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  • 1. Lead-Based Paint Investigations Andrew Burgie, MS Center for Occupational & Environmental Health at Hunter College
  • 2. Lead-Based Paint: Course Overview
    • What is Lead-Based Paint?
    • Why is it Toxic?
    • When is it Hazardous?
    • What Laws Govern Lead-Based Paint?
    • Recognizing, Evaluating, and Controlling Hazardous Lead Environments?
    • Questions and Discussion
  • 3. What is Lead-Based Paint?
  • 4. Definition of Lead-Based Paint
    • Paint with lead levels that are:
    • > 1.0 milligram per square centimeter
      • > 1.0 mg/cm 2
    • >0.5% by weight
    U.S. Department of Housing & Urban Development Note: If yellow box = 1 cm 2 , 1 mg. or more of lead found in chip would be above legal lead limit
  • 5. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
    • OSHA (1970) - Employer provides a “safe and healthy” workplace. Employee abides by employer rules concerning same.
    • OSHA Lead Standards in Industry:
    • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1025 – General
    • OSHA 29 CFR 1926.62 – Construction
    • OSHA 29 CFR 1915.1025 – Maritime
  • 6. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    • TSCA (1976) - Toxic Substances Control Act - Manufacturers and importers of chemicals required to include info about health and environmental effects of those chemicals
    • EPA Lead Standards:
    • Title 15 Chapter 53 (Subchapter IV – lead exposure reduction)
  • 7. Department of Housing & Urban Development (HUD)
    • HUD (1965) - Housing and Urban Development Act - Mission is to guarantee a decent , safe , and sanitary home and suitable living environment for every American
    • HUD Lead Standards:
    • Title X – Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992: ( Section 1018 – Disclosure of Lead-Based Paint)
  • 8. When is Lead-Based Paint Toxic?
  • 9. Lead Facts: Routes of Entry
    • Lead can be inhaled in the form of dust
    • Lead can be ingested in the form of paint chips, soil contaminated with lead, toys or other objects covered with lead dust, tainted drinking water
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 10. Lead Facts: Health Effects
    • Both adults and children can get lead poisoning depending on the concentration
    • Children are more susceptible because:
      • Children’s brains and nervous system are more sensitive to damaging effects of lead
      • Children’s growing bodies absorb more lead
      • Babies and young children often put their hands and other objects in their mouths which may have lead dust on them
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 11. Lead Facts: Health Effects
    • Children with high lead levels can experience:
      • Damage to brain and nervous system
      • Behavior and learning problems (hyperactivity)
      • Slowed growth
      • Hearing problems
      • Headaches
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 12. Lead Facts: Health Effects
    • Blood tests for children are recommended:
      • At ages 1 and 2
      • If exposure to high levels of lead has occurred
      • If local health screening plan requires it
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 13. Lead Facts: Health Effects
    • Adults can suffer from:
      • Difficulties during pregnancy
      • Other reproductive problems (men & women)
      • High blood pressure
      • Digestive problems
      • Nerve disorders
      • Memory and concentration problems
      • Muscle and joint pain
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 14. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
    • SECTION I - Identification Data
    • SECTION II - Hazardous Ingredients Data
    • SECTION III - Physical & Chemical Characteristics Data
    • SECTION IV - Fire & Explosion Data
    • SECTION V - Reactivity Data
    • SECTION VI - Health Hazards Data
    • SECTION VII - Special Handling Information (Spill, Leak, Disposal)
    • SECTION VIII - Control Measures (Ventilation, PPE)
    • SECTION IX - Special Precautions & Additional Information
  • 15. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • I - Identification
    • Product Name (As appears on label): LEDIZOLV ®
    • CAS Registry Number: Not Applicable
    • Effective Date: January 8, 2001
    • Chemical Family: Anionic Liquid Detergent
    • II - Hazardous Ingredients / Identity Information
    • There are no hazardous ingredients in LEDIZOLV as defined by the OSHA Standard and Hazardous Substance List 29 CFR 1910 Subpart Z. Contains no Canadian WHMIS controlled substances.
  • 16. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • III - Physical / Chemical Characteristics
    • Boiling Point (F): 220 degrees F
    • Vapor Pressure (mm Hg): N/A
    • Vapor Density (AIR=1): N/A
    • Specific Gravity : 1.080
    • Melting Point: N/A
    • Evaporation Rate (Butyl Acetate=1): N/A
    • Solubility in Water : Completely soluble in all proportions.
    • Appearance and Odor : Amber liquid - nearly odorless.
    • IV - Fire and Explosion Data
    • Flash Point (Method Used): None (Open cup)
    • Flammable Limits: LEL, N/S ; UEL N/A
    • Extinguishing Media : Water, dry chemical, CO2, foam
    • Special Firefighting Procedures: Self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus and protective clothing should be worn in fighting fires involving chemicals.
    • Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: None
  • 17. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • V - Reactivity Data
    • Stability : Stable
    • Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur
    • Incompatibility (materials to avoid): None
    • Hazardous Decomposition or By-products: May release ammonia, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide on burning.
    • VI - Health Hazard Data
    • Route(s) of Entry : Inhalation? No; Skin? No, except for open cuts or abrasions; Ingestion? Yes
    • Health Hazards (Acute and Chronic): Material may cause eye irritation and/or burns. May cause skin irritation.
    • Carcinogenicity : NTP? No; IARC Monographs? No; OSHA Regulated? No
  • 18. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • VI - Health Hazard Data (continued)
    • Signs and Symptoms of Exposure : Material may prove locally irritating. Medical Conditions Generally Aggravated by Exposure Not Established. Unnecessary exposure to this product or any industrial chemical should be avoided. Pre-existing skin conditions may be aggravated by exposure.
