Introduction to RFID
RFID Will Have A Dramatic Impact on the Operation of Global Supply Chains Over the Next Ten Years. Scott Lundstrom, Chief ...
Labor 55% RFID vs. Barcodes + - <ul><li>Higher Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Read Sensitive to Product Attributes </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>What is RFID ? </li></ul><ul><li>What can it do ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it used ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why all t...
RFID BEGINNINGS <ul><li>IFF Beacon Radar - 1930’s  </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian Air Traffic Control - 1950’s </li></ul><ul><...
The Business Case for RFID Returnable Tag Items Provides a Good ROI <ul><li>B arcode   </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling Cost : ...
WHAT IS RFID ? <ul><li>RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>What is RADIO ? </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES </li></ul>...
RFID  是什麼? <ul><li>RFID  是  Radio Frequency Identification 的簡稱,一般翻譯為 「無線射頻辨識技術」 或 「無線射頻自動辨識系統」 </li></ul><ul><li>RFID  主要應...
RFID is  NOT  EAS <ul><ul><ul><li>Both of these technologies are a subset of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AI...
RFID Characteristics Can be read from and written to… Item attendant Data… One tag has a  Lifetime of  Around 10 Yrs… Chem...
RFID  技術原理 (RFID  系統組成 )
RFID Basics http://www.printronix.com/uploadedFiles/Laran_WhitePaper_RFID.pdf
<ul><li>Technology ‘Stack’ Consists of Four Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microproc...
RFID – Sampling Tags / Readers Sample Tags Sample Readers Stationary readers are typically deployed at warehouse portals o...
EPC Class 1 UHF Tags <ul><li>D / M Tag </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate Size: 95mm x 20mm </li></ul><ul><li>Low environmental...
E-M SPECTRUM ELECTRO MAGNETIC SPECTRUM LF  HF UHF  MICROWAVE  LIGHT  XRAYS 134 KHz 125 KHz AM FM. TV 13.56 MHz CELL RADAR ...
WAVELENGTH   FREQ   LF 134  kHz   HF 13.5 MHz   UHF 900  Mhz   MW 2.45 GHz   Wavelength (m) = Speed of Light (m/s) / Frequ...
RFID  技術原理 ( 頻率使用 ) <ul><li>Low Frequency: 125 ~134KHz  ( TAG 電力來源:電磁轉換) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short range; inexpensive; A...
<ul><li>RFID is not just RADIO WAVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires in-de...
Volume of Data <ul><li>Early RFID technology trials have established that the amount of data generated by pallet, case and...
How ready is your firm to operate in an RFID environment?   August 2004
How ready is your firm to operate in an RFID environment? January 2005
Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your systems?   August 2004
Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your systems?   January 2005
Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your supply chain processes?   August 2004
Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your supply chain processes?   January 2005
Do you believe that the investment your firm will likely make in new technologies, systems and processes will be worthwhil...
Do you believe that the investment your firm will likely make in new technologies, systems and processes will be worthwhil...
What are your greatest concerns related to acquiring and implementing RFID?   (Please rank the following with 1=greatest c...
How much would you estimate the cost acquiring and implementing RFID will be? <ul><li>Responses ranged from $75K to “Hundr...
ROI <ul><li>Suppliers less sure of benefits than they were a few months ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Many suppliers say a real r...
Read Rates <ul><li>Many users report that RFID read rates are currently below acceptable levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Rates b...
Progress Update <ul><li>Fifty-three suppliers started shipping cases and pallets with RFID tags to the Wal-Mart DC outside...
Software Requirements <ul><li>The volume of data, and the need for precise control and monitoring of RFID readers, require...
RFID Roadmap 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Followers Late Followers Early Adopters <ul><li>The number of pilots increases rapid...
EPC , EPCglobal and EPCglobal Network <ul><li>EPC ( Electronic Product Code )是 EPCglobal 所訂定的 RFID 編碼的標準,目前最新的版本是 EPC Clas...
RFID  資料標準  EPC (Electronic Product Code) <ul><li>運用  RFID  技術,在供應鏈提供資訊蒐集與分享之應用 </li></ul><ul><li>由  MIT Auto-ID Center  發...
GTIN  與  EPC <ul><li>例: GTIN-13  471   1240   12863   1 </li></ul><ul><li>EPC 轉換為 SGTIN-96  後為  30 . 6bits . 4711240 . 128...
EPC  的應用範例
EPC TAG 是一種半被動標籤,可主動與其他標籤溝通 。  研發中  Class 4 內設感應器的半被動標籤,更包含額外的感應器:可偵查溫度、濕度、動向變化記錄在 RFID 標籤,內建電池增加讀取距離。 重覆讀寫 (Read/Write) C...
EPC Class I - V Class V tags  Readers. Can power other Class I, II and III tags; Communicate with Classes IV and V. Class ...
EPC Class 1, Gen 2 TDS 1.3  2006/03/08
Tag Technology Passive Tags Power for transmission from inductive coupling, excited by reader and sends data Active Tags C...
