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  • 1. RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION Information Session for Elementary Principals August 5, 2008 Lori Duerr and Sandy Meyers Delaware Department of Education
  • 2. What is Response to Intervention (RTI)?
    • Effective Educational Practices for All
    • “ RTI is the practice of providing high-quality instruction and intervention matched to student need , monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about change in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions . RTI should be applied to decisions in general, remedial and special education, creating a well-integrated system of instruction/intervention guided by child outcome data.”
    • (NASDSE, 2005)
  • 3. Core Principles of RTI
    • We can effectively teach all children
    • Use research-based, scientifically validated core instruction with fidelity
    • Use assessment data to inform instructional decisions (variety of data including screening and progress monitoring)
    • Use a problem solving method to make decisions within a multi-tier model of service delivery
    • Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions matched to student need with continuous progress monitoring
    • Intervene early
    • Use data as part of the evaluation process for determining eligibility for special services
  • 4. RTI
    • First….
    • Look at how system addresses student needs
      • It is our responsibility to identify the curricular, instructional, and environmental conditions that enable learning
    • Before….
    • Looking to the individual learner to explain why students are struggling
  • 5.
    • Tier I:
    • All Students
    • Core Class Instruction
    • Tier II:
    • Students with insufficient
    • progress in Tier I
    • Group and individual
    • research-based
    • interventions
    • Tier III:
    • Students with insufficient progress in
    • Tier I/Tier II
    • Sustained Intensive Interventions
    • Possible Special Education Identification
    • for students with insufficient progress
    • with Tier III interventions
    ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% Three Tiered Model Special Services Increasing Support
  • 6. Advantages of Multi-tiered Approaches
    • Provides instructional assistance in a timely fashion
    • Helps ensure a student’s poor academic performance is not due to poor instruction or inappropriate curriculum
    • Informs teacher and improves instruction because assessment data are collected and closely linked to interventions
    • Serves students who require little intervention as well as students who require long term intervention
    • Matches level of support to student need
    • Informs instructional needs for special education decisions
    • Allows for exit from special education when appropriate based on ongoing measurement of progress and response to intervention
  • 7.
    • Implementation of RTI is predicated on effective practices in general education classroom
      • Students can not be identified as having a learning disability if their difficulty is due to a lack of instruction
      • Programs need to be research-based and implemented as designated
      • Prevention-oriented
      • “ RTI requires a way of thinking about instruction, academic achievement, and individual differences that makes it impossible to implement without fully involving general education” (Technical Assistance Paper, ODE, p. 2)
    Why RTI?
  • 8.
    • Delaware
    • Regulations
    • on
    • RTI
    • Effective Date: June 11, 2008
    • (reflects changes to the
    • August 11, 2007
    • RTI Regulations)
  • 9. RTI Phase-In
    • RTI required for reading in elementary grades will begin with 2008-2009 school year
    • RTI required for math in elementary grades will begin with a schedule determined by DDOE
    • RTI required for secondary will begin with a schedule determined by DDOE
    • Students who are already eligible for special education will not have to be evaluated under RTI until their next required reevaluation
  • 10. General requirements
    • DOE-approved rubrics must be used to select programs of instruction and Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions for reading and mathematics
    • Most interventions at all Tiers occur in the general education classroom
    • Fidelity of implementation of instruction and interventions and adherence to the core curriculum are critical
    • 80% rule and school based team review
  • 11. General Requirements
    • All elementary students will be screened at least three times per year
      • First screening for at risk students within 2 weeks of beginning of school
      • Screening for all students shall be regularly spaced throughout the school year
    • All students at risk at the secondary level will be screened at least three times per year
      • Screening for all students shall be regularly spaced throughout the school year
    • Screening instruments will be norm referenced or curriculum based
    • Progress monitoring instruments must be curriculum based
  • 12. TIER 1
    • Students not at benchmark on any screening…
      • At or below 25% percentile on norm referenced assessment or designated cut point on curriculum based measure
        • Provide Tier 2 interventions in addition to core program
      • Between 25% percentile on norm referenced assessment or designated cut point on curriculum based measure and benchmark
        • School based team reviews program and progress
        • At least 6 weeks of Tier 1 interventions
        • Progress monitor every two weeks
  • 13. TIER 2
    • Weekly progress monitoring
    • Small group
    • At least 90 minutes per week
    • No less than 2 sessions per week
    • At least 6 weeks of Tier 2 interventions
    • For students identified in need of intervention in both reading and math, instructional support teams will design intervention for no less than 120 minutes
  • 14. TIER 2 (continued)
    • If no progress, or insufficient progress, after 6 weeks of Tier 2 interventions, then Instructional Support Team reviews
      • Additional assessments?
