Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Ngo Research Program
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ngo Research Program

645

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
645
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. NGO Research Program <ul><li>Collective action perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Theories from social movement and international political economy (political science) literatures—a largely macro perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Reason about NGOs as we reason about firms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As purposeful organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw on the non-profits literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The theories do not fit the focus very well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories are macro and focus on the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories tend to blend the positive and normative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should focus on interactions between NGOs and economic agents: What NGOs want and their strategies for getting it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The missing discipline is (micro)economics </li></ul>
  • 2. Microeconomics perspective <ul><li>NGOs as rational and strategic actors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents of social pressure—funded by and draw strength and influence from the public </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferences are different for those of firms—environment, redistribution, rights </li></ul><ul><li>Their business is eliciting change on the part of private economic actors </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in public and private politics </li></ul><ul><li>Most specialize—by issue (issues may be linked) </li></ul><ul><li>An issue is like an “industry” with suppliers (NGOs) and targets, consumers/public, donors </li></ul><ul><li>The institutional arena is public sentiment </li></ul>
  • 3. Microeconomics perspective (cont.) <ul><li>NGOs as organizations choose their capabilities; e.g., science, litigation, advocacy, harassment </li></ul><ul><li>They differentiate their product. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration—Environmental Defense, Conservation International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontation—Greenpeace, RAN, Global Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is matching—which NGOs work with/target which firms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do collaborators have to have in-house expertise; e.g., science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They compete in markets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For resources—funds, employees, members, volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For public credibility (the extent to which the public believes their advocacy/claims) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are successes and failures </li></ul><ul><li>An industrial organization of activism </li></ul>
  • 4. Research questions <ul><li>What do they really want (objectives, goals)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it economic efficiency? E.g., addressing negative externalities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it redistribution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a change in how resources are allocated? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How are they organized? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they raise funds and manage donor relations? </li></ul><ul><li>How does matching of NGOs and economic agents work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are targets and collaborators selected? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How efficient and effective are they? Which strategies are most effective and in which circumstances? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they effective; i.e., why do firms change their behavior? Are firms really vulnerable? Will the public act given collective action problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the public view NGO advocacy as credible and business advocacy with skepticism? Because of their objectives? </li></ul>
  • 5. NGOs as managed organizations <ul><li>What are the boundaries of the organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For what do they contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For what do they enlist volunteers; e.g., unions eliciting college students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What capabilities do they maintain inside the organization: scientific, legal, lobbying, climbing buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Internal organization, leadership, and agency relationships </li></ul><ul><li>What resources do they attract and how do they attract them </li></ul><ul><li>Performance—what do they accomplish with their resources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the return (financial and reputational) from a successful campaign? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which organizations thrive, survive, and fail and why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Governance structures and accountability (to whom?) </li></ul><ul><li>Carriers of reputations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenpeace and RAN have reputations that discourage collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CI and ED have reputations and expertise that attract collaborators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is credibility enhanced or diminished? </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Strategies <ul><li>Mix of public and private politics strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Target firms rather than citizens or governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little emphasis on educating the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many have abandoned trying to influence governments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mix of campaigns—corporate and market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing leverage; e.g., in socially-conscious markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get others to carry your water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs attack international banks; banks seek to avoid heat and obtain cover by forming the Equator Principles; lead organizing banks recruit other banks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of the media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To build own reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leverage through partnering/alliances/networks </li></ul>
  • 7. Anatomy of a campaign <ul><li>Campaign goals </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy and tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do and when do they do it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the media </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure and coercion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How far to go; e.g., harass a CEO? Break the law? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target responses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive; e.g., fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When to give up and redirect the campaign </li></ul><ul><li>How resolutions are reached </li></ul><ul><li>How outcomes are governed </li></ul>
  • 8. Anatomy of collaboration <ul><li>Who initiated an effort at collaboration? </li></ul><ul><li>Who accepted and rejected an invitation and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Was, and if so why was, trust present at the beginning? At the end? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the collaboration organized? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was there a common understanding? A formal agreement? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? What were the costs and benefits? What was learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Did the collaboration lead to follow-up collaborations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NRDC and Dow Chemical </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. What are the consequences? <ul><li>Of campaigns and collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in firm behavior/no changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>costs and benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NGO: externalities and redistribution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firm: sales and profits; i.e., did consumers or the stock market reward the changed behavior? Was a target penalized for not changing? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements and governance arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring and compliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dealing with unanticipated events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Induced (forestalling) behavior (in advance of targeting) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking cover—SFI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embracing CSR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How effective is the induced (forestalling) behavior in deterring a campaign or social pressure? </li></ul>
  • 10. What are the problems of NGOs? <ul><li>An inability to commit; e.g., does a timber firm want to get into bed with the NGOs sponsoring FSC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oneself—not to act opportunistically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others—that may target collaborators; e.g., FLA & WRC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are they coercive? Is coercion outside the institutions of government acceptable? What are the limits? </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting affairs through the media and in the absence of a deliberative consideration of the matter </li></ul><ul><li>Are they punished by the media and the public for their mistakes, inaccuracies, and exaggerations? </li></ul><ul><li>Can they handle monitoring and compliance? </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability to whom and for what? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should there be regulation? SOx </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Research approaches <ul><li>Normative (public economics)—which can provide a public good most efficiently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not-for-profits and NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the ascendancy of NGOs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why have NGOs turned to private politics rather than public politics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding campaign and collaboration strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the locus of campaigns and collaborations be predicted? Matches? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empirical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparative—across countries/societies/cultures </li></ul>
  • 12. Example: Private Politics Campaign <ul><li>Four year campaign by the Rainforest Action Network (RAN) against Citigroup regarding project finance </li></ul><ul><li>Citigroup weakened by a series of major scandals </li></ul><ul><li>In June 2003 Citigroup and 3 other banks (also under pressure) announced the Equator Principles for project finance—to protect ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>RAN (and other NGOs) praised the EP but stated that the loopholes were big enough to “drive a bulldozer through” </li></ul><ul><li>After 8 months of negotiations with RAN, Citigroup adopted a new policy going considerably beyond the Equator Principles; e.g., identified “High Caution Zones;” covered general corporate loans; no minimum project size; investments in sustainable development; supporting FSC certified forest products in emerging markets; no illegal logging </li></ul><ul><li>RAN sought and Citigroup refused public enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A signed contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Board approval of the agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Citigroup and RAN developed (evolving) monitoring mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citigroup quarterly shows confidential lending data to RAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus a “no surprises” agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcement limited to resuming the campaign </li></ul>
  • 13. Example—Fair Labor Association <ul><li>Participation (bargaining) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants—Apparel and footwear firms and NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-participants—unions and their allies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representation (on board) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants plus licensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legislation; e.g., revisions of code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supermajority of board </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promulgation of rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reporting—to FLA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent inspections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Board directives—comply with rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public disclosure—release of inspection reports by majority rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judiciary—hear and resolve complaints and disputes </li></ul>

×