Shops Along With Modern Show Rooms Of Leather Ware And Bright Coloured Garments

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  • 1.
    • CITY REPORT ON PESHAWAR
    •  
    •  
    • PRESENTED BY
    •  
    • Isfandyar Ali Khan
    •  
    • Barrister-At-Law
    •  
    • Afridi, Shah & Minallah, Peshawar
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  • 18. PESHAWAR: LOCATION
    • Peshawar is the Capital of the North West Frontier Province. Peshawar lies just west of the Bara River, a tributary of the Kabul River, near the Khyber Pass.
    • Peshawar is bounded by Afghanistan to the west and north, the territory of Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast, Punjab province to the southeast, and Balochistan province to the southwest .
  • 19.
    • A major north-south road traverses the province, and an east-west railway runs from the Afghanistan border through Peshawar to Lahore in Punjab province. A major airport is located in Peshawar.
  • 20. POPULATION OF DISTRICT PESHAWAR (Source: 1998 District Census Reports of NWFP, Population Census Organization Government of Pakistan, Islamabad)
  • 21. PESHAWAR: HISTORY
    • The Shahji-ki Dheri mounds, situated to the east, cover ruins of the largest Buddhist stupa in the subcontinent (2nd century AD), which attest the lengthy association of the town with Buddha and the religion founded about him. Once the capital of the ancient Buddhist kingdom of Gandhara, the city was known variously as Parasawara and Purusapura (town, or abode, of Purusa). Also called Begram, the present name, Peshawar ( pesh awar, "frontier town"), is ascribed to Akbar, the Mughal emperor of India (1556-1605).
  • 22.
    • In ancient times, the state of Ghandhara occupied the Vale of Peshawar and adjoining areas. This kingdom was important because of its strategic location at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass. Gandhara was annexed by the Persian Achaemenian Empire in the early 6th century BC and remained a Persian satrapy until 327 BC. The region then passed successively under Greek, Indian, Indo-Bactrian, Sakan, Parthian, and Kushan rule.
  • 23.
    • Muslim rule was first brought to the region by the Turks, whose ruler, Sebüktigin, gained control of Peshawar in AD 988. His son, Ma h m u d of Ghazna, invaded northern India several times between 1001 and 1027 and brought a large area of the present province into the boundaries of his Ghaznavid empire. Beginning in the late 12th century, the region was held successively by the Ghurids, by various Muslim Afghan dynasties, and then by the Mughals. After the invasion of the Iranian ruler Nadir Shah in 1738, the territory remained under a loose form of Afghan Durrani rule. Beginning about 1818, invading Sikhs from the Punjab region of India increasingly secured control of the frontier territory until the coming of the British in 1849.
  • 24.
    • The northwestern frontier areas were annexed to India by the British after the Second Sikh War of 1849. The territories thenceforth formed a part of the Punjab until the North-West Frontier Province was created in 1901. After Pakistan attained independence in 1947, the region continued to exist as a separate Pakistani province. The inhabitants of the tribal territories, the westernmost area along the Afghanistan border, are not subject to the Pakistani legal code, however. During the 1980s the province was inundated by Afghan refugees seeking asylum from the Soviet occupation of their country.
  • 25. PESHAWAR: CULTURAL HIGHLIGHTS
    • The Inner City of Peshawar (historically a Walled City) is quite lively.
    • Traditionally hospitable and serves as a meeting place for traders.
    • Meeting point for various lingual groups from all across the Province.
    • Culture reflected in mannerisms and food preferences.
  • 26. PESHAWAR: ARCHITECTURAL HIGHLIGHTS
    • Khyber Pass.
    • Fort of Peshawar known as Bala-Hisar (the High Fort).
    • Zaheer-ud-Din Babur crossed the Khyber Pass in the Sixteen Century on his way from Kabul, and ordered to strengthen the Fort.
    • Presently Bala-Hisar fort houses headquarters of a prestigious Frontier Corps.
  • 27.
    • The Mosque Mahabat Khan, Peshawar’s outstanding architecture legacy, in Jeweller’s Bazar was constructed by the Governor of Peshawar Mahabat Khan Mirza Lerharsib, in 1630 during the era of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan. The Mosque was desecrated and badly damaged by the Sikhs in early nineteen century and later when the fire broke out in 1898. The British renovated it for the first time and brought back some of its grandeur.
  • 28.
    • Chowk Yadgar, is located in the amidst of wide and sprawling convergence point of different major roads and bazaars of the city. Commemorative square was originally named in the memory of British Colonel Hastings. In 1969, the square was dedicated to the heroes of 1965 Indo-Pakistan war.
    • Edward’s College was established in 1901 and named in the memory of famous administrative Sir Herbert Edward as missionary boarding school.
  • 29.
