Solutions Bullying


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  • Bullying at School is sadly something that has become fairly common. With all of the peer pressure and constant negative feelings in kids. As a parent, the challenges include identifying when your child has been bullied and determining the best response. Help your child understand not to bully back by explaining the situations that may happen if a child becomes a bully himself and encourage your child to avoid and ignore the bully. As a way of helping everyone especially the parents, who still find it quite hard to manage issues like this, I found this great application which featured a safety app which gets me connected to a Safety Network or escalate my call to the nearest 911 when needed, it has other cool features that are helpful for your kids with just a press of a Panic Button. Check it here:
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  • Solutions Bullying

    1. 1. Wayne Sakamoto Safe Schools Coordinator (858) 292-3569 [email_address] San Diego County Office of Education Bullies and Victims School Violence
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Greater Understanding of Systematic Approach to Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Knowledge of Characteristics of Bullies and Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Knowledge and Skills in Identifying and Implementing Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Implement a Steps At Your School Site(s) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview of Course <ul><li>I. Background </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>II. Step by Step Systematic Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a task force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop policies and protocols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action Planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Definitions <ul><li>Specific Type of Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior is Intended to Harm or Disturb </li></ul><ul><li>Carried Out Repeatedly and Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Imbalance of Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direct Bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Acts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimidation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taunting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect Bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making Faces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obscene Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rumors </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Prevalence of Bullying <ul><li>European Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 to 23 Percent of Students Involved as Victims or Perpetrators (Olweus) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Study (1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15,686 Students in Grades 6-10 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>29.9% of Students Involved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13% Bully </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10.6% Victim </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.3% Both Bully and Victim </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Prevalence (Continued) <ul><li>(United States Study) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Carolina (1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6,000 Students in Grades 4-6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>43% of Students Involved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% Bully </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23% Victim </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>More Prevalent in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle School </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High School Students May Under-represent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Studies Indicate Slightly Higher in Rural Areas </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. QUICK-STEP Action Plan <ul><li>Develop a Team or Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Definition of Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Bullying at Your School </li></ul><ul><li>Review or Develop District Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforce Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Action Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide Staff Training </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Parent Training </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
    8. 8. I. Establish a Task Force <ul><li>Identify key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Identify roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Meet a minimum of once per month </li></ul><ul><li>Identify time to allow for parent involvement </li></ul>
    9. 9. I. Establish a Task Force Bully Prevention Task Force Classified Staff Campus Security Custodial Bus Driver Campus Aide Noon Duty Other Brings classroom perspective Knowledge of curriculum content and deliverability Staff liaison Assists in staff development recommendations Classroom strategies Perspective on protocols Certificated Staff Kindergarten First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Chairs and organizes meeting Brings administrative perspective Experience in discipline process Connection with district funding School Administrator Role Position/Agency Name
    10. 10. Other Community Agencies Parents Students School Resource Officer School Counselor/Psychologist
    11. 11. II. Assessment <ul><li>How do you assess bullying? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard DATA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyze your data!!! </li></ul>
    12. 12. Assessment Continued <ul><li>Identify Bullies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Potential Instigators </li></ul><ul><li>By-standers </li></ul><ul><li>Root Causes </li></ul>
    13. 13. Characteristics of Bullies <ul><li>Higher Levels of Conduct Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike School/Poor School Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitude Toward Violence and Use of Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Need to Dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Little Empathy Toward Victims </li></ul><ul><li>Positive View of Themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Ease in Making Friends </li></ul>
    14. 14. Characteristics of Victims <ul><li>More Anxious and Insecure </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Levels of Depression </li></ul><ul><li>More Loneliness and Unhappiness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Social and Emotional Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty Making Friends/Lack of Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious, Sensitive, and Quiet </li></ul><ul><li>React by Crying and Withdrawal (Lower Grades) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Negative View of Themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Males are Generally Weaker Than Their Classmates </li></ul><ul><li>Boys Have Close Relations with Mothers </li></ul>
