Splinter Group C Plenary Session


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Splinter Group C Plenary Session

  1. 1. Network-Enabled C4ISR Splinter Group C Plenary Session Back Brief Swarming Workshop 13 January 2003 JTF
  2. 2. Splinter Group C Issue: Should Swarming become a Tenet of Transformation?
  3. 3. Shared Understanding of Swarming <ul><li>Swarming is often tactical, occasionally organizational or operational, and rarely strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a mixture of human and machine as well as autonomous and semi-autonomous (ie SOF units in Afghanistan) </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming not limited to offensive targeting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appications include Reconnaisance, Surveillance, Targeting Acquisition, (RSTA), flock based systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes are more than just offensive in nature incudes development of Situational Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Millions of missions that can be done with swarming not only military (Drug trafficking monitoring) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Swarming is not a tenet..But it is an Approach <ul><li>Swarming is not a tenet but it is a potential strategy to be considered for transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming is a useful approach - Dependent on the mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It exploits the benefits of Network Centric Warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enabled by some technological capabilities but transformation now working to maximize effectiveness of traditional hierarchical command structures not replacing it </li></ul><ul><li>Swarming should not compete with transformation but work in complimentary fashion as an overlay when needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by development of networks systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swarming is an organizational option that transformational strategies should consider in addition to other methods of organization </li></ul>
  5. 5. How NCW Enables Swarming <ul><li>Network Centric Warfare will accelerate swarming - Not till 2010-2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes Swarming more capable - Supported by the technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands Swarming - Makes it efficient - Can also develop alternative forms of organizations (integrated AOC, IAMD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not develop network to optimize swarming unless we conciously plan to do so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological constraints outside the realm of information also hamper swarming (ie weapon system detonation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision making element of Swarming and Network Centric Warfare - Swarming supports self synchronized fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be machine driven (Pre-programed ROEs, targeting), or human based (SOPs, Tactics, Decision making) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How NCW Enables Swarming (cont.) <ul><li>Shared information does not equate intelligent action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hampered by human interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swarming does push down the concept of shared awarness - Needs more investigation and experimentation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How NCW Enables Swarming (cont.) <ul><li>Swarming is a reaction, non-informational based system which cannot leverage complex knowledge available despite its ability to adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not take advantage of our capability for collaboration, knowledge sharing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swarming is dependent on the other piece of Network Centric Warfare which provides these capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will support swarming with technologies (communications) - Need interaction to fully integrate swarming tactics with Network Centric Warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swarming should be looked on as a way of doing autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumed that transformation will include autonous capability </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Advantages & Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Agility - Faster Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of Inforamtion </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Options </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Manpower - More autonomous systems </li></ul><ul><li>Safer - Humans farther from the battlefield </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Situational Awarness </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Coverage of Battlefield (UAVs, UUVs, Space Assets) - Standoff assets </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization equals less vulnerability - Large, dispersed network cannot be entirely taken down </li></ul><ul><li>Force protection increased due to lower density of forces with swarming </li></ul><ul><li>Better match for current threats (Counter insurgency, Terrorism, Peacekeeping) </li></ul><ul><li>Increases speed of forward deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Decentraliation equals more vulnerabiity - Network has many points of vulnerability (mitigated by </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Legal Problems - Military necessity vs Civil necessity (Issues: ROEs, Soverignty, Civil Liberties) </li></ul><ul><li>Capability vs Authority of pushed down decision making - Effects conduct of war and removes power from NCA </li></ul><ul><li>Command and Control Chalenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System AI not developed to support Swarming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrics Ill defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stochastic - Unable to predict results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swarming less capable against highly adaptive adversaries? </li></ul><ul><li>Runs the risk of greater friendly casualties - Controlling friendly fire </li></ul><ul><li>Tradeoff of armor vs Situational Awarness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing interdependence among these systems for missions - System vulnerabilites hard to mitigate over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adversary leapfrogging developed technology to defeat our primary systems in terms of NCW and Swarming </li></ul><ul><li>Requires increased Bandwidth and Information Management </li></ul><ul><li>Not always implementable when in Coalition partners </li></ul>
  9. 9. How Would You Implement Swarming Into the Transformation Strategy? <ul><li>Swarming is a justification for transformational tenets such as NCW </li></ul><ul><li>Tighten link between operational forces, the technical community and the acquisition strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understanding of best applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understanding of optimal missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better understanding of the impact on the acquisition strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continue R&D - Haven’t scratched the surface of swarming capabilites </li></ul><ul><li>Define experimental issues and initiate experimental strategy on emerging R&D </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Would You Implement Swarming Into the Transformation Strategy? <ul><li>Need to bridge gap between interagency and coalition actors - Bigger than a DoD issue </li></ul><ul><li>Move from the operational engagement area to explore swarming methodology for other missions/applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of Networks, Counter Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems to support this include (UAVs, UUVs, UCAVs, Micro UAVs, Computer Network Defense/Attack Systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combat Unit orgnaizations/training to support (Halt scenario, Anti ethnic cleansing) - Non-linear dispersed based operations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to work on the new requirements for ROEs - Need to be much more exact and flexible for system programming (Ship based gattling gun) - Human trust of the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Advance and clarify discussion of Swarming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require precise definitions to ensure common understanding </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What Impact Would Swarming Have on DOTMLPF? <ul><li>Doctrine: Must establish a doctrine - Either machine, human based or both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctrine must be developed jointly, service, interagency and coalition base - Dependent on the intended application (Who is intending to use it and for what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization: Potential changes to the organization itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes command and control organization of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical, operational and potentially strategic command units </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JTF construct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interagency and potentially HA structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale adoption of swarming will impact different services and organizations in different levels (Army heavily impacted, Navy/AF less so) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects personnel in terms of numbers and tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will require greater jointness (C4ISR, Fires) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Impact Would Swarming Have on DOTMLPF? <ul><li>Material: Move toward joint acquisition process - This is a big issue not just in implementing Swarming but C4ISR and other transformational strategic implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing approach in material development from “factory to foxhole” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require own organization to support material independent of military organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training: If human based will require new training behaviors in support of decision making requirements (Strategic Sergent) </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Impact Would Swarming Have on DOTMLPF? <ul><li>Leadership: Big paradigm shift - decentralized leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability in command and control - supported by COTs and traditional ingeneuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher ranking officers commanding small units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personnel: Smarter, more skilled personnel - But tradeoff is need for less personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More special operations type forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilities: Dependent on the service however trends are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward deployed and increased reachback capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prepositioned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Just in Time logistics </li></ul></ul>