EPCglobal Network  ™ 與國際接軌資料透通 EPCglobal Network ™ Secure Internet Exchange 企業  A EPC Middleware EPC reader EPC IS (Inform...
Case Study I <ul><li>Beaver Street Fisheries,  是美國最大的冷凍海鮮及肉品的配銷商之一 </li></ul><ul><li>初期導入是將冷凍魚、螃蟹與龍蝦的盒子上貼上具有 RFID 的標籤 </li...
Case Study II <ul><li>日本農業部  (Ministry of Agriculture) 進行的一項測試計畫 </li></ul><ul><li>將標籤張貼於每個測試的西瓜上面。 </li></ul><ul><li>消費者透...
Case Study III <ul><li>澳洲  Moraitis  公司,是處理農作物的批發包裝及處理的公司 </li></ul><ul><li>本計畫是針對處理蕃茄的紙箱 (Tray) 標示 RFID 做追蹤,總共投入 60 萬個 ( ...
Case Study IV <ul><li>日本迴轉壽司店做為快速結帳使用 </li></ul><ul><li>不到一秒鐘算出總共的金額並列印帳單 </li></ul>
Case Study V <ul><li>Maruetsu  是日本最大的零售通路之一 ,本計畫為建構其供應鍊的食物追蹤系統 </li></ul><ul><li>TAG  追蹤的標的是食物產品的  Item Level ,從出貨開始將 RFID...
RFID  系統資料流程 擷取  tag  資料 <ul><li>從  RFID reader  讀取 </li></ul><ul><li>tag  資料 </li></ul><ul><li>Tag  資料為一串代碼 </li></ul><ul...
RFID  解決方案架構 RFID Reader ( 位置  C) Tag  資料擷取   ( RFID Anywhere ) 1. RFID tag  資料擷取 2. RFID  網管 3. Tag  資料過濾 核心 資料庫 ( ASE ) ...
RFID Capabilities – Metal and Water Source:  Low Cost and Reliable RFID Tags for All  Frequencies ,  Kevin Chung, Ph.D. OP...
Standards and Regulations Summary Table Category Standard Identification  Cards  – Contactless  Integrated  Circuit Cards ...
RFID Markets  <ul><li>Distribution centres, </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Food distribution, </li></ul><u...
Example RFID  Markets RFID Delivers Newborn Security  Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital uses RFID to track the location o...
The Future of RFID and the Challenges - Applications <ul><li>The Electronic Wallet – middleware and security </li></ul><ul...
The Future of RFID and the Challenges - Tags <ul><li>Reducing the cost of tags </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul>...
The Future of RFID and the Challenges – Middleware and IT Support Structures <ul><li>Network Architecture </li></ul><ul><u...
Sokymat -  Putting Its Know-How to Work   The Swiss company, one of the largest tag producers in the world, provides RFID ...
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Rfid Will Have A Dramatic Impact On The Operation Of Global Supply Chains Over The Next Ten Years

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  • Rfid Will Have A Dramatic Impact On The Operation Of Global Supply Chains Over The Next Ten Years

    1. 1. Introduction to RFID
    2. 2. RFID Will Have A Dramatic Impact on the Operation of Global Supply Chains Over the Next Ten Years. Scott Lundstrom, Chief Technology Officer, AMR Research
    3. 3. Labor 55% RFID vs. Barcodes + - <ul><li>Higher Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Read Sensitive to Product Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Limited Adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Data Transfer Requires Line of Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Data Storage is Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally Sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>RFID / EPC </li></ul><ul><li>No Line of Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Large Memory – Data Moves with Product / Asset </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Data Reads </li></ul><ul><li>Barcodes </li></ul><ul><li>Low Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Broad Utilization </li></ul><ul><li>Human Readable </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>What is RFID ? </li></ul><ul><li>What can it do ? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is it used ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why all the recent hype ? </li></ul><ul><li>How to get started ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the REAL costs ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the problems ? </li></ul>
    5. 5. RFID BEGINNINGS <ul><li>IFF Beacon Radar - 1930’s </li></ul><ul><li>Civilian Air Traffic Control - 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Tags - Government ID - 1960’s </li></ul><ul><li>Animal ID - 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Ignition Immobilizers - 1980’s </li></ul><ul><li>HF Smart Cards - 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Open Supply Chain RFID - 2000’s ?? </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Business Case for RFID Returnable Tag Items Provides a Good ROI <ul><li>B arcode </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling Cost : 1.5 million containers in circulation, 2 cycles per week with random return. Therefore 150 million labels a year at a fully absorbed cost of around £6 per thousand - Say £400,000 per annum </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Cost : To affix 30 labels per minute, at £5 per hour - Say £400,000 per annum </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Costs : 150 million individual portable device scans a year, at £5 per hour. Say £400,000 per annum </li></ul><ul><li>Remote database maintenance Costs : Barcode is read only; dynamic data cannot be stored on the asset. Say £100,000 per annum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL £1. 3 million per annum. </li></ul></ul>-v- Effectively for FREE RFID offers greater functionality range, storage, use in heavy industry or dirty environments Typical Retailer - 400 stores, 8 distribution depots, 300 suppliers RFID Capital Cost: 1.5 million tags, for repeated use over a minimum 5 years, at 60p per tag Annual depreciated cost of £190,000. This is 14% of the cost of the barcode operation each year. A saving of £1.1 million a year! Source: http://www.intellident.co.uk