    15. 15. Warning Signs - Bully <ul><li>Maliciously Teases, Threatens, or Strikes Out </li></ul><ul><li>Hot-tempered </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Time Following Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive Toward Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Tough/Mean Spirited </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in Other Anti-social Behaviors </li></ul>
    16. 16. Warning Signs - Victim <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Drop in Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Psycho-somatic Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of Physical Confrontations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Torn Clothes, Cuts, Bruises, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Loss of personal possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Few Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Loner/Isolated </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Afraid to go out to Play </li></ul>
    17. 17. Capacity Assessment <ul><li>What are you currently doing? </li></ul><ul><li>What resources do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>How many staff have been trained? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your policy and PROCEDURE adequate? </li></ul>
    18. 18. II. Assessment How will you assess the prevalence of bullying on your campus and where it occurs? What does your Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance and Healthy Start Survey report tell you about bullying and harassment? Have you conducted other surveys (Staff and parents)? If yes, what does the data indicate? Healthy Start Survey Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance Analysis/Trends Date Conducted Name Other survey: Name of parent survey: Name of staff survey: Analysis/Trend Date Conducted Name
    19. 19. Have you conducted focus groups? If yes, what does the data indicate? Have you conducted observations? If yes, what issues and behaviors have you seen that may contribute to bullying and harassment? Clicking or grouping Name calling Racial name calling Intimidation Stare-downs Bad language Taunting Physical contact Overcrowding Unsupervised areas Other (Describe): Summarize your observations: Number of school incidences by month 2004-05 Fill in the number of bullying incidences you have documented over the past five years. Expulsions Suspensions Other Reports Referrals D N O S A J J M A M F J
    20. 20. Number of school incidences by year Determine if your rates are increasing or if you are seeing an increase due to the growth of the student population using the following formula. Incidences/Student Population X 1000 = Rate Rate of bullying by year Do you collect data on victimization? How many victims of bullying have you had each of the past five years? 1999-2000 ________________ 2000-2001 ________________ 2001-2002 ________________ 2002-2003 ________________ 2003-2004 ________________ Expulsions Suspensions Other Reports Referrals 2003-04 2002-03 2001-02 2000-01 1999-2000 Expulsions Suspensions Other Reports Referrals 2003-04 2002-03 2001-02 2000-01 1999-2000
    21. 21. Are your victims increasing or decreasing? List students that may be bullies: List students that may be victims: Identify students that have been victimized more than once: What percentage of your total population has been identified as victims (Use the following formula to calculate)? What is your ratio of victims to bullies? Perpetrator Location of Incident Teacher/ Home Room Grade Level Victim Name
    22. 22. Student Assessment Form Student: Location: Time: Place a tally mark in the appropriate box each time you hear or see: Other Bad Behaviors Fighting Hitting Kicking Pushing Picking on Racial Name Calling Name Calling Bad Language
    23. 23. Capacity Assessment What activities, programs, trainings and curricula do you have in place to reduce bullying? List and describe activities: List and describe programs: Date Conducted Description Activity Number of students served Description Program
    24. 24. List and describe trainings: List and describe curricula: Date Conducted Number trained Description Training When and how delivered Description Curricula
    25. 25. Potential Bullies/Instigators Why is Student on List? Teacher/Homeroom Grade Level Name of Student
    26. 26. Potential Bulling Victims Why is Student on List? Teacher/Homeroom Grade Level Name of Student
    27. 27. Assessment Summary Form Based upon your assessment, list your top five concerns: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Which locations or areas does bullying seem to be more prevalent? If needed, how will you collect additional data for assessment? Timeline Person Responsible Data Needed
    28. 28. III. Policy <ul><li>Statement of negative impact of bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverse effect on the learning environment and school culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clear Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Clear Statement That Consequences Will Be Immediate </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention and Intervention Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Services for victim and perpetrator </li></ul>
    29. 29. IV. Site-based Protocol <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Notification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect Bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating the paper trail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview Forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate Actions Taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Bully Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Do you currently have a board adopted policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your definition of bullying adequate? </li></ul><ul><li>How have/will you train staff on the policy and protocol? </li></ul><ul><li>How have/will you inform parents and students of the policy and consequences? </li></ul><ul><li>Bully Site-based Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>How will you document the infraction? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you document Indirect Bullying? </li></ul>
    31. 31. Violation Form Fourth Violation Third Violation Second Violation Warning First Violation Action Violation
    32. 32. DOCUMENTATION FORM <ul><li>Perpetrator Name(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Victim Name(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Bullying Indirect Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>(Please mark all that applies) </li></ul><ul><li>Hitting Spreading Rumors </li></ul><ul><li>Shoving Internet posting </li></ul><ul><li>Kicking Electronic messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Name calling Slam Book </li></ul><ul><li>Taking property Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Destroying property Social cruelty (List): </li></ul><ul><li>Other Physical Act (List): </li></ul><ul><li>Where did this take place? </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Stop Cafeteria </li></ul><ul><li>Bus Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Playground/Athletic Field Locker room </li></ul><ul><li>Other (List): </li></ul><ul><li>When did this take place? </li></ul><ul><li>Day: Time: </li></ul><ul><li>Description/Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe sequentially what occurred (Use back if needed): </li></ul><ul><li>Witnesses/By-standers: </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate action taken (Victim and Perpetrator): </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrator: Victim: </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to principal Referred to principal </li></ul><ul><li>Parents/guardians called Parents/guardians called </li></ul><ul><li>Other: Other: </li></ul><ul><li>Report Written By: </li></ul><ul><li>Signature:_________________________________________ Date:______________________ </li></ul>