    • Emergency and First Aid Procedures : Eyes-Immediately flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes. Call a physician. Skin-Flush with plenty of water. Ingestion-Drink large quantities of water or milk. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs re-administer fluids. See a physician.
  • 19. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • VII - Precautions for Safe Handling and Use
    • Steps to be taken if Material is Released or Spilled : For small spills recover as much as possible to flush remainder to sewer. Large spills should be disposed of according to local regulations. Material is biodegradable.
    • Waste Disposal Method : Small quantities may be disposed of in sewer. Large quantities should be disposed of in accordance with local ordinances for non-hazardous detergent products. Precautions to be Taken in Storing and Handling: No special precautions in storing. Use protective equipment when handling undiluted material.
    • Other Precautions : Avoid splashing and spraying undiluted material. No other special requirements other than the good industrial hygiene and safety practices employed with any industrial chemical.
  • 20. Ledizolv MSDS (OPTIONAL) Material Safety Data Sheet
    • VIII - Control Measures
    • Respiratory Protection (Specify Type): Not required.
    • Ventilation : Local Exhaust – Normal
    • Special - Not Required
    • Mechanical - Not Required
    • Other - Not Required
    • Protective Gloves : Impervious gloves are recommended.
    • Eye Protection : Goggles and/or splash shields are recommended.
    • Other Protective Clothing or Equipment : Eye wash station should be available.
    • Work/Hygienic Practices : Wash hands before eating, drinking or smoking. The information herein is given in good faith but no warranty is expressed or implied.
  • 21. When is Lead-Based Paint Hazardous?
  • 22. Factors Impacting Lead Hazard
    • Building Age – Buildings built and painted before 1978, the year that lead was removed from household paint
    • Paint Condition – Poor quality paint that is chipping, peeling, cracking, pulverizing
    • Presence of Young Children – Children between the ages of 6 months and seven years old are susceptible due to their developing bodies, and desire to put objects in mouth
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 23. Factors Impacting Lead Hazard
    • Friction Surfaces – Surfaces that get a lot of wear-and-tear such as
      • Windows and window sills
      • Doors and door frames
      • Stairs, railings, banisters, and porches
    • Renovations – Surfaces that are disturbed
      • Outdoor paint in soil
      • Indoor paint chips/ dust on floor
    • Old Pipes – Drinking water that runs through old water pipes with lead solder
      • Residential
      • City
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 24. Lead-Based Paint Legislation
  • 25. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Lead Standards
    • Lead Dust –
      • <40 micrograms per square foot (ug/ft 2 ) – floors
      • <250 ug/ft 2 - interior window sills
    • Lead in Soil –
      • <400 parts per million (ppm) – play areas of bare soil
      • <1,200 ppm (average) - bare soil in remainder of yard
    • Lead in Water –
      • 15 micrograms per liter (ug/L) – drinking water
  • 26. Recognizing Lead-Based Paint Hazards
  • 27. Recognizing Lead Hazards
    • Building Age – Buildings built/painted before 1978
    • Paint Condition – Poor quality paint that is chipping, peeling, cracking, pulverizing
    • Friction Surfaces – Surfaces that get a lot of wear-and-tear such as windows, doors, stairs, etc.
    • Renovations – Painted surfaces that are disturbed
    • Old Pipes – Drinking water may be impacted
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 28. Evaluating Lead-Based Paint Hazards
  • 29. Evaluating Lead Hazards
    • Paint Inspection – Quantifies lead content of every different type of painted surface in home
    • Risk Assessment – Quantifies impact of lead based paint found in home on your health and how to address the hazards found through use of:
      • Visual inspection of paint condition and location
      • A portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) machine
      • Lab tests of paint, dust, and soil samples (AAS)
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 30. Controlling Lead-Based Paint Hazards
  • 31. Controlling Lead Hazards (Adults)
    • Notify Landlord of paint in poor condition
    • Clean up paint chips immediately
    • Clean floors, window frames, window sills and other surfaces weekly (mop/sponge/warm water/general all-purpose cleaner or lead cleaner)
    • Thoroughly rinse sponges and mop heads after cleaning problem areas
    • Wash children’s hands often (especially before eating, naps, and bedtime
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 32. Controlling Lead Hazards (Adults)
    • Keep play areas clean (and toys or other easily accessible objects)
    • Clean or remove shoes before entering home to avoid tracking in lead from soil
    • Prevent children from chewing window sills or other painted surfaces
    • Make sure children eat nutritious, low-fat meals high in iron and calcium
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 33. Controlling Lead Hazard (Adults)
    • Repair damaged painted surfaces
      • Have area tested for lead-based paint
      • Do not use dry or hot abrasive methods to prevent dust and fume generation
      • Temporarily move your family or completely seal work area
      • Follow other safety measures prescribed in “Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home” at 1-800-424-LEAD
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 34. Controlling Lead Hazard (Adults)
    • Plant grass to cover soil with high lead levels or plant “barrier” foliage
    • Hire a certified lead “abatement” contractor to permanently eliminate hazard (removing, sealing, or encapsulation with special materials.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 35. Controlling Lead Hazard (Kids)
    • Notify Parent of paint in poor condition
    • Help keep play areas clean (and toys or other easily accessible objects) for siblings
    • Prevent sibling from chewing window sills or other painted surfaces
    • Make sure siblings eat nutritious, low-fat meals high in iron and calcium
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 36. Questions & Comments
    • _____________________________________
    • Center for Occupational and Environmental Health at Hunter College
    • (212) 481-7652