Naspaacpa07 Matney Rullman


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  • Naspaacpa07 Matney Rullman

    1. 1. Emerging Trends in Student Civic Engagement Malinda M. Matney, Ph.D. Loren J. Rullman, Ph.D. Division of Student Affairs University of Michigan
    2. 2. <ul><li>Framing: the importance of civic engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Brief literature review </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan case study </li></ul><ul><li>Small group work around key questions </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>What Is in This Presentation? Moving from theory to practice
    3. 3. Some thoughts to ponder <ul><li>Is the activity we see on campus activism ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it about sustained social change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it about building community? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it activity or activism? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do we sort wheat from chaff in the literature? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it about “we” or about “me?” </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Higher education has historically served as a means of citizen preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Collegiate mission statements describe as a fundamental role the development of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Increased engagement leads to better public policy discussion and decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education settings offer students an arena to practice the skills of democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>College enrollment reached a record 17.1 million in fall 2004, and 66.7% of 2004 high school graduates are enrolled in post-secondary institutions: the future is in our midst </li></ul>Why Does This Topic Matter? Astin (1999); Caputo (2005); Chanley (2002); Curtis (2000); Ehrlich (2000); Hamrick (1998); Longo & Meyer (2006); Pew Charitable Trusts (n.d.); Sax (2000); Terinzini (1994);Warren & Curtis (2000)
    5. 5. What Is “Civic Engagement”? <ul><li>“ Working to make a difference in the civic life of our communities and… promoting the quality of life in a community through both political and non-political processes” (Ehrlich, 2000). </li></ul>
    6. 6. Areas of the Literature <ul><li>The Millennial Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Voting Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Community Service and New Politics </li></ul><ul><li>CIRP Trends </li></ul>
    7. 7. Characteristics of Generations Howe & Strauss (2000, 1991) 7-27 27-42 43-64 65-82 Age in 2007 Protected Overlooked Indulged Overprotective Type of parenting experienced 1980-2000 1965-1980 1943-1964 1925-1942 Date of birth Millennial Generation X Boomer Silent
    8. 8. <ul><li>Gravitate toward group activity </li></ul><ul><li>Identify with parent values and feel close to their parents </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time doing homework </li></ul><ul><li>Believe it is cool to be smart </li></ul><ul><li>Are racially and ethnically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Gender divide is narrowed </li></ul>Generations – Literature Comparison Common Statements about Millennials Howe & Strauss (2000, 1991)
    9. 9. <ul><li>Students have not had many opportunities to choose their activity or their group (Hofferth and Sandberg, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Parental hyper-concern delays student assumption of personal control (Marano, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Students spend less time on physical activity (Juster and Stafford, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Have high expectations of themselves and on themselves (Marano, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Are interacting less with diverse peers (Hurtado, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender divide growing in activities and opportunities (Juster and Stafford, 2004) </li></ul>Generations – Literature Comparison Recent Literature
    10. 10. <ul><li>Much was inferred about this generation in the media in the years before college. Parents and media projected their ideas and desires onto this generation. </li></ul><ul><li>We are just now seeing studies of Millennials as college students. We are now better able to predict behavior with real research evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>How Millennials behave as college students clashes with their parents’ marketing of this generation. This could translate into parents and others trying to author the future for these students. </li></ul>Generations – Literature Comparison Prediction about vs. Projection upon
    11. 11. <ul><li>Why: Voting is an instructive measure of social trends and political interest – the most basic of democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>What: Since 1971 voter turnout has declined across all age groups, but most among voters age 18 – 24 </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: “America is in danger of developing a permanent non- voting class” (National Association of Secretaries of State) </li></ul>Voting Trends - Importance Does Voting Matter?