    7. 7. WHAT IS RFID ? <ul><li>RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>What is RADIO ? </li></ul><ul><li>WAVES </li></ul><ul><li>FREQUENCY </li></ul><ul><li>AMPLITUDE </li></ul><ul><li>VELOCITY </li></ul><ul><li>WAVELENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>ENERGY </li></ul>
    8. 8. RFID 是什麼? <ul><li>RFID 是 Radio Frequency Identification 的簡稱,一般翻譯為 「無線射頻辨識技術」 或 「無線射頻自動辨識系統」 </li></ul><ul><li>RFID 主要應用於 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>自動辨識物件 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>自動資料蒐集 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>非常類似於條碼 (BAR CODE) </li></ul><ul><li>識別的位元較條碼多,可定義追蹤物件 </li></ul>
    9. 9. RFID is NOT EAS <ul><ul><ul><li>Both of these technologies are a subset of Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These include biometrics, smart cards and bar-coding as well as many other contact and contact-less technologies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>RFID is used for unique identification </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a unique code </li></ul><ul><li>Code can be read by a suitable reader </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of storing a great deal of data </li></ul><ul><li>EAS does NOT have a unique identity </li></ul><ul><li>Limited in applications </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used for security </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly in retail for anti-theft </li></ul>
    10. 10. RFID Characteristics Can be read from and written to… Item attendant Data… One tag has a Lifetime of Around 10 Yrs… Chem/Temp/Physical Resilience… Anti-collision allows multiple Item scan… No line-of-sight required to read…
    11. 11. RFID 技術原理 (RFID 系統組成 )
    12. 12. RFID Basics http://www.printronix.com/uploadedFiles/Laran_WhitePaper_RFID.pdf
    13. 13. <ul><li>Technology ‘Stack’ Consists of Four Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor with antennae, memory encapsulated or embedded on substrate, active tags have battery, new technology includes sensors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readers (fixed and mobile): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excites tags (termed ‘inductive coupling’ passive only) and reads data encoded on tag </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savant / RFID Data Management Systems : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent controllers that filter, buffer and apply business logic to RFID reader data for transmission to business applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application Software: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business software which utilizes RFID data </li></ul></ul></ul>RFID Technology
    14. 14. RFID – Sampling Tags / Readers Sample Tags Sample Readers Stationary readers are typically deployed at warehouse portals or loading docks, on conveyor belts or forklift arms, on store shelves, check-out lanes, etc. Pallet tag, UHF (Matrics) Cardboard-case tag, MW (Matrics) Plastic crate tag, UHF (Rafsec) Stationary reader and antenna (Alien) Signpost activator (Savi) Stationary reader (Matrics) Handheld reader (Checkpoint) Doorway antenna (Checkpoint) Stationary reader and antenna (SAMSys)
    15. 15. EPC Class 1 UHF Tags <ul><li>D / M Tag </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate Size: 95mm x 20mm </li></ul><ul><li>Low environmental sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Low orientation sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Good for general use and liquids </li></ul><ul><li>U tag </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate Size: 99mm x 44mm </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest environmental sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest orientation sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Good for liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Squiggle tag </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate Size: 95mm x 10mm </li></ul><ul><li>Small UHF form factor </li></ul><ul><li>Very low cost UHF tag </li></ul><ul><li>High gain in controlled orientation </li></ul><ul><li>I2 tag </li></ul><ul><li>Approximate Size: 134mm x 13mm </li></ul><ul><li>Highest gain in a controlled orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Best for controlled environment & orientation </li></ul>
    16. 16. E-M SPECTRUM ELECTRO MAGNETIC SPECTRUM LF HF UHF MICROWAVE LIGHT XRAYS 134 KHz 125 KHz AM FM. TV 13.56 MHz CELL RADAR 900 MHz 2.45 GHz InfraRed Rainbow UltraViolet Cosmic Gamma XRays