      • Changes in instruction or behavioral interventions?
      • Child requires Tier 3 interventions?
    • If no progress, or insufficient progress, after 12 total weeks of Tier 2 interventions, child moves to Tier 3 interventions
  • 15. TIER 3
    • Weekly progress monitoring continues
    • Smaller group than Tier 2
    • At least 150 minutes per week
    • No less than 4 sessions per week
    • At least 6 weeks of Tier 3 interventions
    • For students identified in need of intervention in both reading and math, instructional support teams will design intervention for no less than 180 minutes
  • 16. TIER 3 (continued)
    • If after 6 weeks of Tier 3 interventions (for a total of 18 weeks of intervention)…
      • progress is made, but child is not on trajectory to meet end-of-year benchmarks, then instructional support team reviews
        • Additional assessments?
        • Changes in instruction or behavioral interventions?
        • Refer for special education evaluation?
      • Child has made no progress, then instructional support team refers the child for special education evaluation
    • If after 6 additional weeks of Tier 3 interventions (for a total of 24 weeks)…
      • progress is made, but child is not on trajectory to meet end-of-year benchmarks, then instructional support team refers the child for special education evaluation
  • 17. FLEXIBILITY BETWEEN TIERS
    • System permits students to move between tiers of intervention based on progress toward benchmarks and instructional support team review
    • Special education re-evaluations available to permit students to move between general and special education
  • 18. Delaware RTI at a Glance
    • Tier I implementation of scientific, research-based core curriculum aligned with Delaware Content Standards
    • Differentiated instruction matched to student need
    • Tiers II and III of increasingly intense scientific, research-based interventions matched to student need
    • Instructional intensity addressed through duration, frequency and time of interventions, group size, and matched instructor expertise to student need
  • 19. Delaware RTI at a Glance
    • Individual problem-solving model and standardized intervention protocol for intervention tiers
    • Screening and progress monitoring to assess entire class progress and individual student progress
    • Explicit decision rules for assessing learner’s progress
    • Fidelity measures to assess consistency of instructional methods, curriculum, interventions, and assessment
  • 20. Putting it All Together
    • Working as a Team to Maximize Resources
    • & Outcomes for Students
    • Curriculum (Programs and Materials):
      • Ensuring comprehensive coverage to essential literacy and math skills
      • Use of research-based targeted programs (Supplemental and Intervention) for specific students or to fill needs of groups of students
    • Instruction:
      • Coordinating instructional resources (Title, Special Education, ELL, etc.)
      • Incorporating differentiated instructional practices
      • Prioritizing and protecting instructional time (sufficient time for students needing additional support)
      • Strategic use of grouping to maximize learning
    • Assessment
      • School-wide Screening & Progress Monitoring
      • Evaluating benefits for students, classrooms, schools and districts
    • Professional Development:
      • Instruction: Scheduling, grouping, behavior management
      • Programs and Materials: understanding the complexities and nuances
      • Progress Monitoring: Interpreting data at the school, class, and student level
  • 21.
    • Role of the Administrator
  • 22. Administrator’s Role – System Level
    • Establish an environment where all staff believe all students can learn at high expectations
    • Design a master schedule that includes equitable distribution of students, uninterrupted reading and math blocks, common planning, interventions, and specialists’ schedules
    • Adopt a school-wide data management system for monitoring student assessment data and interventions
    • Establish a problem-solving team to address needs of students
    • Share school data regularly
    • Budget funds to support RTI
    • Monitor RTI system within the school success plan
  • 23. Administrator’s Role – Tier 1
    • Adopt scientifically researched-based reading and math core curricula
    • Ensure teachers receive high quality professional development with the core programs
    • Implement a consistent and on-going fidelity to the core monitoring system
    • Adopt a universal assessment tool to assess all students three times a year
    • Adopt a progress monitoring tool to assess all students not at benchmark
    • Ensure teachers receive high quality professional development with assessment tools
    • Participate in teacher professional development
  • 24. Administrator’s Role – Tier 2 and Tier 3
    • Adopt scientifically researched-based reading and math interventions
    • Ensure interventionists receive high quality professional development with interventions
    • Implement a consistent and on-going fidelity to the intervention monitoring system
    • Ensure students receive specified number of minutes in interventions
    • Participate in problem-solving team process
  • 25.