    12. 12. <ul><li>Registered to vote (for presidential election years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1996: 79% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000: 73% ( 82% of older voters registered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 66% (Percentage of youth registered to vote dropping) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voter turnout among 18 – 24 years old </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1972: 49.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996: 32.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000 32.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004 42.3% (Turnout up but “share” of overall vote flat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overall voting decline 1972 - 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over age 25: 4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 18 – 25: 13% - 15% (Youth turnout dropping more than non-youth) </li></ul></ul>Voting Trends – Historical Data CIRCLE (2002); Federal Election Commission (n.d.); National Conference of State Legislatures (2003); U.S. Census Bureau (2002)
    13. 13. <ul><li>Students lack confidence in traditional government and social institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Students believe individuals who make up government institutions are not interested in what citizens think or say </li></ul><ul><li>Students believe individuals in government lack integrity and may be unduly influenced by special interests </li></ul><ul><li>Students believe government and traditional politics are irrelevant to their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Students feel the only way to influence society and create change is through informal means, rather than traditional political processes </li></ul><ul><li>But a reversal of this trending may be underway…! </li></ul>Attitudes – Thematic Summary 30 – year trend Battistoni (2000); Creighton & Harwood (1993); Longo & Meyer (2006); Levine & Cureton (1998); Young (2003)
    14. 14. <ul><li>Increase in voting, trust in government, and other forms of political participation among college students </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in community service – Moral idealism combined with political cynicism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>66% volunteered in the community vs. 10% on political campaign & 85% believe volunteerism is effective at solving local and national problems (Institute of Politics, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community service not as an alternative to politics, but as alternative politics: blend of personal and political while addressing public issues through community-based work (Long, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ We see ourselves as misunderstood by those who measure student engagement by conventional standards that don’t always fit our conceptions of democratic participation (Long, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising Alternative Politics (community-based, grass roots) – Examples? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living Wage Campaign (oral histories of campus workers and subsequent press, sit-in, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Activism/Boycotts (i.e. apparel suppliers, Coca Cola) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University investments in Sudan </li></ul></ul>Attitudes – Recent Trends
    15. 15. Case Study: University of Michigan
    16. 16. Politics & Protest
    17. 17. Keep Up to Date with Politics considered “essential” or “very important”
    18. 18. Discussed Politics “frequently” or “occasionally” during last year in high school
    19. 19. Participated in Organized Protest “frequently” or “occasionally” during last year in high school
    20. 20. Voted in Student Election “frequently” or “occasionally” during last year in high school
    21. 21. UM Political Orientation
    22. 22. National Political Orientation upon college entry
    23. 23. Citizenship
    24. 24. Student Volunteerism – High School “frequently” or “occasionally” during last year in high school
    25. 25. Student Volunteerism – Expected Chances are “very good ” that student will volunteer in college
    26. 26. Student Volunteerism – Expected Chances are “very good ” that student will volunteer in college
    27. 27. Becoming a Community Leader Considered “essential” or “very important”
    28. 28. Becoming a Community Leader Considered “essential” or “very important”
    29. 29. Civic Engagement CIRP (2005)
    30. 30. Small group discussion and brainstorm Does student affairs practice need to change radically?
    31. 31. Choose a question and go to that group <ul><li>Q1: Does Voting in Campus Elections Matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Q2: Current Popular Activities (i.e. Dance Marathon, Relay For Life) </li></ul><ul><li>Q3: Parents / 1960s-Style Engagement vs. Student-Authored Engagement </li></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Does voting in campus elections matter in the “grand scheme of things?” Should we care if voting levels are low? </li></ul><ul><li>Is voting a projection of “conventional” standards or values upon a younger generation and its own definition of what constitutes engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>Is engagement happening, but simply in alternative ways to traditional forms of student government? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we do about this? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this understanding apply to our work? </li></ul>Q1: Does Voting in Campus Elections Matter?
    33. 33. <ul><li>Are certain popular activities, such as Dance Marathon and Relay For Life, the “new student government? </li></ul><ul><li>Do these types of activities represent the new “alternative politics” or merely philanthropic activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Are these “arms-length” philanthropy that do little to change causal conditions and public policy? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways does this equal or not equal engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>What ethical issues arise as teachable moments? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we do about this? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this apply to our work? </li></ul>Q2: Current Popular Activities (i.e. Dance Marathon, Relay For Life)
    34. 34. <ul><li>Do Student Affairs professionals project their own (conventional) notions of what constitutes engagement upon a generation that defines engagement and democratic participation differently? </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is this true or not true? </li></ul><ul><li>How does understanding this shape our work with students and in support of student engagement? </li></ul><ul><li>What ethical issues arise as teachable moments? </li></ul>Q3: Parents / 1960s-Style Engagement vs. Student-Authored Engagement
    35. 35. <ul><li>What do we do about all of this? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this apply to our work? </li></ul><ul><li>Should it change how we work with students? How about their parents? </li></ul>Now What?! General Discussion
    36. 36. <ul><li>Bibliography: </li></ul><ul><li>Caputo, A., D., (2005). “A Campus View: Civic engagement and the higher education community.” National Civic Review , 94(2), 3-9. </li></ul><ul><li>Connor, J., S., (2006). “Civic Engagement in Higher Education.” Change , 38(5), pp. 52-58. </li></ul><ul><li>Ehrlich, T. (2000). Preface. In T. Ehrlich (ed.), Civic Responsibility and Higher Education (pp. V - X). Phoenix: Oryx Press </li></ul><ul><li>Keeter, S., Zukin, C., Andolina, M., & Jenkins, K., (2002). The Civic and Political Health of the Nation: A generational report . New Brunswick, The Pew Center for the People and Press & Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University. </li></ul><ul><li>Longo, V., N., & Meyer, P., R., (2006). College Students and Politics: A literature Review. College Park, The Center for Information & Research of Civic Learning and Engagement, University of Maryland: Working Paper 46. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenge, J., Campbell K., W., “Egos Inflating Over Time.” In Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Resources: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Campus Compact ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The National Forum for higher Education and the Public Good ( </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Center for Information and research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE) ( </li></ul><ul><li>4. The National Center for the Study of University Engagement ( </li></ul><ul><li>5. Project Pericles: ( </li></ul><ul><li>6. The Kellogg Commission, the National Association of State Universities and Land grant Colleges (2000). “Returning to Our Roots.” (https// </li></ul><ul><li>7. American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), (2002). “Stewards of Place.” ( </li></ul>References & Resources
    37. 37. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Student Affairs Research </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Student Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan </li></ul>For More Information…
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