    33. 33. Bully Interview Form <ul><li>Name: </li></ul><ul><li>Bully Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Why was the victim targeted? </li></ul><ul><li>Does perpetrator know the victim(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they share any classes (If so, list classes and teachers)? </li></ul><ul><li>Did teachers notice any negative behaviors leading up to the event (If they shared </li></ul><ul><li>classes)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have the students had problems before? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate actions taken: </li></ul><ul><li>Has the perpetrator victimized other students before? Are they on your Potential Bully List? </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer Signature:_________________________________ Date:_________________ </li></ul>
    34. 34. Victim Interview Form <ul><li>Name: </li></ul><ul><li>Victim Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Why was he/she targeted? </li></ul><ul><li>Does victim know the perpetrators(s)? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they share any classes (If so, list classes and teachers)? </li></ul><ul><li>Did teachers notice any negative behaviors leading up to the event (If they shared classes)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have the students had problems before? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate actions taken: </li></ul><ul><li>Has the victim been targeted by others before? Are they on you Potential Victims List? </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewer Signature:_________________________________ Date:_________________ </li></ul>
    35. 35. V. Training <ul><li>What are potential training topics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will you provide staff development? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you train parents? </li></ul>
    36. 36. V. Training List current training activities for school staff, parents, students, etc.: List trainings needed for staff, parents, students and potential resources: Number Trained Date Trained Target Audience Topic Potential Resources Costs Person Responsible Target Audience Topic/Description
    37. 37. VI. Prevention <ul><li>Build a positive school/classroom climate </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for the development of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the physical environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPTED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link to School Safety Plan (EC 32280) </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth Involvement </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. The Resiliency Wheel Reprinted from Resiliency In Schools: Making It Happen For Students & Educators by Nan Henderson & Mike Milstein, published by Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1996
    39. 39. <ul><li>VI. Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>What are you currently doing to prevent bullying? </li></ul><ul><li>Select a work station and review the following program, curricula or resource. Develop an </li></ul><ul><li>outline that will provide an accurate overview. Be prepared to report out to the large group. </li></ul><ul><li>(Second Step, Bully Prevention, Bully Busters, Empathy Development, Internet) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: What does a bully free classroom look like? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you address the by-stander effect? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Prevention Action Plan 1. Social Environment Date Completed Persons Responsible Activities Objectives
    41. 41. 2. Physical Environment Date Completed Persons Responsible Activities Objectives
    42. 42. Bully Prevention Program <ul><li>Dan Olweus </li></ul><ul><li>Whole School Systemic Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Builds a Positive School Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Firm Limits for Unacceptable Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Non-hostile/Non-physical Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement By Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Adults Act Decisively </li></ul><ul><li>Adults Are Positive Role Models </li></ul><ul><li>Adults Model Appropriate Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Active Youth Involvement </li></ul>
    43. 43. Overview of Bullying Prevention Program <ul><li>Adult Awareness and Involvement (Prerequisite) </li></ul><ul><li>School-wide Level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student Focus Groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspension/ Expulsion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School Crime Data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of Coordinating Committee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planning Meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Supervision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent Awareness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Overview of Bullying Prevention Program <ul><li>Class Level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Rules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular Classroom Meetings With Students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce Rules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussions on Bullying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small Group Discussions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meetings With Parents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention With Bullies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Evaluation of the Bully Prevention Program <ul><li>50% Reduction in Student Reports of Bullying and Being Bullied </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in Other Anti-social Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Students Reported Better Order and Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Students Reported More Positive Attitudes Toward Schoolwork and School </li></ul><ul><li>US Results Similar But Not as Dramatic </li></ul>