    17. 17. WAVELENGTH FREQ LF 134 kHz HF 13.5 MHz UHF 900 Mhz MW 2.45 GHz Wavelength (m) = Speed of Light (m/s) / Frequency (Hz)
    18. 18. RFID 技術原理 ( 頻率使用 ) <ul><li>Low Frequency: 125 ~134KHz ( TAG 電力來源:電磁轉換) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short range; inexpensive; Access control, animal ID , automobile key-and-lock .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High Frequency: 13.56MHz ( TAG 電力來源:電磁轉換) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium range; Access control, Smart cards, library book tracking, airline baggage tracking, apparel item tracking .. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UHF:400 ~1000 MHz ( TAG 電力來源:共振) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long range, high reading speed; Toll collection, pallet / container management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microwave: 2.4GHz ( TAG 電力來源:共振) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line of sight; expensive; Access control for vehicles, Toll collection, harbor management </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>RFID is not just RADIO WAVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires in-depth knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chose the right components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consider the environment </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Volume of Data <ul><li>Early RFID technology trials have established that the amount of data generated by pallet, case and item tracking via RFID tags will be 100 to 1,000 times the volume that companies currently retrieve when using traditional bar coding systems. </li></ul><ul><li>About 50 percent of organizations believe that their current infrastructure can accommodate anticipated RFID data volumes. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 2005, Teradata announced that Wal-Mart’s data warehouse exceeded half a petabyte. </li></ul>Before RFID After RFID
    21. 21. How ready is your firm to operate in an RFID environment? August 2004
    22. 22. How ready is your firm to operate in an RFID environment? January 2005
    23. 23. Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your systems? August 2004
    24. 24. Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your systems? January 2005
    25. 25. Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your supply chain processes? August 2004
    26. 26. Do you know how the implementation of RFID will impact your supply chain processes? January 2005
    27. 27. Do you believe that the investment your firm will likely make in new technologies, systems and processes will be worthwhile in the long run? August 2004
    28. 28. Do you believe that the investment your firm will likely make in new technologies, systems and processes will be worthwhile in the long run? January 2005
    29. 29. What are your greatest concerns related to acquiring and implementing RFID? (Please rank the following with 1=greatest concern and 10=least concern) 2.8 5.9 2.0 7.8 Management inattention 2.4 5.0 0.8 6.3 System adjustments 2.7 8.5 4.5 5.7 Do not know “where to start” 2.9 6.6 2.9 5.3 Inadequate resources to successfully complete project 2.2 5.6 2.1 5.3 Required changes to current processes 2.7 4.0 2.5 4.7 Requirements are a “moving target” 2.6 3.9 1.9 4.2 Invest in wrong technologies and processes 3.0 5.5 3.0 3.0 Unclear benefits 3.0 3.5 1.7 2.7 Cost of technology σ 8-04 Mean 8-04 σ 1-05 Mean 1-05 Concern
    30. 30. How much would you estimate the cost acquiring and implementing RFID will be? <ul><li>Responses ranged from $75K to “Hundreds of Millions.” </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the respondents have little idea what the final costs will be. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost uncertainty is a concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly an area for additional research. </li></ul>
    31. 31. ROI <ul><li>Suppliers less sure of benefits than they were a few months ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Many suppliers say a real return on investment is currently years away </li></ul><ul><li>Ninety percent of those firms surveyed say that &quot;a timely and substantial ROI&quot; is a prerequisite for launching any major RFID initiative in their organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>A large portion of RFID investment is expected to occur during 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>A little over half of suppliers believe that RFID system deployment will reduce labor costs and boost process efficiencies in their firms </li></ul>