    • Role of the
    • Classroom Teacher
  • 26. Universal Screening for the Classroom Teacher
    • View objectively how your entire class is doing on specific skills
    • Determine objectively and regularly the deficit areas and skill performance in order to match interventions
    • Set goals in measurable ways
    • Track how whole class and individuals are progressing throughout the year and not waiting until the “big test” to determine how students are doing
    • Share objective data with parents and other professionals on the progress of individual students
  • 27. Tier I Instruction for the Classroom Teacher
    • Screen students three times a year
    • Provide high quality instruction using a scientific researched core curriculum
    • Differentiate instruction
    • Progress monitor students every two weeks who fall between 25% (or cut point) and benchmark
    • Provide intervention
    • Participate as a member of a collaboration team such as a grade level or content area team to discuss instructional strategies and review data
      • (LRP Publications, 2006)
  • 28. Tier II Instruction for the Classroom Teacher
    • Continue to implement the core curriculum
    • Present data to instructional support team when data supports ineffectiveness of the six week Tier I intervention
    • May be the primary interventionist of Tier II interventions
    • May be primarily responsible for weekly progress monitoring to determine effectiveness of intervention plan
    • Participate as member on instructional support team/problem-solving team while student is on intervention plan
      • (LRP Publications, 2006)
  • 29. Tier III Instruction for the Classroom Teacher
    • Continue to implement the core curriculum
    • Continue to be primary educator responsible for student’s education
    • Work collaboratively with primary interventionist
    • Continue as member on instructional support team/problem-solving team while student is on intervention plan
      • (LRP Publications, 2006)
  • 30. Progress Monitoring for the Classroom Teacher and/or Interventionist
    • Collect data every two weeks at Tier I and weekly at Tier II and Tier III
    • Calculate weekly improvement rate by determining difference between current baseline and end of the year benchmark
    • Graph results
    • Plot progress monitoring points
    • As part of the instructional support team/problem-solving team, make decisions about progress and intervention plan
    • Mark graph if change in intervention plan
    • Share objective data with parents and other professionals on the progress of individual students
      • (LRP Publications, 2006)
  • 31.
    • Role of the
    • Specialist
  • 32. Specialists and Support Staff
    • Psychologists
    • Special Education Teachers
    • Reading Specialists
    • Math Specialists
    • Minner Reading Teachers
    • Minner Math Teachers
    • Speech Language Pathologists
    • Title I Teachers
    • Library Media Specialists
    • Paraprofessionals
    • Teacher-to-Teacher Cadre
  • 33. Variety of Roles for Specialists and Support Staff (not exhaustive)
    • RTI Coordinator
    • RTI Coach
    • Administrator of Universal Screening Tool
    • Administrator of Progress Monitoring Tool
    • Tier I, Tier II, and/or Tier III Interventionist
    • Instructional Support Team Lead or Member
    • Data Coach
    • Professional Development Lead/Provider
  • 34.
    • Effective
    • School-wide
    • Reading Program
  • 35. Critical Elements of Effective Reading Program
    • Consistently implemented, high quality initial classroom instruction and follow-up small-group instruction that is well-differentiated according to student needs.
    • Use of student performance data to guide instruction and allocate instructional resources.
    • Resources to provide interventions for struggling readers.
  • 36.
    • Fidelity of
    • Implementation
  • 37. How will we know we are implementing with fidelity?
    • Standards for Judging High Quality Implementation
      • Vision stated and shared
      • Staff member roles defined
      • Resources provided
      • Process defined
    • Purpose of Fidelity Checks
      • Identify areas of strength on which schools can build
      • Identify areas of deficiency that need to be remediated
    Mellard & Johnson, 2008
  • 38.
    • Outcomes
      • Fidelity of implementation of the process at the school level
      • Consistency of component implementation across classrooms and grade levels
      • Degree to which selected primary, secondary and tertiary interventions are empirically supported
      • Fidelity of implementation at the interventionist (e.g. teacher) level (e.g. training, ability to delivery)
    • Methods
      • Direct Assessment (e.g. observations)
      • Indirect Assessment (e.g. self-reports, interviews)
      • Manualized Treatments (e.g. step-by-step guides, checklists)
    Mellard & Johnson, 2008 How will we know we are implementing with fidelity?
  • 39. How will we know we are implementing with fidelity?
    • Dimensions
      • Content: how much (e.g. adherence, exposure)
      • Process: how well (e.g. quality of delivery, student response)
    • Frequency
      • Experience level of interventionist
      • Request for support
      • Class/group performance on screening and progress monitoring
      • Outcomes
    • Supports
      • Supportive v. punitive
      • Professional Development
      • Partnerships/Collaboration among staff
      • Resource allocation (e.g. time, materials, social structure, role change)
    Mellard & Johnson, 2008
  • 40.
    • Challenges/Opportunities
  • 41. RTI is a collaborative and systemic approach to addressing the needs of all students.
  • 42.
    • Thank you
    • Sandy Meyers
    • [email_address]
    • Lori Duerr
    • [email_address]