Manchester International Workshop on  Nanotechnology, Society and Policy   9-12 September 2008 “Nano-See it, Nano-Don’t: B...
Nano-Objects <ul><li>Nano-objects , According to EU Recommendation Feb08 </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of recognised in...
The Nano-consumer Project <ul><li>A collaborative project between SIFO and MIOIR </li></ul><ul><li>Financed by the RCN – N...
Presentation to the EthicSchool Summerschool on Ethics and Nanotechnology,  University of Twente, 24-29 August 2008 <ul><l...
NanoEthics? <ul><li>Recent book  ‘Nano-ethics’ (2007) eds Allhoff, F., Lin, P.,  Moor, J., Weckert </li></ul><ul><li>With ...
Research Questions <ul><li>‘ NanoEthics is the study of the social and ethical implications of  </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s et...
NanoEthics, NoneEthics, NanoEthics-wash? <ul><li>We can see that these alternative perspectives interpret ethics as relati...
Ethics as Market Shaping Strategy:  A Framework: Building Up Practice, Field & Stakes A Administrative Field (Resources) O...
Breaks and Blackholes in  Nano value chains:  The Case of Textiles <ul><li>Presentation to EASST Conference </li></ul><ul>...
Risk, responsibility, rights and regulation in the value chain of nano-products <ul><li>Rovigo, 22.-23. May 2008 </li></ul...
Nanoconsumer –  Research Topic Guide <ul><li>5 Rs :, (Representation), Regulation, Responsibility , Risk, Rights </li></ul...
Potentials, realities and representations: N&N and Nano-objects
3 principles <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice (theory) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism (m...
Practice(theory) <ul><li>Practice  (situating action in everyday life, conventions and the normalisation of action), Warde...
Pragmatism (method) <ul><li>New field of study </li></ul><ul><li>Troublesome access </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatism – ‘playin...
Pluralism (Ontology) <ul><li>Ontological hypothesis:  </li></ul><ul><li>Premise: critique ‘science fiction’ (and Social Sc...
Re-cast the Research Question & Objective <ul><li>Not what will nano-do in the far future? </li></ul><ul><li>But what is n...
For book : <ul><li>Nano goes Macro : Social Perspectives on Nano Sciences and Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Eds Kamilla K...
current situation of ‘nano-products ’ <ul><li>inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products </li></ul><ul><li>–  Pro...
nanotextiles •  two main ways to incorporate nanotechnologies: (1) fabric treatments on nano-scale – ‘ nanowhiskers’: •  t...
Nano-Tex •  founded 1998 in California –  by David Sloane (professor of chemical engineering) –  originally majority owned...
NanoSphere <ul><li>developed by Schoeller Technologies (Switzerland) </li></ul><ul><li>–  part of Schoeller Textiles </li>...
RealCoolCotton <ul><li>developed by Delta Galil Industries (Israel) </li></ul><ul><li>(global apparel company specializing...
X-static <ul><li>•  developed by Noble Biomaterials (US) </li></ul><ul><li>•  patented, nanotechnology-based, process </li...
SmartSilver <ul><li>•  developed by NanoHorizons (US) </li></ul><ul><li>–  founded 2002 by scientists from Pennsylvania St...
(1) use of ‘nano’ name <ul><li>name of company / technology </li></ul><ul><li>–  Nano-Tex / Nano-Care </li></ul><ul><li>– ...
(2) advertisement of technology <ul><li>•  some companies actively try to </li></ul><ul><li>market their technology to the...
(3) global supply chains <ul><li>examples </li></ul><ul><li>–  technology: US; mills: China; brand: Germany </li></ul><ul>...
A story of 3 (contrasting) firms <ul><li>Firm A  – ‘Micro-importer’. Open & transparent. RRRR minimum intervention. Functi...
Conclusions <ul><li>A different  theoretical, methodological, ontological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>(Transformations) ...