    • The foundation of Islamia college was laid in 1911. The college has magnificent frontage facing Jamrud Road with its domes, kiosks and pinnacles rising above the green trees, which contrast sharply with red brick ornate building. The architectural taste is peculiarly of Mughal with a touch of colonial style. Three domed mosque adjacent to the college is also of artistic pleasure.
    • Cosmopolitan character of Qissa Khawani Bazaar-Piccadilly of Peshawar is lined with its traditional kehwa khanas, Tikka, Chapli Kabab and dry fruit shops along with modern show rooms of leather ware and bright coloured garments
  • 30.
    • In a grand Victorian hall, the Peshawar Museum houses one of the world’s best collection of Gandhara art, including stupas depicting the Buddha’s stupa collection presents a clear picture of life of Peshawar Valley during first four centuries A.D. when Peshawar was the capital of a vast empire. Handicrafts, tools and cloths of different tribes in the ethnological portion in the museum are also interesting and throw light on the cultural heritage of the region
  • 31. PESHAWAR: WEATHER/SEASONS/WIND/RAIN/TEMPERATURE
    • Summers are hot with temperatures ranging to 90-120°F (32-49°C).
    • Peshawar has a distinct winter season which brings daytime temperatures of 60°F (16°C) or less and cold nights. In Peshawar, frequent morning frost does occur during the stark winter season.
    • The average annual rainfall is 15 (38 cm) in Peshawar.
    • Most rain falls during the summer monsoon from July to September.
    • Peshawar also experiences a moderate winter rainy season as well.
  • 32. PESHAWAR: FIVE MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS OF THE CITY
    • Vehicular Pollution (Air Pollution).
    • Brick Kilns (Air Pollution).
    • Solid and Hospital Waste.
    • Noise Pollution.
    • Loss of Trees/Plants (Absence of Green Belts).
  • 33. PESHAWAR: AIR POLLUTION IN THE CITY
    • Vehicular Emissions include: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, sulphur oxide and particulate matter such as lead.
  • 34. VEHICLES IN PESHAWAR:
    • There are 135,000 registered vehicles in the city, besides the number of unregistered. These vehicles are polluting the air at an enormous rate.
    • Information gathered from officials of the Excise and Taxation department, EPA, provincial transport authority (PTA), regional transport authority (RTA), district transport authority and traffic police reveal that the tri-wheelers, are being driven without having been issued route permits.
  • 35.
    • Traffic police could only fine them under section 44, 106 of the Motor Vehicle Ordinance for being driven without route permits.
    • There is a ban on the registration of auto-rickshaws with two-stroke engines in the Peshawar and Swat Districts hence Ching Chee rickshaws of the same engine capacity are also not allowed for registration.
    • In Peshawar, Ching Chee rickshaws introduced on the Gulbahar- Lahori route of the Peshawar City District Government's Town-1, were without lawful authority
  • 36. LEVELS OF EMISSIONS IN PESHAWAR
    • Level of air pollution, owing to release of emission from all sources is estimated at around 15,406 tons per year.
    • A study conducted in 1995, revealed that the level of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides in several places of Peshawar was much higher than the International standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO).
    • Last survey was conducted in 1995 to know air quality in different localities of Peshawar.
  • 37.
    • The level of Carbon Dioxide in the air has reached 330 parts per million (ppm) in the Peshawar localities of Hayatabad, University Town, University Campus, Cantonment and the general bus stand on GT Road, a recent survey conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
    • According to the WHO, the safe level of carbon dioxide in the air in nine ppm.
    • The air pollution level at the general bus stand in Peshawar recently tested was a dangerously high 375ppm.
    • The level of carbon monoxide at the general bus stand is 70ppm while the WHO standard is eight ppm.
  • 38. TABLE CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE LEVEL, PERCENTAGE OF GASOLINE-FUELED VEHICLES AND EQUILIBRIUM CONCENTRATION OF BLOOD CARBOXYHAEMOGLOBIN   (Source: Jour.Chem.Soc.Pak.Vol.18, No.3, 1996, p. 178 at p. 181)
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. EMISSION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROCARBON FROM THE EXHAUST OF DIFFERENT RICKSHAWS TESTED AT VETS   (Source: Report on The Test Results of Emissions From The Exhaust of Rickshaws in Peshawar – GTZ/VETS DATA 1999)
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44. PESHAWAR: EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION
    • Oxides and lead particles are hazardous to human health and cause cancer, asthma, heart problems, chest, throat and skin diseases.
    • Harmful effects on flora and fauna.
    •  
  • 45. PESHAWAR: CITY’S RESPONSE TO THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTION
    • City District Government in Peshawar:
      • Ban on Registration of 2-Stroke Auto-
      • Rickshaws.
      • Buses with CNG Engines.
    • Civil Society/NGO’s Level:
      • Sending Complaints to Newspapers and
      • Environmental Protection Agency.
