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Pervasive & Ubiquitous


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    • 1. Pervasive & Ubiquitous Computing Hao Chu ( 朱浩華 ) Lecture #1 2/16/2004
    • 2. Outline
      • Faculty Intro
      • Student Intro
      • What is Pervasive / Ubiquitous Computing?
      • Course Topics
      • Course Format
      • Course Projects
      • Grading
    • 3. Faculty Intro
      • New assistant professor (8/1/2003)
      • Education:
        • PhD (1999), Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
        • BS (1994), Computer Science, Cornell University
      • Previous Work Experience:
        • Xerox
        • Intel
        • NTT DoCoMo USA Labs
    • 4. Students Intro
      • Please tell us about:
        • Grade level
        • Current (future) research area, interests, and faculty advisor
        • Background (rating: good, fair, none)
          • English (reading, writing, and speaking)
          • Programming skills (C/C++, Java)
          • Systems (OS or distributed)
          • Networking
          • User Interface
          • Vision
    • 5. Terminology
      • What is pervasive & ubiquitous computing (ubicomp)?
        • Ubiquitous = 到處存在的 ; 遍在的
        • Widespread computing, computing appearing and happening everywhere
      • How to realize ubicomp?
        • Move beyond desktop computing.
        • Embed computing into everyday objects.
        • Integrate (seamlessly connecting) physical objects with virtual environment.
        • Networking everyday objects.
    • 6. Toward Smart Everyday Objects
      • Door can greet you by name upon entering.
      • Wall can sense temperature, humidity, lighting, and adjust air conditioning, de-humidifier, lighting accordingly.
      • Calendar can tell you meeting schedule.
      • Pencils can record everything you write.
      • Book shelf can tell you the location of the book/paper you need.
      • Newspapers update news (according to your interests) every morning.
      • Refrigerator can offer recipes and dietary recommendation.
      • Clothes can show the latest fashion or monitor your physical/mental health.
      • Medicine cabinet can remind you when to take medicines.
      • Dresser can give you fashion advices.
      • Washing machines and dryers adjust to washing & drying instructions on dirty clothes.
      • Credit card will warn if you are spending too much money.
    • 7. Ubicomp is the Future …
      • “ The (Computing) World is not a desktop!” ... Mark Weiser
      • Ubicomp is how computing will (should) be used:
        • in everyday activities
        • invisibly through embedding in the physical objects (requiring little user attention)
        • to create smart, everyday objects through interconnections and cooperation (with other smart objects)
      • “ A billion people interacting with a million e-businesses through a trillion interconnected intelligent devices.” IBM Chairman (1993 ~ 2002) Lou Gerstner
    • 8. Related Fields of Ubicomp
      • How does Ubicomp come about? (the evolution path)
        • Distributed Computing (PC + networks)
          • Challenges: performance, scalability, server or network failures, open networks, performance,
        • Mobile computing (Mobile devices + wireless networks)
          • Challenges: resource-limitation, unpredictable network, power
        • Ubicomp (Everyday objects + wireless networks)
          • Challenges: understanding user intention, heterogeneous ubicomp environments, invisible user experience, more ..
    • 9. Course Topics (Tentative)
      • Vision & challenges
      • Software infrastructure
      • Sensors
      • Context-aware computing
      • Security and privacy
      • Human experience
      • Ubiquitous data access
      • Coping with uncertainty
      • Social computing
      • Project Aura
      • Project Oxygen
      • (Wearable Computing)
    • 10. Course Objective
      • To prepare us ( students and faculty ) for research in ubicomp.
      • (Try to) duplicate experience from similar courses taught at MIT, Stanford, CMU, and Georgia Tech.
        • Learning by reading papers
          • Define problems & challenges
          • Understand state-of-art techniques & solutions
          • Identify limitations of state-of-art solutions
        • Learning by doing projects
          • The project must have a research component.
    • 11. Collaborative Learning
      • This is a research seminar course , so everyone (faculty and students) will contribute to the learning process.
        • Paper discussion
        • Paper presentation
        • Project presentation
      • Ubicomp is a new, fast changing field, so faculty may not know all materials!
    • 12. (Unusual) Course Format
      • Each lecture will discuss 4~5 papers on a specific topic.
      • For each paper,
        • Presenter will write a summary of the paper
        • Presenter will give an overview of the paper for 20 minutes.
        • Everyone will join the discussion for 10 minutes.
      • I will be the presenter for the papers in the first two lectures.
      • Students will sign up for papers for presentation.
    • 13. How to read a paper?
      • For each paper, try to answer the following questions:
        • What is the problem?
        • What is the current state-of-the-art?
        • What is the key make-a-difference (new) method and technique?
        • What is good/bad/ugly about this make-a-difference method?
        • What has actually been done?
        • What is the future work?
      • (This may not apply to vision & challenges papers.)
    • 14. SWIFI
      • We will setup a swifi website (collaborative website).
        • The assigned presenter must post presentation slides and paper summary on swifi course page before the lecture starts.