    46. 46. Steps to Respect A Bullying Prevention Program <ul><li>Committee For Children </li></ul><ul><li>Whole School Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary Level </li></ul><ul><li>Three Grade-Level Modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades 3-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades 4-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grades 5-6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Module Contains One 11 Lesson Skills Unit and Two 7-10 Lesson Literature Units </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Emotional Competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Targets Bully , Victim , Witness/Bystander </li></ul>
    47. 47. Bully Busters <ul><li>Grades 6-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/Classroom Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Modules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 1 Increasing Awareness of Bullying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 2 Recognizing the Bully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 3 Recognizing the Victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 4 Taking Charge: Interventions for Bullying Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 5 Assisting Victims: Interventions and Recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 6 The Role of Prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Module 7 Relaxation and Coping Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Module Includes Three or Four Classroom Activities </li></ul>
    48. 48. Youth Leadership <ul><li>Secondary School Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch or Pull-out </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership = Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict Resolution/Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding Perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul>
    50. 50. GOALS <ul><li>Changing Peer Group Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rumor Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro-Social Responses to Disrespect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Friends) Instigating Violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting Youth Involved in Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing Positive Interactions Between Cliques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Exclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing Tensions and Negative Conflicts </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Peer Educator Model <ul><li>High School Students as “Teachers”/Facilitators </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Their Own Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Posters With Slogans </li></ul><ul><li>Develop PSA’s on Video Tape </li></ul><ul><li>Posters and Videos Played at Target School Prior to Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Presentations </li></ul>
    52. 52. VII. Intervention <ul><li>Staff Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bystanders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counseling/Mental Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Involvement </li></ul>
    53. 53. Immediate Action – Teacher <ul><li>Stop the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to the students </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if bullying is involved </li></ul><ul><li>For Second offense talk to students separately </li></ul><ul><li>If normal conflict conduct conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>If bullying is SUSPECTED notify bully to stop actions </li></ul><ul><li>Observe further interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Support Victim </li></ul><ul><li>Notify administrator </li></ul>
    54. 54. Immediate Action - Administrator <ul><li>Stop the Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Separately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with perpetrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk with by-standers/witnesses/instigators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support the Victim </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Development </li></ul><ul><li>Document, document, document! </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    55. 55. Talk With Victim <ul><li>Tell them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are concerned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They will be protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their needs will be taken care of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place child at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Collect information </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the expression of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support and encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Inform of general actions </li></ul><ul><li>Have child agree to report further bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge distress level - Refer if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate with parents </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    56. 56. Talk With Perpetrator <ul><li>Talk With Separately </li></ul><ul><li>Do not tell them victim reported </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Rules and Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Notify them that they will be monitored </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul><ul><li>Alert appropriate staff </li></ul><ul><li>Notify parents </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul>
    57. 57. VII. Intervention <ul><li>Intervention Plan Perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Contract </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Meetings With Perpetrator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counseling/Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Development </li></ul><ul><li>Impulse Control </li></ul><ul><li>Anger Management </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Re-entry plan </li></ul><ul><li>Student Assistance Program </li></ul><ul><li>List school-based intervention services you currently have that can reduce bullying recidivism: </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention Plan Victim </li></ul><ul><li>Skill development </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>List school-based intervention services you currently use to support the victim: </li></ul>
    58. 58. Intervention Action Plan Date Completed Persons Responsible Activities Objectives
    59. 59. Aggression Replacement Training <ul><li>Developed by Arnold Goldstein and Barry Glick </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Middle School Through Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Builds Social-Cognitive Skills, Anger Control, and Moral Reasoning </li></ul>
