View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
The Shahji-ki Dheri mounds, situated to the east, cover ruins of the largest Buddhist stupa in the subcontinent (2nd century AD), which attest the lengthy association of the town with Buddha and the religion founded about him. Once the capital of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara, the city was known variously as Parasawara and Purusapura (town, or abode, of Purusa). Also called Begram, the present name, Peshawar ( pesh awar, "frontier town"), is ascribed to Akbar, the Mughal emperor of India (1556-1605).
In ancient times, the state of Ghandhara occupied the Vale of Peshawar and adjoining areas. This kingdom was important because of its strategic location at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass. Gandhara was annexed by the Persian Achaemenian Empire in the early 6th century BC and remained a Persian satrapy until 327 BC. The region then passed successively under Greek, Indian, Indo-Bactrian, Sakan, Parthian, and Kushan rule.
Muslim rule was first brought to the region by the Turks, whose ruler, Sebüktigin, gained control of Peshawar in AD 988. His son, Ma h m u d of Ghazna, invaded northern India several times between 1001 and 1027 and brought a large area of the present province into the boundaries of his Ghaznavid empire. Beginning in the late 12th century, the region was held successively by the Ghurids, by various Muslim Afghan dynasties, and then by the Mughals. After the invasion of the Iranian ruler Nadir Shah in 1738, the territory remained under a loose form of Afghan Durrani rule. Beginning about 1818, invading Sikhs from the Punjab region of India increasingly secured control of the frontier territory until the coming of the British in 1849.
The northwestern frontier areas were annexed to India by the British after the Second Sikh War of 1849. The territories thenceforth formed a part of the Punjab until the North-West Frontier Province was created in 1901. After Pakistan attained independence in 1947, the region continued to exist as a separate Pakistani province. The inhabitants of the tribal territories, the westernmost area along the Afghanistan border, are not subject to the Pakistani legal code, however. During the 1980s the province was inundated by Afghan refugees seeking asylum from the Soviet occupation of their country.
The Mosque Mahabat Khan, Peshawar’s outstanding architecture legacy, in Jeweller’s Bazar was constructed by the Governor of Peshawar Mahabat Khan Mirza Lerharsib, in 1630 during the era of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan. The Mosque was desecrated and badly damaged by the Sikhs in early nineteen century and later when the fire broke out in 1898. The British renovated it for the first time and brought back some of its grandeur.
Chowk Yadgar, is located in the amidst of wide and sprawling convergence point of different major roads and bazaars of the city. Commemorative square was originally named in the memory of British Colonel Hastings. In 1969, the square was dedicated to the heroes of 1965 Indo-Pakistan war.
Edward’s College was established in 1901 and named in the memory of famous administrative Sir Herbert Edward as missionary boarding school.
The foundation of Islamia college was laid in 1911. The college has magnificent frontage facing Jamrud Road with its domes, kiosks and pinnacles rising above the green trees, which contrast sharply with red brick ornate building. The architectural taste is peculiarly of Mughal with a touch of colonial style. Three domed mosque adjacent to the college is also of artistic pleasure.
Cosmopolitan character of Qissa Khawani Bazaar-Piccadilly of Peshawar is lined with its traditional kehwa khanas, Tikka, Chapli Kabab and dry fruit shops along with modern show rooms of leather ware and bright coloured garments
In a grand Victorian hall, the Peshawar Museum houses one of the world’s best collection of Gandhara art, including stupas depicting the Buddha’s stupa collection presents a clear picture of life of Peshawar Valley during first four centuries A.D. when Peshawar was the capital of a vast empire. Handicrafts, tools and cloths of different tribes in the ethnological portion in the museum are also interesting and throw light on the cultural heritage of the region
There are 135,000 registered vehicles in the city, besides the number of unregistered. These vehicles are polluting the air at an enormous rate.
Information gathered from officials of the Excise and Taxation department, EPA, provincial transport authority (PTA), regional transport authority (RTA), district transport authority and traffic police reveal that the tri-wheelers, are being driven without having been issued route permits.
Traffic police could only fine them under section 44, 106 of the Motor Vehicle Ordinance for being driven without route permits.
There is a ban on the registration of auto-rickshaws with two-stroke engines in the Peshawar and Swat Districts hence Ching Chee rickshaws of the same engine capacity are also not allowed for registration.
In Peshawar, Ching Chee rickshaws introduced on the Gulbahar- Lahori route of the Peshawar City District Government's Town-1, were without lawful authority
Level of air pollution, owing to release of emission from all sources is estimated at around 15,406 tons per year.
A study conducted in 1995, revealed that the level of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in several places of Peshawar was much higher than the International standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Last survey was conducted in 1995 to know air quality in different localities of Peshawar.
The level of Carbon Dioxide in the air has reached 330 parts per million (ppm) in the Peshawar localities of Hayatabad, University Town, University Campus, Cantonment and the general bus stand on GT Road, a recent survey conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
According to the WHO, the safe level of carbon dioxide in the air in nine ppm.
The air pollution level at the general bus stand in Peshawar recently tested was a dangerously high 375ppm.
The level of carbon monoxide at the general bus stand is 70ppm while the WHO standard is eight ppm.
TABLE CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE LEVEL, PERCENTAGE OF GASOLINE-FUELED VEHICLES AND EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATION OF BLOOD CARBOXYHAEMOGLOBIN (Source: Jour.Chem.Soc.Pak.Vol.18, No.3, 1996, p. 178 at p. 181)
EMISSION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON FROM THE EXHAUST OF DIFFERENT RICKSHAWS TESTED AT VETS (Source: Report on The Test Results of Emissions From The Exhaust of Rickshaws in Peshawar – GTZ/VETS DATA 1999)
Legislation should be framed to establish and enforce exhaust emission standards for three wheelers.
Replacing of two stoke vehicle engines particularly in Rickshaws and the Motorcycles with the four stroke engines is urgently needed and a gradual and acceptable phase out of environment polluting vehicles should be pursued.
The NEQS should be examined afresh in order to check the vehicular emission and to make fully apply these standards on all vehicles including busses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, rickshaws and other vehicles.
Manufacturers should keep in view these standards while manufacturing engines for vehicles. Those engaged in oil business and mobile selling will also have to observe these standards and avoid selling sub-standard and contaminated mobile oil.