New Applications Of Dyes In The Textile Industry

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New Applications Of Dyes In The Textile Industry

  1. 1. New Applications of Dyes in the Textile Industry Arvind Patel International Conference on Indian Dyestuffs Industry Hotel Hyatt Regency, Mumbai September 21-22, 2006
  2. 2. <ul><li>Overview – Global Scenario (Application of dyes) </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentwise application – Conventional dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Changing scenario of Textile Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Latest application techniques/New generation dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Features of few latest application techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Key points – Dyehouse management </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Structure of Presentation
  3. 3. Textile Dye Classes – World Market Size * Indigo, Azoic, Sulphur, etc.
  4. 4. Global Textile Scenario – Consumption pattern
  5. 5. Indian Textile Industry The Growth Aspirations Indian Tex. Mkt 2010: $ 85 bn Indian Tex. Mkt 2004: $ 38 bn Domestic : $ 45 bn Exports : $ 40 bn Domestic : $ 25 bn Exports : $ 13 bn Source: Asian Text. J., Aug’06
  6. 6. Segmentwise Application – Conventional dyes
  7. 7. Segmentwise application of Reactive dyes
  8. 8. Conventional Printing methods Source: I.Holme, Supplement to Colourage , 2006, LIII(4), 103
  9. 9. Textile Printing <ul><li>Characteristics of textile printing dyes (Reactive) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High solubility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low substantivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High print paste stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for short fixation method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional Printing processes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resist Style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer Printing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactive Segment: MCT dyes – Direct printing & VS dyes – Discharge printing </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment printing is much popular than reactive printing </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid brand dyes for Direct printing & Ink Jet printing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of solubility of MCT based printing dyes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Stringent Quality requirements led by export market </li></ul><ul><li>Higher pressure on Price – Trend towards high economy </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of Energy / Utility Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Shift of manufacturing from Europe to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Growing commoditization of Products </li></ul><ul><li>Modernisation, Automation & Re-structuring activities </li></ul><ul><li>Growing importance of Brands and Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Fast changing consumer tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Newer fibres and blends </li></ul><ul><li>Better RFT and Reproducibility </li></ul><ul><li>Shade accuracy and quick delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the technical support requirements by the user industry </li></ul>Textile Industry Changing Scenario
  11. 11. Drivers – Global Textile Supply Chain                                     <ul><li>Less Dyestuff </li></ul><ul><li>Less Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Less Water </li></ul><ul><li>Less Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Stock Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter cycles </li></ul><ul><li>RFT Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness </li></ul>Higher Productivity Reduced Costs <ul><li>Shade Reproducibility </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Eco-compliance </li></ul>Product Integrity
  12. 12. <ul><li>Repeated laundering fastness in presence of novel washing powders containing Bleach activators like TAED / SNOBS </li></ul><ul><li>Fastness to Oxidative Bleach Damage (M&S C 10A) </li></ul><ul><li>Light fastness (especially in pale depths) </li></ul><ul><li>Wet Light fastness (in association with residual detergent residues) </li></ul><ul><li>Perspiration / Light fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Cleaning fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Mercerisation fastness </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering fastness </li></ul>Critical Fastness Requirements
  13. 13. <ul><li>E-Control System </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Ink – Jet Printing </li></ul><ul><li>RFT Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Dyeing in Ultra Low Liquor ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Dyeing of Vat dyes in Soft-flow machine </li></ul><ul><li>Dyeing of Newer fibres & Blends (Lycra, Lyocell, modal, bamboo, soyabean, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid dyeing Disperse dyes </li></ul><ul><li>CPB dyeing of Knitted fabrics </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Sulphur dyes – Environmental friendly dyeing </li></ul><ul><li>One –Bath Continuous dyeing of Polyester / Cellulose blends (without R.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Pad – OX Process </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive dyeing – Perceptible shift from Hot dyeing to Warm dyeing process </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement of Vat dyes with Reactive dyes - achievement of Light and Wash fastness properties. </li></ul>Latest Applications / Concepts
  14. 14. <ul><li>High Strength Reactive dyes – Economical for Medium / Dark shades </li></ul><ul><li>High Fixation –Polyfunctional Reactive dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Non – Photochromic Reactive dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive dyes with improved Light fastness for pale depths (especially Red) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive dyes – Stable under repeated laundering with bleach activator containing detergents </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Reactive dyes at Neutral pH </li></ul><ul><li>Low Salt Reactive dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent Reactive dyes for fashion & sportswear </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid Reactive dyes for Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Blue, which can withstand Chlorinated pool water fastness </li></ul>New generation Dyes in the Textile Industry
  15. 15. <ul><li>Liquid Vat dyes for Pad-Dry-Cure application </li></ul><ul><li>Modified Pre-reduced Liquid Vat dyes </li></ul><ul><li>High Wash fast Disperse dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Alkali stable Disperse dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Disperse dyes for dyeing of Microfibre </li></ul><ul><li>Dyes for Ink Jet Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid disperse dyes for Printing </li></ul>New generation Dyes in the Textile Industry
  16. 16. Stability of Reactive dyes <ul><li>Under Alkaline conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorotriazine > Chlorotriazine > Difluorochloropyrimidine > Dichlorotriazine > Dichloroquinoxaline > Vinyl Sulphone </li></ul><ul><li>Under Acidic conditions </li></ul><ul><li> Vinyl Sulphone > Difluorochloropyrimidine > Chlorotriazine > Fluorotriazine > Dichloroquinoxaline > Dichlorotriazine </li></ul><ul><li>To liquor containing perborate </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorotriazine > Chlorotriazine > Vinyl Sulphone > Dichlorotriazine > Dichloroquinoxaline > Difluorochloropyrimidine </li></ul>