    60. 60. Aggression Replacement Training (Continued) <ul><li>Three Coordinated Interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skills are modeled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role playing/guided practice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer Training (Learned Response ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Aggression Replacement Training (Continued) <ul><li>(Three Coordinated Interventions - continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anger Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Triggers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Cues or Sensations of Anger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reminders (Arousal Reducing Techniques Such as Self-Talk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducers (Calming Techniques) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of Appropriate Structured Learning Alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Aggression Replacement Training (Continued) <ul><li>(Three Coordinated Interventions - continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Moral Reasoning Stage of Adolescent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assist Adolescent to Utilize Advanced Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right Versus Wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Critical Discussion - Empathy <ul><li>What is Empathy? </li></ul><ul><li>How Can Empathy Help With School Safety? </li></ul><ul><li>How Does Empathy Develop? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the School Facilitate the Development? </li></ul>
    64. 64. What is Empathy? <ul><li>Define Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Is Empathy Different Than Sympathy? </li></ul>
    65. 65. Empathy <ul><li>Ability to Identify Another Person’s Emotional State </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Understand Another Person’s Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to ACT Upon the State or Situation </li></ul>
    66. 66. Empathy in Schools <ul><li>What Does an Empathetic School Look Like? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Correlation Between Empathy and School Safety? </li></ul>
    67. 67. How Does Empathy Develop? <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Influence </li></ul>
    68. 68. Can the School Facilitate the Development of Empathy? <ul><li>Whole School </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Playground </li></ul><ul><li>Lunch Area </li></ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul>
    69. 69. Fostering Empathy <ul><li>Teachable Moments </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Meetings on Empathy/Kindness </li></ul><ul><li>Intervene Early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Behaviors not the Student </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognize Empathetic Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have Students Share How They Have Helped </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role Reversal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Point-Counter Point </li></ul><ul><li>Class Discussions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perspectives of ALL Characters </li></ul></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Intervention Tips <ul><li>Do NOT Use Peer Mediation/Conflict Resolution Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Group Counseling Should Be With Heterogeneous Groups ( Victims and Perpetrators ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newman (1999) Found No Long-term Positive Effects of Group Counseling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher Involvement IS a Critical Factor (Newman, 1999) </li></ul>
    71. 71. VIII. Suppression <ul><li>Student Attendance Review Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expulsion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EC 48900 and 48915 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citation Program </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Restraining Order </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Re-entry Contract </li></ul>
    72. 72. VIII. Suppression Student Attendance Review Board – The Education Code allows for the use of the Student Attendance Review Board (SARB) for truancy/absentee issues AND behavioral problems. The SARB process generally includes a pre-SARB intervention at the school site. If the behavioral problems do not improve the school site will refer the student and family to the district-wide SARB hearing. The district SARB, in partnership with law enforcement, district attorney’s office, probation and juvenile justice can mandate counseling, mental health, parenting classes, etc. to illicit behavioral changes. Should behaviors continue, the parent and student are referred on to juvenile justice. West Sacramento School District has implemented a successful SARB program to reduce bullying in both primary and secondary schools. SARB – Does our district have SARB protocols in place for bullying? Suspension/Expulsion – Persistent bullying wil result in either suspension or expulsion and is based upon the school district bullying, harassment or behavioral policies. Education Code 48900 and 48915 Citation/Arrest – Schools have used citation programs to reduce fighting on campus. These programs generally work very close with law enforcement, district attorney’s office and the court system. When students fight they are given a citation by the School Resource Officer (SRO), or in some cases the school administrator. The citation is forwarded to traffic court where the first offense may result in a designated fine. Further offenses equals higher fines. Should the family not be able to pay the fine, the student is given community service hours. This program has effectively reduced fights on several school campuses. The program may be modified to deal with physical acts of severe bullying. Bullying that includes physical injury to the victim should be referred to the School Resource Officer for arrest on assault charges if the attacking student is above the age of twelve years old. The school should also follow suspension protocols under Education Code 48900 or 48915. Penal Code 422. Making Terroristic Threats Penal Code 415. Disturbing the Peace Any of the following persons shall be punished by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not more than 90 days, a fine of not more than four hundred dollars ($400), or both such imprisonment and fine: (1) Any person who unlawfully fights in a public place or challenges another person in a public place to fight. (2) Any person who maliciously and willfully disturbs another person by loud and unreasonable noise. (3) Any person who uses offensive words in a public place which are inherently likely to provoke an immediate violent reaction. Temporary Restraining Order – The victim’s family may ask the district attorney’s off ice to file a temporary restraining order (TRO) that will keep the perpetrator away from the victim’s