    32. 32. Read Rates <ul><li>Many users report that RFID read rates are currently below acceptable levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Rates below 70% are not uncommon with specific products/processes. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Progress Update <ul><li>Fifty-three suppliers started shipping cases and pallets with RFID tags to the Wal-Mart DC outside Dallas in the beginning of January 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart expects to have 108 suppliers shipping cases and pallets with RFID tags by the end of January 2005. The remaining 29 (out of 137) are expected to come online by the end of February 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart is on schedule to expand its RFID initiative to 12 distribution centers and 600 stores by October 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>In January 2005, Wal-Mart has installed RFID equipment in 104 stores. </li></ul><ul><li>By the beginning of 2006, Wal-Mart's top 300 suppliers will be required to tag cases and pallets of selected products with RFID tags. By the end of 2006, the retailer expects its entire supplier base (up to 20,000 suppliers) to be &quot;engaged in RFID in some form or fashion.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco is deploying RFID equipment across 35 distribution centers and approximately 1,300 retail outlets by Fall 2005. Tesco plans to implement more than 4,000 readers and 16,000 antennae. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Software Requirements <ul><li>The volume of data, and the need for precise control and monitoring of RFID readers, requires deploying customized middleware that links readers with corporate ERP systems and other supply chain infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Concern about overwhelming network loads likely to mean firms will implement middleware solutions to mitigate redundant volumes and excess reads. </li></ul>
    35. 35. RFID Roadmap 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Followers Late Followers Early Adopters <ul><li>The number of pilots increases rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>EPC standard Class 1 Generation 2 is published </li></ul><ul><li>European legislation on UHF is amended </li></ul><ul><li>EPC global becomes operational. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable UHF products become available </li></ul><ul><li>The first RTI pool organisers offer crates fitted with RFID tags. </li></ul><ul><li>Large retailers such as Wal-Mart and Tesco start a large-scale roll out, </li></ul><ul><li>The number of followers starting pilots increases quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Early adopters are fully occupied with implementation </li></ul><ul><li>The first followers start their implementations. </li></ul><ul><li>The late followers are also slowly starting the first RFID pilots. </li></ul><ul><li>Price of a passive RFID tag falls to 5 Euro cents. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers now occupied with implementation, followed by the late followers who had a relatively short pilot phase. </li></ul><ul><li>The first early adopters complete their RFID implementation with logistics applications. </li></ul><ul><li>In the years after 2007, interest slowly shifts towards item level tagging, but it will be some time before this is used. </li></ul>There is a relatively short window in which it is forecast that RFID will be adopted, however following early adoption a wave of implementation will occur Source ; LogicaCMG Pilots Implementation Fully Operational
    36. 36. EPC , EPCglobal and EPCglobal Network <ul><li>EPC ( Electronic Product Code )是 EPCglobal 所訂定的 RFID 編碼的標準,目前最新的版本是 EPC Class1 Gen2.( 之前已訂定 Class 0 及 Class 1 Gen1) </li></ul><ul><li>EPC 碼被喻為新一代條碼 (Next Generation Barcode) ,編碼結構延伸自現行的傳統條碼,在物件信息描述上,更為豐富、詳細,並更具時效優勢。 </li></ul><ul><li>EPCglobal Inc. 是由 EAN International 及 Uniform Code Council 共同組成之非營利組織,推動 RFID 全球運籌之共通技術標準與運作規範發展。 http://www.epcglobalinc.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>EPCglobal Network 是一個全球架構的資訊體系,提供 EPC 全球資訊的交換平台 </li></ul><ul><li>目前 EPC 支援的編碼 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIAI (Global Individual Asset Identifier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSCC (Serialized Shipping Container Code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAI (Global Reusable Asset Identifier) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GLN (Global Location Number) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. RFID 資料標準 EPC (Electronic Product Code) <ul><li>運用 RFID 技術,在供應鏈提供資訊蒐集與分享之應用 </li></ul><ul><li>由 MIT Auto-ID Center 發展 </li></ul>判定下列序號之編碼結構 識別負責維護下列號碼之公司或單位 (2.68 億 ) 辨識代表特定產品之物件種類 (1600 萬 ) 唯一的物件身分證明 (680 億 )
    38. 38. GTIN 與 EPC <ul><li>例: GTIN-13 471 1240 12863 1 </li></ul><ul><li>EPC 轉換為 SGTIN-96 後為 30 . 6bits . 4711240 . 12863X *( 註 1) . 38bits ( 註 2) </li></ul><ul><li>註 1 : ITEM 可比現在 GTIN-13 多編一位 </li></ul><ul><li>註 2 : 38bits 可識別 2748 億個 serial number( 建議分為三段 生產單位、批號、物件序號 ) </li></ul>
    39. 39. EPC 的應用範例
    40. 40. EPC TAG 是一種半被動標籤,可主動與其他標籤溝通 。 研發中 Class 4 內設感應器的半被動標籤,更包含額外的感應器:可偵查溫度、濕度、動向變化記錄在 RFID 標籤,內建電池增加讀取距離。 重覆讀寫 (Read/Write) Class 3 具可重複讀寫功能之被動式標籤 重覆讀寫 (Read/Write) Class 2 可供一次寫入之唯讀標籤 Wal-Mart 便要求供應商於 2005 年 1 月在供來的貨棧上,貼上 EPCClass1 標籤。 只寫一次 (Write Once) Class 1 提供在出廠時以制訂號碼的唯讀標籤。標籤在出廠時即寫入一組不可更改之號碼,提供簡單的服務辨識。 只供讀取 (Read Only) Class 0