        • The assigned presenter will post a discussion summary on the swifi course page after the lecture ends.
    • 15. Next Week Reading
      • Mark Weiser. "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing." Communications of the ACM, July 1993.
      • Mark Weiser. “Some computer science issues in ubiquitous computing.” Communications of the ACM, 36(7):75-85, July 1993.
      • Mark Weiser, John S. Brown. "The Coming Age of Calm Technology." 1996.
      • M. Satyanarayanan. "Fundamental Challenges in Mobile Computing", Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, May 1996.
      • M. Satyanarayanan. “Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges”, In: IEEE Personal Communications. Carnegie Mellon University. (2001).
    • 16. Reading Sources
      • See Goyal list from
      • IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine (8 Issues)
      • ACM Ubicomp, ACM Mobisys, ACM Mobicom, ACM Mobihoc, ACM Sensys, IEEE Percom, Pervasive, SOSP, etc.
      • Can also be in any system & networking conferences, UI conferences, etc.
    • 17. Project Component
      • Do a rapid prototype of an ubicomp application in one semester.
      • Phase 1: project idea presentation
        • Fun, realizable within one semester time framework and computing equipments, has a research component.
      • Phase 2: project proposal document
        • Form teams, define goals, plan, and needed equipments.
      • Phase 3: project working prototype and final report
        • Working prototype demonstration
        • Project report detailing motivation, objective, related work, design, implementation, and evaluation.
    • 18. Project Ideas
      • References:
        • Georgia Tech “Mobile & Ubiquitous Computing” (Gregory Abowd)
        • MIT Pervasive Computing (Larry Rudolph)
        • CMU “Mobile Computing Systems & Applications” (Satya)
        • Stanford “Mobile and Wireless Networks & Applications” (Mary Baker)
      • IEEE Pervasive Magazines
        • Education & Training articles by Scott F. Midkiff
    • 19. Project Idea (1) Library Navigation System
      • It can guide a user to the shelf location of a book from a mobile device (shortest path to all books).
        • Indoor location estimation system
      • It can help a librarian find misplaced books on bookshelves from a mobile device.
        • RFID tags on books
    • 20. Project Idea (2) Ubicomp Games
      • Players’ physical context drives the games.
        • Players interact with the games and other players in both physical and virtual spaces.
        • Physical world interactions are the “cool/innovative aspects” (differs from PC-based games).
      • “ Hide and Seek” (Nottingham):
        • Runaways and policemen carry GPS-enabled cell phones in a city. Both can see their “approximate locations” on a city map. Policemen run around in a city to catch the runaways (caught if come within some small distance).
      • “ Ubicomp Doom” (MIT):
        • Game is projected on the wall.
        • No mouse and keyboard -> player’s physical movement moves the virtual player.
    • 21. Project Idea (3) Location-based Publish & Subscribe Systems
      • A user can use a mobile device to publish & subscribe location-based messages using a mixture of Ad-hoc, WLAN, and Cellular Networks.
        • The choice of network depends on attributes of messages (priority, time, byte size, spatial size) and availability of networks.
    • 22. Project Idea (4) Classroom Mood Ring (GATech)
      • Rings (worn by lecturer or/and audience) change color based on the mood of audience.
        • Provide hints to lecturer as to whether audiences are bored, lost, etc. (without asking questions).
    • 23. Possible Gadgets & Equipments
      • HP IPAQ 5500 (Bluetooth + 802.11)
      • IPAQ Accessories
        • Expansion pack, camera, memory card, GPS, GPRS, ..
      • Sensors:
        • Light, tilt, temperature, accelerometer, etc.
      • Philgets RFID kits
      • Berkeley Motes
      • Projector
      • 802.11 AP ( SW location estimation)
      • Use your imagination
        • Anything you can find on the network or from your own lab …
        • However, budget may be limited 
    • 24. Project Result Dissemination
      • Equipments & gadgets are expensive, so I am looking for corporate funding. In return for their $$$, companies may want to see
        • Reports made freely available to them & on the Internet
        • Working prototype demonstrations
        • Programming platforms may be restricted (e.g., MS)
      • Anyone has a problem with this?
      • These equipments will be on-loan to students.
        • You will return them to me in working conditions at the end of course.
        • So be very careful with them!
    • 25. Grading (Tentative)
      • Class Participation (30%)
        • Quality of paper presentation, paper summary, and discussion.
      • Project (70%)
    • 26. Course Requisites
      • Class attendance (MUST!)
        • Please don’t register if you cannot wake up in the morning.
      • Good programming skill
      • Some systems & networking background
      • Some creativity
      • Some research experience (if you are not my students)
      • Willing to spend extra time & efforts than what a regular course would need
      • M1 and undergrads, please come & talk with me after the class.
    • 27. Course Homepage (is not up yet.)
      • I will setup a link from my homepage
      • (Click on course link)
      • Check on Wednesday
      • Watch for Course Announcements
      • Download papers
    • 28. Thank you