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Sr Nano Seeit Noano Dont To Mc Rwshops

  1. 1. Manchester International Workshop on Nanotechnology, Society and Policy 9-12 September 2008 “Nano-See it, Nano-Don’t: Breaks and Blackholes in the (global) value chains of Textiles Nano-objects” Sally Randles, Christian Greiffenhagen, Harald Throne-Holst, Pal Strandbakken Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, and School of Sociology, University of Manchester with The National Institute for Consumer Reaearch (SIFO) Norway [email_address]
  2. 2. Nano-Objects <ul><li>Nano-objects , According to EU Recommendation Feb08 </li></ul><ul><li>In the absence of recognised international terminology the generic term of ‘nano-object’ is used all throughout the Code of Conduct to designate products resulting from N&N research. It includes nanoparticles and their aggregation at the nanoscale, nano-systems, nano-materials, nano-structured materials and nano-products </li></ul><ul><li>(ie nano-enabled products ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nano-consumer Project <ul><li>A collaborative project between SIFO and MIOIR </li></ul><ul><li>Financed by the RCN – Nanomat-programme </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on textiles and cosmetics: Availability. </li></ul><ul><li>Value chain interviews (textiles products ’on the shelves’ in consumer markets). </li></ul><ul><li>(focus groups with consumers) </li></ul><ul><li>Representation , implications for Responsibility, implications for Regulation, (Rights, Risks) in the value chain of nano-products </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical dimensions: trust linked to governance and diffusion of innovations within Risk society </li></ul>
  4. 4. Presentation to the EthicSchool Summerschool on Ethics and Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 24-29 August 2008 <ul><li>“ Ethics in Practice: Field, Stakes, and Nano-objects” Sally Randles and Christian Greiffenhagen Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Manchester Business School and School of Sociology University of Manchester [email_address] </li></ul>
  5. 5. NanoEthics? <ul><li>Recent book ‘Nano-ethics’ (2007) eds Allhoff, F., Lin, P., Moor, J., Weckert </li></ul><ul><li>With Foreword by Mihail C. Roco (NBIC NSF 2002) – See Schmidt in TASM 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of nano-ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Nano-ethics is the study of the ethical and social implications of nanotechnology’….so </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Nano-ethics ….. is …. Nano-ethics’ </li></ul><ul><li>ie a Tautology </li></ul><ul><li>Whats going on? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research Questions <ul><li>‘ NanoEthics is the study of the social and ethical implications of </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s ethics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> What ethics claims ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For what purpose? </li></ul>
  7. 7. NanoEthics, NoneEthics, NanoEthics-wash? <ul><li>We can see that these alternative perspectives interpret ethics as relational and contextualized, rather than absolute and universal. In doing so they raise the central questions: Ethics for who and for what purpose ? Armed with this alternative lens and returning to the ethics in Nanoethics we can ask What’s going on? </li></ul><ul><li>In fact Allhoff and his co-editors provide the clue in their own introduction : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ most of all, we thank you – the reader – for your interest in nanotechnology and its ethics. By engaging the issues as early as possible, we can together clear a responsible path for emerging sciences, such as nanotechnology, to help humanity realize its great potential’ pxvi. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randles, S (2008) From Nano-Ethicswash to Real-Time Regulation , Special Edition Journal of Industrial Ecology (forthcoming) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ethics as Market Shaping Strategy: A Framework: Building Up Practice, Field & Stakes A Administrative Field (Resources) Occupational Field (Labour) Remember : Unit of analysis is Position in field (not individuals or organisations). Institutionalised Correspondence across fields gives relatively rigid architecture, resilience & characteristic typology, will tend to reproduce existing power relations and to reward existing winners. This does not deny ontological transformational possibilities from competition, struggle or re-negotiating stakes. (eg scope for innovations, opening up new spaces of action, interactions at boundaries, reconfiguring boundaries, innovations, technological, organisational, institutional). Struggles over ethical claims with implications for action, are part of the struggle/re-negotiation of stakes. Epistemic Epistemic Field (Knowledge)
