Retail Competition


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  • Retail Competition

    1. 1. Retail Competition and Strategy Retailing MKTG 3346 Professor Edward Fox Cox School of Business/SMU
    2. 2. Retail Competition Overview <ul><li>Types of Retailers and Retail Formats </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Profit Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Wheel of Retailing </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Positioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety / Assortment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Types of Retailers <ul><li>Type of retailer depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merchandise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variety (Breadth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assortment (Depth) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services, rather than merchandise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infinite Variations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Survival of the Fittest” - Formats must best satisfy needs of significant segment(s) </li></ul>Adapted from Levy and Weitz
    4. 4. Types of Retailers SIC System for Classifying Retailers
    5. 5. Types of Retailers Sales by SIC Category Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1998 Census of Retail Trade
    6. 6. Types of Retailers – Merchandise <ul><li>Variety (Breadth of Merchandise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of broad-line retailers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JCPenney, Sears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costco, Sam’s Club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrefour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family Dollar, Dollar General </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assortment (Depth of Merchandise) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of “Category Killers,” or specialty stores: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PetSmart, Petco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwin Watts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed, Bath and Beyond, Container Store </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Types of Retailers – Price <ul><li>Discount Stores – lower margins, higher volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart, Target, Kmart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Off-Price Retailers – lower cost merchandise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TJMaxx, Marshall’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factory Outlets – manufacturer outlet for out-of season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burlington Coat Factory, Off-Fifth, Nordstrom Rack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire outlet malls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warehouse Clubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costco, Sam’s Club </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrefour </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Levy and Weitz
    8. 8. Types of Retailers – Service <ul><li>Self-Service – Customer is on his/her own </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food and drug stores (e.g., Kroger, Walgreen’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Service – Available salesperson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most department stores, some specialty stores (e.g., JCPenney, Gap, Kohl’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Service – Salesperson assists the customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some department stores and specialty stores (e.g., Nordstrom, Nine West), restaurants, etc. </li></ul></ul>Self Service Full Service Retailer Costs Increase with Service!
    9. 9. Retailers of Services Adapted from Levy and Weitz Type of Service Service Retail Firms Airlines American, Delta, British Airways, Singapore Airways Automobile maint/repair Jiffy Lube, Midas, AAMCO Automobile rental Hertz, Avis, Budget, Alamo Banks Citibank, NCNB, Bank of America Child care centers Kindercare, Gymboree Credit cards American Express, VISA, Mastercard Education University of Florida, Babson College Entertainment parks Disney, Universal Studios, Six Flags Express package delivery Federal Express, UPS, US Postal Service Financial services Merrill Lynch, Dean Witter Fitness Jazzercise, Bally’s, Gold’s Gym Health Care Humana, HCA Home maintenance Chemlawn, MiniMaid, Roto-Rooter
    10. 10. Retailers of Services Adapted from Levy and Weitz Type of Service Service Retail Firms Hotels and motels Hyatt, Sheraton, Marriott, Days Inn Income tax preparation H & R Block Insurance Allstate, State Farm Internet access/Elec info. American On-Line, CompuServe Long-distance telephone AT&T, MCI, Sprint Movie theaters AMC, Loews/Sony, Universal Real estate Century 21, Coldwell Banker Restaurants TGI Friday’s, Wendy’s, Pizza Hut Truck rentals U-Haul, Ryder Weight loss Weight Watchers, Jenny Craig Video rental Blockbuster Vision centers Lenscrafter, Pearle
    11. 11. Focus on General Merchandise Retailers Adapted from Levy and Weitz
    12. 12. Focus on General Merchandise Retailers – Department Stores <ul><li>Competition from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discount Stores on Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category Killers on Assortment and Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible Competitive Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Costs By Reducing Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Sales (by Expansion, Acquisition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Strong Categories (e.g., Apparel, Home, Jewelry) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Private Labels, Exclusive Brands </li></ul></ul>A Decline in Mall Shopping Threatens Mall-Based Department Stores! Adapted from Levy and Weitz
    13. 13. Focus on General Merchandise Retailers – Discount Stores <ul><li>Big Three – Wal-mart, Target, Kmart </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from Category Killers – Toys ‘R Us, Best Buy, PetSmart </li></ul><ul><li>Possible Competitive Responses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to Reduce Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Focus on Apparel Because It Offers Higher Margins </li></ul></ul>… Except Wal-Mart, Which is Focusing on Food! Adapted from Levy and Weitz
