance with regard to knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To criticize knowledge on the basis of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To create knowledge on the basis of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To create a simulation, model or metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>To ask a question on the basis of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul>
  24. 24. Policy position paper Concluding performance A comprehensive understanding performance which builds and exhibits understandings for an audience Mock trial Lecture Documentary film Designing a tool Museum Dramatic performance Research paper
  25. 25. examples of communal concluding performances Why do people marry? What should we wear? “ Thinking about marriage?” Instructions manual Fashion show and information display at shopping mall
  26. 26. more examples of communal performances Why did the peasants accept a class system that exploited and oppressed them? Does competition make us better? Mock trial with evidence and witnesses Interactive museum
  27. 27. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry
  28. 28. Initiation Developing the common knowledge basis necessary for understanding the fertile question, for creating questions and for conducting research, via... <ul><li>Clarifying central concepts and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Creating” the fertile question </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding “mini-inquiries” </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting concepts to the questions that gave rise to them (archeology of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a “questions bank” </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  29. 29. Fertile Question Initiation Feedback Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Research Question Communal concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Concluding performance Inquiry Inquiry Inquiry
  30. 30. Feedback Providing the learner with information and stimulus to further and deepen his or her learning; providing the teacher with information to improve his or her teaching <ul><li>Listen and converse </li></ul><ul><li>Pose questions </li></ul><ul><li>Probe student understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t solve students’ problems for them </li></ul><ul><li>Orient to what can be realistically improved </li></ul><ul><li>Provide examples, but aim for general issues </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize judgment </li></ul><ul><li>... </li></ul>
  31. 31. questions and problems
  32. 32. for more information Yoram Harpaz: [email_address] Adam Lefstein: [email_address]
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