  17. 17. E-Control <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Step, Simple & Economical Continuous process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No unproductive batching sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal for short lot dyeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Wash-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A wide variety of fabric can be dyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid shade matching in laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Productivity due to short process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment friendly as no salt, urea & silicate are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft handle of fabric due to mild fixation conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration is minimised by rapid fixation & humidity control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No crushing of pile fabrics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved penetration of different fabrics - Presence of Humidity at high temp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very good Lab- to -Bulk & Bulk- to-Bulk reproducibility. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ink Jet Printing <ul><li>Why Ink-jet? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple technology and high quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing colorants can be used [Reactive / Disperse / Acid / Pigment] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly improving technology [Robustness, Speed ( >100 m 2 /hr.) , Quality (1440 dpi)] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing of innovative & unique designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No screens / Unlimited colours in a design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outstanding colour gamut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of Substrates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trend is towards digital photography (Home / Photolabs] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower start-up costs & shorter production times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter time from design to print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More design options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reactive dyes in ink-jet printing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purified MCTs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inks specially designed for existing ink jet head technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covalent bond gives excellent wash fastness </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Ink Jet Printing <ul><li>Requirement is maximum fastness through non-covalent interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Fastness requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlighter smear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving enhanced fastness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase size of dye [Water fastness increases with size] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH switch [Differential solubility between ink and water] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of additives for greater longevity of prints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current and future developments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographic media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for increasing light fastness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- New chromophores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Improve performance of existing chromophores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches [ Sacrificial groups / Physical quenchers / Physical protection] </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Raw material: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyestuffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Process Conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine parameters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquor ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time / Temperature profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyebath pH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrations of Chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dye / Chemical addition profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash-Off profile </li></ul></ul>RFT Approach Important Factors
  21. 21. RFT Approach THE BENEFITS OF Right First Time Technology <ul><li>FINANCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Costs per Batch </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Output </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Profit margin </li></ul><ul><li>NON FINANCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>Better Customer Service </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Effluent load </li></ul>
  22. 22. RFT Approach NON RFT – Impact on Process Costs RFT 1 Add 2 Adds Black Overdye Unlevel Off Shade & Unlevel 0 150 100 50 200 Relative Batch Cost 100 118 134 141 180 200 Dye Energy Water Chemicals Labour Fixed Drying
  23. 23. RFT Approach NON RFT – Impact on Productivity 100% RFT 90% RFT 80% RFT 70% RFT 60% RFT 0 75 50 25 100 % Machine Time % PRODUCTIVE TIME % REPROCESSING TIME
  24. 24. Popular Myths <ul><li>Severe Unlevelness </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation Marks / Streak Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Patchy Dyeing </li></ul><ul><li>Layer to Layer variation </li></ul><ul><li>Centre to Selvedge variation </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Solidity in shade </li></ul>VAT dyes on Knits (Softflow Machine)
  25. 25. Tips to achieve SUCCESS <ul><ul><li>Closed / Airtight Machines [Preferably HTHP Machines] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overflow Rinsing facility over normal liquor level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjustment of rope length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Cycle time (90-120 seconds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Strike rate / Method 2 dyes are preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyes with Low Reduction Potential are preferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better results with higher MLR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Cubic Metre free air requires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.7 Lts. (38 o Be’) Caustic Soda & 1.7 kgs. Hydros </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To check the presence of sufficient amount of Hydros frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure Perfect dosing profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More amount of Lubricating agent </li></ul></ul>Vat dyes on Knits (Softflow Machine)
  26. 26. High Strength dyes Special Features & associated Benefits Outstanding Tinctorial Strength Extra deep shades at lower conc. High Degree of Fixation Lesser Water consumtion Lesser Colour in effluent Excellent Fastness Properties Meets modern Customer’s Requirements Robust system / Good compatibility Achievement of RFT Results Easy Wash-Off Outstanding Wet Fastness
  27. 27. Strategies adopted by Colorant Manufacturers <ul><li>Growth in market share </li></ul><ul><li>- Work towards profitable growth – Quality business with a good return </li></ul><ul><li>- Strategic alliances in specific activities </li></ul><ul><li>Customer focus and innovation </li></ul><ul><li>- Apply dye technology development to improve overall dyeing efficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>- Offer high quality technical service </li></ul><ul><li>- Innovative business with a continual flow of new products and application processes </li></ul><ul><li>- Develop synergic improvements with auxiliaries and process chemicals (package approach) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and Quality </li></ul><ul><li>- Control production and distribution costs; manage the supply chain to reduce inventories </li></ul><ul><li>- Achieve rapid, on-time delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Global presence </li></ul><ul><li>- Improve and expand the marketing and technical service network in growing markets </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Have products and processes designed to lower the environmental impact </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Cost Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>RFT Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Upgradation </li></ul><ul><li>Improved quality </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced cycle times </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced lead time for delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Perfect Repeatability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable results satisfying critical fastness requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum machine flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>International competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Much reduced environmental impact </li></ul>Dyehouse Management Key Factors
  29. 29. Any Questions?
  30. 30. Thank You Very Much

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