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Mobile Search Presentation Mobile Search Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Mobile Search – Social Network Search Using Mobile Devices 1 st IEEE International Peer-to-Peer for Handheld Devices Workshop IEEE CCNC, Las Vegas, 12 th of January 2007 Mikko Vapa, research student, [email_address] With co-authors Pedro Tiago, Niko Kotilainen, Heikki Kokkinen and Jukka K. Nurminen (Nokia P2P Team) Department of Mathematical Information Technology University of Jyväskylä, Finland www.mit.jyu.fi/ cheesefactory
  • Background
    • Mobile phones' computational power has been improving approaching the capabilities of general purpose computers
    • Nowadays it is possible to host a web site on a mobile device
    • It is also expected that the number of mobile web sites will outnumber the static web servers
    • Recently, there has been a growing interest in how to explore the mobile phone capabilities in the web search context and how to merge them with existing phone functionalities [ Johan Wikman, Ferenc Dosa, and Mikko Tarkiainen. Personal website on a mobile phone. Technical report, Nokia Research Center, 2006]
  • Mobile Search
    • Mobile Search is a system for social network search on a mobile device
    • Prototype was implemented on top of Drupal content management system running on Mobile Apache/Raccoon mobile web server
    • Based on pure peer-to-peer architecture offers scalability, efficiency, resilience to failures and privacy at a higher degree than centralized solutions [ Choon-Hoong, Nutanong and Buyya, Peer-to-Peer Networks for Content Sharing, Peer-to-Peer Computing: Evolution of a Disruptive Technology, 2005]
  • Features
    • Allows executing searches to the contents of mobile devices using a web interface
    • Searches through social network defined by the addressbooks of the mobile devices
    • Manages access rights for different kind of contents (calendar data, photos, blogs etc.) using motto: “I only display what I want to who I want”
    • Can also search normal Drupal websites
  • New Search Concepts
    • Manual multi-hopping
      • Users search one graph level of their social network at a time usually starting from their neighbors
      • Every time a user issues a search query the mobile device forwards it to all the neighbors of the user
      • The neighbors answer back by returning a result set and a list of their neighbors
      • If the user who issued the query is not satisfied by the results he can always ask new results from the next level neighbors as long as there are non-visited nodes in the network
    • Automatic multi-hopping
      • A sorting algorithm decides which of the non-visited nodes are queried further thus avoiding the need for user decision
      • Automatically sorting the non-visited nodes leads to tradeoff between search accuracy and easiness of searching suggesting that both manual and automatic multi-hopping should be available for the user
  • Benefits
    • Compared to centralized web search engines:
      • Mobile Search provides access to rare personal data relevant to people close in the social network
      • The contents indexed by Mobile Search might not be referenced anywhere but still they are searchable
      • Real-time - Does not provide outdated links
      • Highly distributed, decentralized and no single point of failure
      • Mobile Search can utilize websites’ internal search functionalities
      • Search is executed within the limits of access control rights providing means to search non-public data (internal search among friends etc.)
      • However, social network search is not suited to find popular content
        • But, it's a powerful mechanism in restricted topic set environment [Mislove, Gummadi, and Druschel, Exploiting social networks for internet search, Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks, 2006]
  • Drupal Prototype of Mobile Search
    • Drupal is an open-source content management system for managing and publishing several types of content
    • Prototype is l ogically divided to local web search engine and metacrawler parts
      • Local web search engine is a search service, which manages the search index of the mobile device
      • Metacrawler is a search service, which uses other local web search engines for getting the results and combines different result sets into one
    • Metacrawler was built as a weakly coupled component on top of Drupal local web search engine
      • Features automatic multi-hopping and result interleaving
      • Differs from blog aggregators because content is being searched and a set of queried nodes is not fixed
  • Drupal Prototype of Mobile Search
    • Drupal tac_lite module and Drupal module were used as fundamental elements in the prototype
      • These modules allow setting content access rules and to process user authentication in distributed fashion without any central servers
    • An extra component that allows to do queries to local mobile phone content such as location, address book and meeting data was implemented
      • This feature was built as a simple proof of concept
      • However, the prototype is also able to gather search results from unmodified Drupal web sites
  • User Interface
  • Technical Limitations
    • The current implementation is single threaded because Mobile Apache/Raccoon web server doesn't support multiple threads [Wikman, Mobile web server - eurooscon presentation, 2006] [Wikman and Dosa, Providing http access to web servers running on mobile phones, Technical report, Nokia Research Center, 2006]
    • Single-threaded nature of the metacrawler is a drawback
    • This has a negative impact on response time because site crawling is done in a serial way
    • A multi-threaded implementation would speed up the system considerably
  • Future Work
    • Query forwarding/node sorting algorithms should be considered though in a different setting than previous studies
      • Algorithms like K-Random walk, Expanding Ring and hybrids using NeuroSearch neural network should be considered
        • Requires collecting some search usage statistics
    • Also one interest is the usability of search results, and new paradigms of displaying different types of information and user interaction
      • Web 2.0 may not be fully suitable for mobile device paradigm of interaction
      • This could also be an excellent opportunity to use a query language applied to this type of systems for example an adaptation of webSQL [ Mendelzon et al., Querying the world wide web, Int. J. on Digital Libraries, 1997]
        • Would likely create a bigger interoperability and homogenization in this type of systems with easier deployment of new functionalities
  • Future Work
    • Mobile Search can be extended by creating different ways of accessing the content, one entry point could be tags
    • Tags work as links between content categorized similarly
    • At each hop the user gets the list of contents tagged in a similar way by nodes in its neighborhood
    • Searching Portugal would give six results, but then the user might continue the search via Lisboa tag and finds the Trolley image
  • Conclusions
    • Mobile Search complements traditional web search engines
    • It gives the user means to explore the neighbors’ contents by traveling to the friends network topology
    • It covers a multitude of environments not covered by the centralized solutions
    • One of the main advantages in relation to current centralized social network sites is the possibility to manage the site without interference from an external entity
      • Currently in a normal social network site a user can only display or use modules made available by a third entity
      • With Mobile Search approach it is possible to merge different social network sites that cover different topics and create a social network "melting pot”