To foster the global movement towards a just society that embraces nonviolence, free media, multiculturalism, biodiversity, sustainable development, ecological restoration, appropriate technology, and human rights by providing an educational travel service dedicated to helping people find opportunities to undertake socially conscious travel.
Traditionally, development was equated
with economic production and the optimization of profits for the
Development has now come
to represent a process of
"the process of integrating and transforming the aspirations of collectivities at all levels of social organization toward those that advance the development of people everywhere.“
(Estes: 1992: 33)
“ Profound insight into the source(s) of their oppression combined with a willingness to act collectively in bringing about solutions to those oppressions” (Estes: 1992: 28).
“ The process of establishing new, or extending existing, resources to larger numbers of persons in need of such services” (Estes: 1992: 33).
“ The intensification of a worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many mile away and vice versa” (Morrow & Carlos Torres: 2000: 27-28).
“ The influence exerted by ‘the rise of some new social movements and the role of local and international nongovernmental organizations’” (Burbules & Torres: 2000: 18).
Alan Fowler (2002)
“ Diaspora channels can be more reliable because responsibility and accountability ‘back home’ increase vulnerability to the consequences of globalization.” (18)
“ people’s individual and collective capacity to cope with exploit opportunities created by change becomes the core feature of anti-poverty interventions.” (6)
Links to academic content and standards.
Involves people in helping to determine & meet real, defined community needs.
Is reciprocal in nature, benefiting both the community & the service providers.
Can relate to any subject area so long as it is appropriate for assessed needs.
-- National Commission on Service Learning
“ Service-learning combines service objectives with learning objectives with the intent that the activity change both the recipient and the provider of the service. This is accomplished by combining service tasks with structured opportunities that link the task to self-reflection, self-discovery, and the acquisition and comprehension of values, skills, and knowledge content.”
“ Service-learning is a form of experiential education where learning occurs through a cycle of action and reflection as students work with others through a process of applying what they are learning to community problems and, at the same time, reflecting upon their experience as they seek to achieve real objectives for the community and deeper understanding and skills for themselves.”
--Eyler & Giles, 1999
“ A primary goal of service learning is to get students to place their volunteer work in a larger social context and to give them an opportunity to explore that connection through reflection activities.”
As global civil society tries to compensate for the failures of the market and state under current forms of globalization, NGOs have been restructuring their own work in the context created by globalization by forming transnational networks.
Examples of a well-known transnational advocacy campaign include: the campaign to stop the promotion of Nestle’s infant formula to women in the South, and the 1997 treaty to ban land mines, which 122 countries signed, largely due to the support of 300 NGOs worldwide.
(Keck & Sikkink, 1998)
Boomerang Pattern Strategy
This strategy bypasses the weakened or corrupt state when civil society-to-state channels have been blocked in order to invoke change either in the same state or in a corporation that the state of origination could potentially regulate or pressure into reform.
The boomerang is thrown to foreign states and international institutions through collaboration with global civil society.
The state of origination, as a result, receives ever increasing external pressure from the global allies of civil society to implement the desired policy change, and, thus, the boomerang is returned.
Global Public Goods
"It is not beyond the powers of political volition to tip the scales towards more secure peace, greater economic well-being, social justice and environmental sustainability. But no country can achieve these global public goods on its own, and neither can the global marketplace. Thus our efforts must now focus on the missing term of the equation: global public goods".
Kofi Annan Secretary-General of the United Nations New York 1 March 1999
Global Public Goods Framework
Global public goods are "public goods with benefits that are strongly universal in terms of countries, peoples, and generations".
The types of global public goods fall under the following categories: equity and justice, peace and security, environment and cultural heritage, knowledge and information, health, and market efficiency.
By definition of a “pure public good,” they must be nondepletable, nonrivalrous, and nonexcludable, as well as intragenerational and intergenerational.
They are either: overused, such as the ozone layer; underused, such as knowledge and information; or undersupplied, such as peace, health, market efficiency, and equity.
Their overuse, underuse, and undersupply are a result of the free-rider problem running rampant under globalization, and the public ‘bads’ that globalization has left in its wake.
(Kaul, Grunberg & Stern, 1999)
Promotion of Global Public Goods
Global public goods are already being promoted by socially responsible businesses, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations.
The UNDP is the main advocate for this new framework, but it is a framework that has been readily adopted by NGOs and businesses alike that feel cross-sectoral collaborations and this adoption of a common framework, or language so to speak, are essential to sustainable development.
What the Framework Offers
1) Simple explanations of global social problems brought on by the imperfect market and globalization;
2) How individual states can work alone and together to expand their responsibility of providing public goods to the world;
3) Corporations and other sectors clear economic incentives to implement the solutions it suggests;
4) NGOs a uniform mission to successfully network and communicate with other sectors;
5) A clear presentation of the current weaknesses in their provision; and
6) An explanation and set of solutions that all sectors and cultures can agree on.
The Fourth Position
“ Aid Architecture: Reflections of NGDO Futures and the Emergence of Counter-Terrorism” by Alan Fowler (2002)
“ The issue is how to ensure fairness, justice, efficiency and effectiveness in development relationships that are set to become even more complex as government, different businesses, various types of civil society organization and donors try to collaborate. Each actor has combinations of incentives, motivations, resources and forms of power that are often at odds with those of the others. It is therefore difficult to envisage how to bring them together to find common and equitable grounds for collaboration.” (18-19)
“ The essential idea is to draw on but move beyond a too-simple three-sector view of society, to a more complex understanding of an NGDO’s grounding, principles of operation, roles and embedding in society, a ‘fourth position’. In other words, while bonded to civil society, they use their value-base as a ‘springboard’ to interact with state, market and civil society itself—which is far from homogenous and is not inherently ‘civil’ or conflict free. They would have the competence to speak different ‘sector languages’ and to engage across diverse institutional boundaries and foster interorganizational linkages. In doing so, the challenge is to help others to see how NGDO values, expressed through human rights, are relevant to everyone in terms of responsible global change, long-term institutional viability and local to global stability and sustainability.” (20-21)
The UNDP calls for the increase in tri-sectoral forums that include civil society, corporations, and states.
The UNDP encourages the continuous development of concepts and instruments necessary to bolster collective action, such as the internalization of externalities and to “deal with potentially contagious phenomena at the source, before they spill across borders.”
(Kaul, Grunberg & Stern, 1999)
The Fourth Position at the UN
“ From politics to security to public health, from crime to the environment, a growing agenda of development issues can no longer be managed within the boundaries of any single nation. Global, regional and national coalitions for action are emerging centred around the United Nations’ indispensable role. The UN can bring together governments, civil society, multinational corporations and multilateral organizations — coming together around particular issues of concern and looking for innovative ways to address them.”
— Mark Malloch Brown , Administrator of UNDP
The Educational Network for Global and Grassroots Exchange
Uses the energy of former study abroad students to link communities globally in grassroots action for social justice.
Learning the Language
Routes International - http:// www.routesinternational.com /