    14. 14. Retail Competition Example MARKET FOR WOMENS APPAREL Source: Levy and Weitz
    15. 15. Strategic Profit Model Overview Source: Levy and Weitz Net profit x Asset turnover = Return on assets Net profit x Net sales (crossed out) = Net profit Net sales (crossed out) Total assets Total assets
    16. 16. Strategic Profit Model Detail Net Sales Cost of goods sold Variable expenses Fixed expenses Gross margin Total expenses Net profit Net Sales Net profit margin Asset turnover Return on assets - - + Inventory Accounts receivable Other current assets Total current assets Fixed assets Net sales Total assets + + + x Source: Levy and Weitz
    17. 17. Strategic Profit Model RETURN ON ASSETS Return on assets = Net profit margins X Asset turnover = Net profit X Net sales Net sales Total assets = Net profit Total assets Wal-Mart: $ 4,430 = 8.86% $49,996 Tiffany: $ 90 = 8.51% $1,057 Source: Levy and Weitz
    18. 18. “Wheel of Retailing” Retailers Change Over Time in a Predictable Way Source: Levy and Weitz
    19. 19. Retailing and Competitive Advantage <ul><li>Competitive Advantage - An advantage enjoyed by a given retailer relative to others in the market </li></ul><ul><li>General sources of competitive advantage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall cost leadership - can offer best value (i.e., lowest prices) or earn higher margins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation - unique product or service characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abercrombie and Fitch, Papa Johns, Sewell Automotive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow customer focus (niching ) - address wants and needs of particular customer segment(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Container Store, Hallmark </li></ul></ul></ul>Adapted from Michael Porter
    20. 20. Competitive Positioning <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Retailer’s competitive advantage(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Needs and wants of target customers </li></ul><ul><li>Current perceptions of the retailer </li></ul>
    21. 21. Competitive Positioning – Examples Convenience Away from Competitors Value, or Low Price Service; Ease of Shopping User Image Against a Competitor Wide Variety; Deep Assortment B A E D C H G F
    22. 22. Trends in Retail Competition <ul><li>Increasing Diversity of Retail Formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Category killers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercenters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blurring of Products/Services Across Formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft goods / apparel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Store Formats Make a Comeback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dollar store format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard discounters in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart’s Neighborhood Market format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increasing Concentration within Formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralization of Decision-Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and Communication Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retailers Go International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart expands outside the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retailers spread through Europe and Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-Channel Retailing </li></ul>
    23. 23. Trends in Retail – Blurring Formats <ul><li>Various Formats Now Offer: </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Services, Banking </li></ul><ul><li>Video Rental </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared Foods </li></ul>The Service Aisle, or Perimeter Departments, Are Growing!
    24. 24. <ul><li>Shoppers are much more likely to shop at multiple formats in a given week than to shop at grocery stores alone </li></ul>Retail Competition SHOPPING ACROSS RETAIL FORMATS Data Source: IRI panel of 589 panelists from Oct 1995 - Oct 1997
    25. 25. Retail Competition SHOPPING ACROSS RETAIL FORMATS <ul><li>Category by category, which packaged goods purchases are made in which formats? </li></ul>Data Source: IRI panel of 589 panelists from Oct 1995 - Oct 1997 Packaged Goods Purchases in Retail Formats for Selected Categories
    26. 26. Trends in Retail – Consolidation <ul><li>Discount Stores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart, Kmart, Target </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drug stores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walgreens, CVS, Eckerd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Office Supply Category Killers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Depot, Staples, Office Max </li></ul></ul>Consolidation increases efficiency and lowers costs Source: Levy and Weitz
    27. 27. Revenue / Margin % Portfolio CONVENIENCE STORES High Low High Low Gross Margin Percentage Sales Dollar Volume Frozen Bev Eggs Produce Bottled Water Sand-wiches-Frozen Frozen Food Auto Pckg’d Deli Other Fast Food Wine/ Liquor Cook-ies Ice Cooked Food Deli Svcs Sandwiches-Fresh Ice Cream HBC Hot Bev Juices Fountain Drinks GM Breads & Cakes Publications Groceries Salty Snacks Candy & Gum Milk Soft Drinks Beer Tobacco
    28. 28. Revenue / Margin % Portfolio GENERAL MERCH. DISCOUNT STORES High Low High Low Gross Margin Percentage Sales Dollar Volume Paint & Wallpaper Handbags/ Accessories Tobacco Pet Supplies Books Luggage Magazines Giftware Hosiery RTA Furniture CDs & Tapes Candy Jewelry & Watches Photo Goods Girls’ Wear Shoes Boys’ Wear Stationary/ Greeting Cards Infants’ Ware Consumer Electronics Sporting Goods Lawn & Garden Traffic Appliances Hardware/ Building Supplies Women's Wear Men'sWear Toys Kitchen/ House-wares Automotive
    29. 29. Revenue / Margin % Portfolio GROCERY STORES High Low High Low Gross Margin Percentage Sales Dollar Volume Spices Ice cream Milk Bread RTE cereal Laundry detergent Cookies Soup Foils, bags, wraps Pasta Yogurt Toilet tissue Tuna Spaghetti sauce Crackers Cat litter Rices Teas Ice cubes Facial tissue Bleaches Cooking oils Peanut butter