    41. 41. EPC Class I - V Class V tags Readers. Can power other Class I, II and III tags; Communicate with Classes IV and V. Class IV tags: Active tags with broad-band peer-to-peer communication Class III tags: semi-passive RFID tags Class II tags: passive tags with additional functionality Class 0/Class I: read-only passive tags
    42. 42. EPC Class 1, Gen 2 TDS 1.3 2006/03/08
    43. 43. Tag Technology Passive Tags Power for transmission from inductive coupling, excited by reader and sends data Active Tags Contain embedded power source, e.g. battery, tag initiates transmission Class 3, 4, 5 Class 0, 1, 2 Type $10 to $20 ~ $0.10 to $10 Cost 2 to 7 years Unlimited Life 64 bites - ? 128 bits – 8 k Memory ~ 15 to 1,500 feet < 25 feet Read Distance HF (303, 433 MHz), Microwave (2.4 GHz) LF (125 KHz), HF (13.56 MHz), UHF (868-930 MHz), Microwave (2.4 GHz) Frequency Battery Inductive Power ACTIVE PASSIVE ATTRIBUTE
    44. 44. EPCglobal Network ™ 與國際接軌資料透通 EPCglobal Network ™ Secure Internet Exchange 企業 A EPC Middleware EPC reader EPC IS (Information server) ONS (Object Name Service) Authentication Authorization 企業 B EPC Middleware EPC reader EPC IS (Information server) 企業內部系統 (如 ERP… ) 企業內部系統 (如 ERP… )
    45. 45. Case Study I <ul><li>Beaver Street Fisheries, 是美國最大的冷凍海鮮及肉品的配銷商之一 </li></ul><ul><li>初期導入是將冷凍魚、螃蟹與龍蝦的盒子上貼上具有 RFID 的標籤 </li></ul><ul><li>長期的目標則是希望她的供貨商能將捕撈方式、捕撈重量以及地點等資訊透過 RFID 共享資訊。 </li></ul><ul><li>該公司循序的將 RFID 推展到盒子及棧版的層級 </li></ul><ul><li>在 2004 年該公司開始將裝有 RFID 的棧板及盒子運到 Wal Mart ,並獲得 Wal Mart 的推薦成為其他供貨傷的標竿。 </li></ul>
    46. 46. Case Study II <ul><li>日本農業部 (Ministry of Agriculture) 進行的一項測試計畫 </li></ul><ul><li>將標籤張貼於每個測試的西瓜上面。 </li></ul><ul><li>消費者透過手機裝置有 RFID 讀取器讀取 RFID 內存的資料 </li></ul><ul><li>標籤的上面則做為廣告區塊以區隔競爭者。 </li></ul><ul><li>標籤內則詳細的記載生產及運銷的紀錄。 </li></ul><ul><li>本計畫仍在測試中。 </li></ul>
    47. 47. Case Study III <ul><li>澳洲 Moraitis 公司,是處理農作物的批發包裝及處理的公司 </li></ul><ul><li>本計畫是針對處理蕃茄的紙箱 (Tray) 標示 RFID 做追蹤,總共投入 60 萬個 ( 年 ) </li></ul><ul><li>在輸送戴上面裝設固定隧道式 reader. </li></ul><ul><li>透過本系統,每天追蹤四噸蕃茄包含紙箱的來源、包裝時間、種類、數量及分級品質 </li></ul><ul><li>公司可以追蹤每批貨品丟棄的數量以及準確追蹤蕃茄的生產者 </li></ul><ul><li>在出貨的部分,員工使用手持式 reader ,確認出貨的對象及數量,與公司既有的資訊系統連接 </li></ul><ul><li>該公司分享相關資訊給上游的生產者,其他經銷商及零售超市通路 </li></ul><ul><li>在蕃茄分級時進行標籤的張貼識別 </li></ul>
    48. 48. Case Study IV <ul><li>日本迴轉壽司店做為快速結帳使用 </li></ul><ul><li>不到一秒鐘算出總共的金額並列印帳單 </li></ul>
    49. 49. Case Study V <ul><li>Maruetsu 是日本最大的零售通路之一 ,本計畫為建構其供應鍊的食物追蹤系統 </li></ul><ul><li>TAG 追蹤的標的是食物產品的 Item Level ,從出貨開始將 RFID 標示,提供生產者、批發商、零售商以及消費者均能查詢追蹤,品項包含了水果、蔬菜、肉品、魚以及加工食品 </li></ul><ul><li>相關的 Reader 則普及的建置於整個流程需要讀取的地方 </li></ul><ul><li>相關資訊平台則由 NTT Data 公司建置提供參與的合作伙伴分享 </li></ul><ul><li>相關資訊儲存如食品成分組成、產地、生產者的資訊以及流通的過程,甚至包含烹調的相關建議。以保障食品的安全 </li></ul>
    50. 50. RFID 系統資料流程 擷取 tag 資料 <ul><li>從 RFID reader 讀取 </li></ul><ul><li>tag 資料 </li></ul><ul><li>Tag 資料為一串代碼 </li></ul><ul><li>Reader 相關管理工作 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>設定 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>讀取或寫入 tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>觸發事件處理 </li></ul></ul>對應物件之實際資料 <ul><li>將 tag 之代碼轉換為 </li></ul><ul><li>物件實際資料 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>物件名稱 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 貴重設備品名 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>位置資料 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 教室、會議室… ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>出現時間 </li></ul></ul>寫入資料庫 <ul><li>將物件實際資料寫入資料庫 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>事後或例行分析 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 貴重設備借用情形及使用位置 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>即時事件觸發 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 貴重設備被移至不當位置 ) </li></ul></ul>資料分析 <ul><li>事後或例行分析 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>貴重設備借用情形 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>貴重設備移動位置 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>即時事件觸發 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>貴重設備被移至 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>不當位置 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>警示 </li></ul></ul>即時事件處裡
    51. 51. RFID 解決方案架構 RFID Reader ( 位置 C) Tag 資料擷取 ( RFID Anywhere ) 1. RFID tag 資料擷取 2. RFID 網管 3. Tag 資料過濾 核心 資料庫 ( ASE ) 動態資料複製 ( DODS ) 1. 將核心資料庫資料複製到資料倉儲 2. 支援資料分析系統 3. 降低核心資料庫負載 資料倉儲 及 決策支援系統 ( IQ ) 資料分析 (AP1) 1. 分析資料 2. 產生報表或追蹤物件 即時資料服務 ( RTDS ) 1. 事件觸發 2. 應用程式連接 Message Bus 報表、分析 RFID Reader ( 位置 B) RFID Reader ( 位置 A) 物件移動路徑追蹤 管理中控台 Web/XML 對應資料 完整資料 tag tag tag 區域網路 LAN A B C 物件位置警示 其他應用程式 … … … 資料對應 ( RFID Enterprise ) 1.Tag 對應至詳細資料 2. 完整資料輸入資料庫 a. Tag 讀取時間 b. RFID 位置 3. 相關管理 MQ