      • Holding of Seminars and Workshops.
  • 46.
    • Public Interest Litigation:
      • Aggrieved/Interested parties sending complaints
      • to Environment Protection Agency.
      • Environment Protection Agency issuing Legal
      • Notices to Polluters.
      • Fines prevalent for air polluters.
    • Provincial EPA Responsible for Implementing Federal Policies at Provincial Level:
      • Legislative enactments, rules, regulations and
      • Notifications.
      • Mobile Vans Monitoring Vehicular Pollution in Peshawar
      • CNG Auto Rickshaws introduced .
  • 47.
    • International Support:
      • World Bank
      • GTZ
      • IUCN-Pakistan leading the Enviornment field.
      • JICA: It has been proposed that the Japanese
      • International Cooperation Agency (JICA) would
      • establish air-monitoring stations in the province
      • and the first station would be set up in Peshawar.
      • These stations will monitor the pollution level on
      • daily basis.
    • Overall Progress Report
  • 48. ROLE/IMPACT OF VETS IN PESHAWAR:
    • VETS have been working in Peshawar since 1997.
    • Contribution to the National Exchequer: App. 2 Million Rupees.
    • VETS Peshawar has saved amount of Rs 65 million through fuel consumption.
    • VETS Peshawar has saved Rs 55 million in terms of health benefit.
    • VETS has been able to save diesel and petrol worth Rs 42 million and 23 million respectively.
    • VETS/EPA Budget allocation has been made to employ traffic wardens for assisting VETS staff.
  • 49. EMISSION CONTROL IN PESHAWAR CITY CONTRIBUTION OF VEHICLE EMISSION TESTING STATION (VETS)   (Source: VETS/EPA)
  • 50.  
  • 51. Ching Chee Rickshaws
    • These Rickshaws are driven by motorbikes with two-stroke engines and produce poisonous Carbon Monoxide gas (CO), which is injurious to human health, particularly lungs and brain.
    • The traffic police had also opposed to grant them approval on the pretext that they lacked road safety because of their design and would add to traffic mess in the urban centres
  • 52. PESHAWAR: PROBLEMS AND WEAKNESSES
    • Lack of Administrative Capacity.
    • Lack of Interest on behalf of the bureaucracy and political establishments.
    • Environment/Pollution lacks priority in development/urban agenda.
    • Institutions established to attract foreign aid and perks for the civil servants.
    • City District Government: Even Doubts the Devolution!
    • Confusion and Lack of Understanding of Policing Environmental Pollution issues.
    • Lack of Public Awareness.
    • Traffic Police Department lacks adequate staff to assist mobile Emission Testing Vehicles.
  • 53.
    • Policy and Legislative Defects:
    • Tackling of Environment and Pollution issues started late. Approximate loss of 20 years.
    • Thus Delay in development of policies on environment and implementation of laws, that is, establishment of Tribunals.
    • Environmental issues are needed to be considered for all developmental work. Holistic approach in policy matters is required.
    • Pollution Control Mechanisms not thought of-Neither any emission standards established.
  • 54.
    • Financial Resources:
    • Budget allocation is negligible in comparison to the problems and issues confronted in populated/urban city.
    • Need of Modern Equipment and Maintenance support.
    • Technical Support:
    • JICA providing Technical Support through Federal EPA.
    • Air-Vehicular Pollution lacks focus and preference.
    • Lack of training for EPA staff.
    • 2 Mobile Vans not enough for testing emissions in Peshawar. 10 Vans may be enough for the present number of vehicles on the road.
  • 55. PESHAWAR: WAY AHEAD
    • There is an urgent need to establish more VETS to check vehicle emission, a major source of air pollution throughout N.W.F.P.
    • Testing and certification of all sorts of vehicles from VETS should be made mandatory.
    • Ambient air quality standards should be established and enforced on priority basis.
    • The NEQS (National Environment Quality Standards) for motor vehicle exhaust, particularly for smoke opacity should be strictly enforced so that vehicles can stand legal scrutiny.
  • 56.
    • Legislation should be framed to establish and enforce exhaust emission standards for three wheelers.
    • Replacing of two stoke vehicle engines particularly in Rickshaws and the Motorcycles with the four stroke engines is urgently needed and a gradual and acceptable phase out of environment polluting vehicles should be pursued.
    • The NEQS should be examined afresh in order to check the vehicular emission and to make fully apply these standards on all vehicles including busses, trucks, cars, motorcycles, rickshaws and other vehicles.
  • 57.
    • Manufacturers should keep in view these standards while manufacturing engines for vehicles. Those engaged in oil business and mobile selling will also have to observe these standards and avoid selling sub-standard and contaminated mobile oil.
    • Districts EPA’s Need to be established.
    • Reconsideration of Transport Policy.