  9. 9. Breaks and Blackholes in Nano value chains: The Case of Textiles <ul><li>Presentation to EASST Conference </li></ul><ul><li>23-24 August 2008, Rotterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Greiffenhagen and Sally Randles (credit SIFO) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Risk, responsibility, rights and regulation in the value chain of nano-products <ul><li>Rovigo, 22.-23. May 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Panel 1: Nanotechnologies and regulatory issues </li></ul><ul><li>Throne-Holst, Randles, Strandbakken, Greiffenhagen and Sto </li></ul><ul><li>SIFO, Norway and MIOIR, UK </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nanoconsumer – Research Topic Guide <ul><li>5 Rs :, (Representation), Regulation, Responsibility , Risk, Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Can you tell us the “life story” of one of your nano(?)products from idea to finished product, retail and purchase/use/disposal), we are interested in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical story . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production system & exchanges, how are these instituted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Conceptualising the consumer/Marketing (Representation) . </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 Years Future </li></ul>
  12. 12. Potentials, realities and representations: N&N and Nano-objects
  13. 13. 3 principles <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice (theory) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism (method) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralism (ontology) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Practice(theory) <ul><li>Practice (situating action in everyday life, conventions and the normalisation of action), Warde, Shove, Southerton </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Consumption (The materials of material culture) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Theory, Cultural Anthropology (eg Dan Miller, Mary Douglas, eg Douglas, M (2002 [1966]) Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo , London: Routledge, 2nd Edn ) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg, Shove, Watson, Hand and Ingram (2007) The Design of Everyday Life </li></ul><ul><li>(But not explicitly spatial or economic) </li></ul><ul><li>--------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Geography (international production systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg , Dicken, P. Global Shift </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Geography – (Cultural consumption and international consumption systems). Gold! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pragmatism (method) <ul><li>New field of study </li></ul><ul><li>Troublesome access </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatism – ‘playing the detective’ or ‘moving around’ (Rip) </li></ul><ul><li>Web analysis, ‘caught in time’ </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone interviews with multiple-call backs (relationship building, UK and international) </li></ul><ul><li>Face to face – across UK. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pluralism (Ontology) <ul><li>Ontological hypothesis: </li></ul><ul><li>Premise: critique ‘science fiction’ (and Social Science Fiction, Rip) generated by eg deliberative processes, and polarised Utopian/Dystopian discourses… are not rooted in empirical evidence/ every day life </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative premise: Re-position in daily life: A pluralist ontology assumes the world has richer variety and subtlety than these polar ‘tropes’ eg ‘grey goo’ ‘next industrial revolution’ ‘help humanity reach its great potential’…. </li></ul><ul><li>And this includes/implies Nano-objects are similar. Nano-objects are different but no need to reify. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Re-cast the Research Question & Objective <ul><li>Not what will nano-do in the far future? </li></ul><ul><li>But what is nano-doing now?... Ie Glimpse future scenarios (get a handle on the medium term, 5years). </li></ul><ul><li>How are value chains being transformed </li></ul><ul><li>(How) are markets being re-shaped/re-constructed? </li></ul><ul><li>From the point of view of representation, responsibility, regulation, (risk, rights) </li></ul>