    52. 52. RFID Capabilities – Metal and Water Source: Low Cost and Reliable RFID Tags for All Frequencies , Kevin Chung, Ph.D. OPERATING FREQUENCY 13.56 MHz 915 MHz 2450 MHz (2.45 GHz) Wavelength In the FM frequency band 22m , near field effect Similar to the GSM mobile phone frequency . 33cm , plane wave Similar to WLAN frequency (ISM band) . 12cm , plane wave Tag to Reader Field Interaction Near field effect Waves circumvent around conductive substrate unless it is several meters wide and length Far field effect Waves “bounce” around conductive substrates in most substrates Far field effect . Waves “bounce” around conductive substrates in almost all substrates Water and Liquid Sensitivity Insensitive to water, snow and other liquids even when immersed Read distance greatly affected by water, snow, and other liquid either in front or behind the tag. Read distance is dramatically affected by water, snow, and other liquid. Reflection v. Absorption Transmit through surfaces and substrate that contain moisture and water . Circumvent small conductive subject . Reflection from conductive surfaces larger than wavelength Absorption on surfaces that contain moisture and water . Reflection and bounces back from conductive surfaces that are invariably larger than wavelength Absorption on surfaces that contain moisture and water . Reflection and bounces back from conductive surfaces that are invariably larger than wavelength Applications Can place directly on containers that contain water . Not subject to attenuation and thus read rate reduction when placed under substrates that contains moisture . Cannot be placed on metal surfaces . Longer read distance of several feet only for larger tags Cannot place directly on containers that contain water May be subject to attenuation and thus read rate reduction when placed under substrates that contains moisture Cannot be placed on metal surfaces . Longer read distance of several feet Cannot place directly on containers that contain water . May be subject to attenuation and thus read rate reduction when placed under substrates that contains moisture . Cannot be placed on metal surfaces . Longer read distance of several feet
    53. 53. Standards and Regulations Summary Table Category Standard Identification Cards – Contactless Integrated Circuit Cards ISO 10536 (ISO SC17/WG8) (1) - Close coupled cards ISO 14443 (ISO SC17/WG8) - proximity cards (2) ISO 15693 (ISO SC17/WG8) - vicinity cards (3) ISO 10373 (SC17/WG1/8) Identifica tion cards - Test Methods (4) Item Management ISO 10374 (ISO TC 104) - Freight containers - Automatic identification ISO 15960 (SC31 WG2/4) - RFID for Item Management; - Transaction Message Profiles ISO 15961 (SC31 WG2/4) - RFID for Item Management; - Ho st Interrogator - Tag functional commands and other syntax features (standard under development) ISO 15962 (SC31 WG2/4) - RFID for Item Management; - Data Syntax (standard under development) ISO 15963 (SC31 WG2/4 - Unique identification of RF Tag and Regi stration Authority to manage the uniqueness (standard under development) (5) ISO/IEC TR 18000 (SC31 WG4/SG3) - RFID for item Management; Air Interface (standard under development) (6) ISO 18001 (SC31 WG4) - Information technology - RFID for Item Management - Application Requirements Profiles Animal ID ISO 11784 (ISO TC 23/WG19) Radio - frequency identification of animals - code structure ISO 11785 (ISO TC 23/WG19) Radio - frequency identification of animals - technical concept ISO 14223 (ISO TC 23/WG19) Radio - frequency identification of animals - Advanced Transponders (standard under development) (7) Other standards IATA: (ISO 15693) (standard under development) UPU: &quot;contactless stamps&quot; ANSI MH10.8.4 (ISO TC 122) - RF Tags for Unit Loads and Transport Packages (U.S. TAG Project) (standard under dev elopment) ANSI MH 10/SC 8 (TC 122) - RF Tag for Shipping, Receiving, and Warehouse Management Applications (standard under development) CEPT CEPT/ERC 70 - 03 Recommendation 70 - 03, relating the use of short - range devices (SRD) CEPT T/R 60 - 0 1 Low - power radiolocation equipment for detecting movement and for alert (EAS) CEPT T/R 22 - 04 Harmonisation of frequency bands for Road Transport Information Systems (RTI) Radio Regulation ETS I (standard under development) EN 300 330 ERM: Short Range Devices (SRD) Radio e quipement in the frequency range 9 kHz - 25 MHz and inductive loop - systems in the frequency range 9 kHz - 30 MHz (8) (standard under development) EN 300 220 ERM: Short Range Devices (SRD) Radio equipement to be used in the 25 MHz - 1 GHz frequency range with power levels up to 500 mW (standard under development) (9) EN 300 440: Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); SRD; 1 GHz - 25 GHz (standard under development) EN 301 489 ERM: ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standard for radio equipment and services (standard under development) (10)
    54. 54. RFID Markets <ul><li>Distribution centres, </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>Food distribution, </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk waste disposal, </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage centres, </li></ul><ul><li>Airport freight terminal, </li></ul><ul><li>Harbours, </li></ul><ul><li>Access control in industrial areas </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain logistics, </li></ul><ul><li>Container handling. </li></ul>Not just Manufacture and Logistics! - This a multi-billion dollar market and growing!!