    73. 73. <ul><li>home and a given range of distance in public places. This can create problems of enforcement on a school campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Class scheduling should take into consideration the issue of a TRO. The school must comply with court orders and </li></ul><ul><li>may seek some modifications on the TRO to ensure that both students are provided a Free and Appropriate Public </li></ul><ul><li>Education (FAPE). Please note local or state mandates differ from region to region. The school must check with their </li></ul><ul><li>attorneys regarding district or local protocols that may impact a TRO. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary Transfer – Some school districts have involuntarily transferred persistent bullies to other schools in the </li></ul><ul><li>district. Transportation issues including costs are typically the responsibility of the parents or guardians. Care should </li></ul><ul><li>be given to inform the site administrators and teachers of the school of transfer regarding dangerous pupils. While an </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary transfer may assist with issues a TRO presents, it may do very little to reduce bullying behaviors by the </li></ul><ul><li>transferred student. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-entry – To effectively change behavior, schools must include a comprehensive and enforceable re-entry plan for the </li></ul><ul><li>student that includes social skill development during the term of suspension or expulsion. Re-entry should also include </li></ul><ul><li>direct placement into a student assistance program immediately upon reinstatement. The re-entry plan must be </li></ul><ul><li>specific in types and duration of parenting classes for the parent/guardian and counseling or mental health sessions for </li></ul><ul><li>the student. The plan must include placement into student assistance programming upon return and be signed and </li></ul><ul><li>dated by all parties. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you currently do for suppression? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a re-entry contract with the perpetrator? IX. Evaluation Plan </li></ul><ul><li>How will you measure your efforts? </li></ul><ul><li>Measure against baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Positive changes in student, teacher and parent surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Positive changes in focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Process data </li></ul><ul><li>Number of teachers trained </li></ul><ul><li>Number of parents trained </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum in classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Programs implemented </li></ul><ul><li>List other: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact data </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of bullying </li></ul><ul><li>Safer campus </li></ul><ul><li>Greater attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of suspensions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of expulsions </li></ul><ul><li>List other: </li></ul>
    74. 74. Evaluation <ul><li>What Should You Measure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process/Effort Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact Data: Referrals, Suspension, Expulsions, Classroom Discipline, Attendance, Academics, Parent Phone Calls/Visits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How Can You Measure Efforts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Base-line data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Changes in Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul>
    75. 75. Teacher Tips <ul><li>Proactive is Easier Than Reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Be Aware </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the Players </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seating Assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passing Periods/Transitions </li></ul></ul>
    76. 76. Teacher Tips (Continued) <ul><li>Develop A Positive Classroom Culture (Teach Students Not Just Subjects) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom Rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fun AND Secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model Appropriate Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Dumb Answers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find All Students’ Strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow All Students’ to Exhibit Strengths </li></ul></ul></ul>
    77. 77. Teacher Tips (Continued) <ul><li>Develop A Positive Classroom Culture: Teach Students Not Just Subjects (Continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Allow Teasing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline in a Low-Key Fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Power Struggles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach Skills for Youth Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilize Classroom Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Know When to Refer to Principal/Counselors </li></ul>
    78. 78. Parent Tips <ul><li>Be Aware of Warning Signs </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Overreact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Minimize </li></ul><ul><li>Take It Seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Work on Child’s Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to Your Child </li></ul><ul><li>Work With the School </li></ul>
    79. 79. Parent Tips (Continued) <ul><li>Don’t: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Cynic - “You’re over-reacting” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Martyr - “That’s nothing, when I was a kid…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Brick Wall - Not listening and jumping to conclusions “ You should have…” ” I would have…” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Interrogator - “I want to know everything” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Bully - “Stick up for yourself” “If you get a black eye the other guy better have two black eyes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Rescuer - “Leave it to me, I’ll take care of it” </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Parent Tips (Continued) <ul><li>Do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Listener - Do not jump to conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Clarifier - Restate facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be the Supporter - See their side </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Let Your Child Know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That you are pleased they told you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That you believe them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That it is not their fault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are sorry it happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That you will help with solutions </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. Crime Prevention Triangle <ul><li>Victim </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>Location/Time </li></ul>
    82. 82. Resources/Bibliography <ul><li>Aggression Replacement Training, Goldstein, Arnold P., Glick, Barry, et al Research Press (800) 519-2702 </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program, Committee for Children, 2001. (800) 634-4449 . </li></ul><ul><li>Bully Busters: A Teacher’s Manual for Helping Bullies, Victims, and Bystanders, Horne, Arthur M., and Newman, Dawn A., and Bartolomucci, Christi L. Research Press (800) 519-2702 </li></ul><ul><li>Blueprints for Violence Prevention: Book Nine Bullying Prevention Program, Olweus, Dan and Limber, Sue University of Colorado at Boulder. (303) 492-8465. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop Bullying! Guidelines for Schools, New Zealand Police </li></ul>