  18. 18. For book : <ul><li>Nano goes Macro : Social Perspectives on Nano Sciences and Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Eds Kamilla Kjolberg and Fern Wickson, Univ Bergen, Norway. </li></ul><ul><li>'Nano-inside:  Representation, Labelling and an Absence of  Controversy: Nano- value chains under the spotlight‘ (MIOIR/SIFO) </li></ul>
  19. 19. current situation of ‘nano-products ’ <ul><li>inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products </li></ul><ul><li>– Project of Emerging Nanotechnologies; Woodrow Wilson Centre </li></ul><ul><li>• February 2008: 606 products (March 2006: 212 products) </li></ul><ul><li>• April 2008: 3-4 new products per week </li></ul><ul><li>• only rough estimate </li></ul><ul><li>– “ information contained within this inventory is solely based on </li></ul><ul><li>information that can be readily found on the internet” </li></ul><ul><li>• many products do not advertise their ‘nano’-content </li></ul><ul><li>• similarly, some products may just use a ‘nano’-label </li></ul><ul><li>• ‘ real’ number could be larger (or smaller) </li></ul>
  20. 20. nanotextiles • two main ways to incorporate nanotechnologies: (1) fabric treatments on nano-scale – ‘ nanowhiskers’: • tiny hairs (e.g., ten nanometers long) that make liquid spills bead up and roll right off fabric – functionality ‘stain resistant ’ – ‘ Lotus effect’ • a structured ‘hilly’ surface coating that mimics the way lotus leaves repel water droplets and particles of dust , functionality, ‘water resistent ’ (2) incorporation of silver nanoparticles – silver: anti-microbial and anti-static – using nanoscience to bond silver particles with fibres – have silver molecules only on surface of fibre functionality, bacterial protection • “ Silver has become the most commonly used nano-engineered material in consumer products.” (Director of PEN, 2008, p. 3)
  21. 21. Nano-Tex • founded 1998 in California – by David Sloane (professor of chemical engineering) – originally majority owned by Burlington Industries (bankrupt) – from 2003 by WL Ross • developed a water-repellent treatment – licensed to textile mills (over 80 mills in various countries) – used by leading apparel brands (e.g., Eddie Bauer; Gap; Boss) – jeans, shirts, suits, ties, … • market leader – Time : one of 2002’s best inventions • currently four treatments: – resists spills – repels and leases stains – coolest comfort – resists static
  22. 22. NanoSphere <ul><li>developed by Schoeller Technologies (Switzerland) </li></ul><ul><li>– part of Schoeller Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>– natural water-repellent, dirt-repellent, self-cleaning finishing </li></ul><ul><li>• available since 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>– originally used as part of Schoeller Textiles products </li></ul><ul><li>– now also licensed to textile mills </li></ul><ul><li>– used by (outdoor) brands: e.g., Mountain Hardwear; Mammut </li></ul><ul><li>North Face </li></ul><ul><li>– jackets; ski clothes; </li></ul><ul><li>in 2007 partnership with Clariant </li></ul><ul><li>– Clariant worldwide leader in </li></ul><ul><li>speciality chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>– takes over production, sales </li></ul><ul><li>and quality assurance </li></ul>
  23. 23. RealCoolCotton <ul><li>developed by Delta Galil Industries (Israel) </li></ul><ul><li>(global apparel company specializing in intimate apparel, men's </li></ul><ul><li>underwear and socks) </li></ul><ul><li>introduced in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>– integrating the familiar comfort of cotton fibres and the hydrophilic </li></ul><ul><li>functionality associated with synthetics </li></ul><ul><li>– patented process, based on nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>– increases the absorption capacity of cotton while also giving the </li></ul><ul><li>fabric the wicking properties [capillary motion] </li></ul><ul><li>used by, e.g., Marks & Spencer, Calvin Klein </li></ul>
  24. 24. X-static <ul><li>• developed by Noble Biomaterials (US) </li></ul><ul><li>• patented, nanotechnology-based, process </li></ul><ul><li>– bonds a layer of pure silver permanently to the surface of a textile fibre </li></ul><ul><li>– anti-microbial, anti-odor, anti-static </li></ul><ul><li>• originally military, industrial, and medical markets </li></ul><ul><li>from 2005 also consumer markets </li></ul><ul><li>– examples: socks; gloves; </li></ul><ul><li>– Marks & Spencer ‘Sleepsafe’ pyjamas </li></ul><ul><li>“ Using an innovative silver technology </li></ul><ul><li>our exclusive sleepsafe pyjamas are </li></ul><ul><li>clinically proven to reduce the risk of </li></ul><ul><li>MRSA [‘superbug’ in hospitals].” </li></ul>