    55. 55. Example RFID Markets RFID Delivers Newborn Security Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital uses RFID to track the location of its newest patients and ensure they won’t be removed without permission. The same system is being used to track assets. ChevronTexaco Takes RFID Offshore A field test at one of ChevronTexaco's offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico provides insights into how RFID can be used in shipping/receiving operations. ChevronTexaco is now looking at other pilot projects. Tracking Assets from Prairie to Peak Within months of deploying RFID to keep tabs on its IT equipment, Colorado's vast El Paso County expects to soon recoup its investment. Airport Says Payback Is in the Bag When its RFID luggage-handling system goes online in January, the Hong Kong Airport expects to lower labor costs, increase capacity and improve security. RFID Revs Up Hummer Plant AM General needed to boost production of its Hummer H2 to meet demand, but its manufacturing facility had limited space for parts. The automaker turned to RFID to keep the plant humming. NASA Creates Thinking RF Sensors Low-cost wireless sensor networks developed by NASA can detect environmental changes and take action in response to what they detect. Now RFID is set to make them even more effective. RFID Gives Racing a Winning Edge Using active RFID tags, the Indy Racing League not only times and scores 16 events, it also provides critical data to drivers and race crews, and helps engine, tyre and chassis makers develop products. Soap Maker Cleans Up with RFID Canus, a maker of goat's milk soap, is deploying RFID to cut distribution costs, keep products from spoiling in transit and meet Wal-Mart's tagging requirements ahead of schedule. RFID Brings Order to the Law After a national law firm installed an RFID system to track legal files at its Boston location, accuracy in locating files jumped from 35 to 98 percent—saving tens of thousands of dollars in time spent looking for documents. Chip Maker Tries ‘Snack and Trace’ By using RFID to track shipments within its supply chain, KiMs, a Danish potato-chip maker, not only spiced up its sales but also cut the fat from its inventory and workforce. Source : http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/archive/4/
    56. 56. The Future of RFID and the Challenges - Applications <ul><li>The Electronic Wallet – middleware and security </li></ul><ul><li>Cradle to Grave tagging – standards and middleware </li></ul><ul><li>Source Tagging - size, cost and technology, mass production applications </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Pollution </li></ul>
    57. 57. The Future of RFID and the Challenges - Tags <ul><li>Reducing the cost of tags </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic RFID: They're not here yet and probably won't be available in even the 13.56 MHz range for another 5 years. But the technology to produce very cheap, useable RFID tags is getting closer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology, genomics, or even chemistry – quartz paper, for example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Access Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Multiple Access Techniques include CDMA – from mobile communications and possibly OFDM in the future – but expensive to implement, IFFT, DSP etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tag Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Tag Pollution </li></ul>
    58. 58. The Future of RFID and the Challenges – Middleware and IT Support Structures <ul><li>Network Architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be several orders of magnitude larger than the number of nodes on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer to Peer computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data is disbursed across one or more enterprises, and often across the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed computing techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will even impact upon microprocessor design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun Microsystems - Chip Multi-Threading (CMT) – parallel computing at the microprocessor level </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Sokymat - Putting Its Know-How to Work The Swiss company, one of the largest tag producers in the world, provides RFID solutions for three target markets: logistics, access control and animal identification. IBM - Bulks Up Its RFID Initiative Big Blue has made RFID a top priority, adding the technology to its manufacturing operations, rolling out industry-specific RFID deployment services and rolling out RFID test labs. Hewlett-Packard - Putting RFID Know-How to Work Hewlett-Packard was an early adopter of RFID technology. Now, the IT and computer powerhouse wants to put knowledge gained internally to work for its customers. ADT Will Monitor Your RFID Readers The security company wants to leverage the engineering and services units of parent Tyco Fire & Security to create an organization that can install and service large-scale RFID deployments. Escort Memory Systems Zeroing In on the Closed-Loop Since 1985, Escort Memory Systems has flourished by providing closed-loop RFID systems for manufacturing plants and industrial operations—a market that remains strong. Sun Microsystems Four years after becoming the first technology company to sponsor the Auto-ID Center, Sun Microsystems says its focus on network computing and peer-to-peer EPC platform will beat out the competition. Texas Instruments TI-RFid Broadens its Spectrum Texas Instruments has been a major player in the RFID market for more than a decade, but it watched competitors selling UHF systems steal the limelight. This Vendor Profile explains TI's new market strategy. SAP Takes RFID into the Enterprise The enterprise resource planning vendor's Auto-ID Infrastructure aims to help companies leverage RFID data. This Vendor Profile looks at SAP's strategy for using RFID to enhance supply chain applications. AWID: Accessing New RFID Markets Applied Wireless Identification, an access control specialist, wants to be a player in the market for RFID supply chain systems. It plans to develop custom chipsets for handheld and low-cost fixed readers. SAMSys : A Reader for Every Need SAMSys Technologies sells readers that cover the common RFID frequencies and protocols and fit specific applications, such as conveyor systems. Now it's educating the market about how they should be used. RFID Vendors - w w w.rfidjournal.com Source : http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/archive/6/

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