  25. 25. SmartSilver <ul><li>• developed by NanoHorizons (US) </li></ul><ul><li>– founded 2002 by scientists from Pennsylvania State </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>• EPA-registered antimicrobial solution </li></ul><ul><li>– silver particles that bind at the molecular level </li></ul><ul><li>(therefore do not wash out) </li></ul><ul><li>– originally developed to keep medical devices germ-free </li></ul><ul><li>– now available for apparel, footwear, offices, … </li></ul><ul><li>main applications: socks, gloves </li></ul><ul><li>– ArcticShield socks (ARC Outdoors) </li></ul><ul><li>Forbes Top Nano Products of 2005 </li></ul>
  26. 26. (1) use of ‘nano’ name <ul><li>name of company / technology </li></ul><ul><li>– Nano-Tex / Nano-Care </li></ul><ul><li>– Schoeller / NanoSphere </li></ul><ul><li>– NanoHorizons / SmartSilver </li></ul><ul><li>– Noble Biomaterials / X-Static </li></ul><ul><li>– Delta Galil / Real Cool Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>• some companies have ‘nano’ in their name </li></ul><ul><li>• some have used ‘nano’ for name of their technology </li></ul><ul><li>• some do neither </li></ul>
  27. 27. (2) advertisement of technology <ul><li>• some companies actively try to </li></ul><ul><li>market their technology to the </li></ul><ul><li>consumer </li></ul><ul><li>– through “double branding” </li></ul><ul><li>• Nano-Tex CEO: </li></ul><ul><li>“ We're trying to position ourselves to </li></ul><ul><li>be an ingredient brand, like Intel&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-Tex and Schoeller provide </li></ul><ul><li>‘ hang-tags’ for products </li></ul><ul><li>• Boss shirt with Nano-Tex hang-tag </li></ul><ul><li>• brands may choose to develop </li></ul><ul><li>their own labels </li></ul><ul><li>• Eddie Bauer shirt that uses Nano- </li></ul><ul><li>Tex technology, but not hang-tag </li></ul>
  28. 28. (3) global supply chains <ul><li>examples </li></ul><ul><li>– technology: US; mills: China; brand: Germany </li></ul><ul><li>– technology: Swiss; mills: Turkey; brand: US </li></ul><ul><li>– technology & mills: Korean; product: sold in UK </li></ul><ul><li>• who are the customers for these technologies? </li></ul><ul><li>(1) mills </li></ul><ul><li>– companies make money through licenses to mills </li></ul><ul><li>– “ real users of our technology are mills” (interview with ‘nano’ </li></ul><ul><li>company) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) also brands </li></ul><ul><li>– it is the brands / garment companies that decide to use the </li></ul><ul><li>technology (and order from the mills) </li></ul><ul><li>– “ real driving factor are the brands for us” </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brand manufacturers – drive backwards to make economic decisions as to why/how/whether to bring nano-objects into their ranges . May ‘experiment with’ then drop it .(suppliers need to re-coup R&D costs). </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brands - drive price down year on year (nothing new in that). May ‘shake out’ nano-objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Small/specialist Retailers (and they say, consumers ‘trust’ the brand to communicate better performance, safety, quality, responsibility eg ‘gortex’) – </li></ul><ul><li>sales staff recommend customers ‘read the website’ for technical information </li></ul>
  29. 29. A story of 3 (contrasting) firms <ul><li>Firm A – ‘Micro-importer’. Open & transparent. RRRR minimum intervention. Functionalist foot care (Silver socks) </li></ul><ul><li>Firm B – ‘International Swiss HQ’. Open & transparent. t Differentiate on ‘responsibility’ platform. RRRR ‘responsible & sane’ – integrated across value chain. Premium priced/discerning customer, serious hobbyist. Performance enhanced for outdoors. </li></ul><ul><li>Firm C – ‘International US HQ. Protective/secretive RRRR regulatory compliance. High Street sold & priced. Performance enhancement of everyday wear. Position potentially undermined by head-on competition? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusions <ul><li>A different theoretical, methodological, ontological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>(Transformations) of global supply chains possible (but not a new process , so empirical detail needed to capture actual change/dynamics wrt nano-objects, especially (in this case) geographies of mills, speciality chemicals, lab testing facilities etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Brands – as carriers of meaning and identity (role of ‘information’?) </li></ul><ul><li>(under –developed) power of retailers wrt their buying of nano-objects. </li></ul>
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