Market Share And Consumers
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Market Share And Consumers Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 15 Advertising and Public Relations Designed by Eric Brengle B-books, Ltd. Prepared by Deborah Baker Texas Christian University Marketing Lamb, Hair, McDaniel 9
  • 2. Learning Outcomes Discuss the effects of advertising on market share and consumers Identify the major types of advertising Discuss the creative decisions in developing an advertising campaign LO I LO 2 LO 3
  • 3. Learning Outcomes Describe media evaluation and selection techniques Discuss the role of public relations in the promotional mix LO 5 LO 4
  • 4. The Effects of Advertising Discuss the effects of advertising on market share and consumers LO I
  • 5. The Effects of Advertising
    • U.S. advertising was almost $300 billion in 2006
    • In 2005, 32 companies spent over $1 billion each
    • The advertising industry is small—only 155,000 employed by the 12,000 advertising agencies
    • Ad budgets of some firms are almost $4 billion annually
    LO I
  • 6. The Effects of Advertising LO I Top Ten Leaders by U.S. Advertising Spending
  • 7. Advertising and Market Share
    • New brands with a small market share spend proportionally more for advertising and sales promotion than those with a large market share
        • Beyond a certain level of spending, diminishing returns set in.
        • New brands require higher spending to reach a minimum level of exposure needed to affect purchase habits.
    LO I
  • 8. The Effects of Advertising on Consumers LO I
    • The average U.S. citizen is exposed to hundreds of ads each day.
    • Advertising may change a consumer’s negative attitude toward a product, or reinforce a positive attitude.
    • Advertising can affect consumer ranking of a brand’s attributes.
  • 9. REVIEW LEARNING OUTCOME Effects of Advertising LO I
  • 10. Major Types of Advertising Identify the major types of advertising LO 2
  • 11. Major Types of Advertising LO 2 Institutional Advertising Enhances a company’s image rather than promotes a particular product. Product Advertising Touts the benefits of a specific good or service.
  • 12. Major Types of Advertising LO 2 Corporate identity Pioneering Competitive Comparative Product Advertising Institutional Advertising Advocacy advertising
  • 13. Product Advertising LO 2 Comparative
    • Compares two or more competing brands’ product attributes
    • Used if growth is sluggish, or if competition is strong
    Online http://www.pizzahut.com http://www.papajohns.com Pioneering
    • Stimulates primary demand for new product or category
    • Used in the PLC introductory stage
    Competitive
    • Influences demand for brand in the growth phase of the PLC
    • Often uses emotional appeal
  • 14. REVIEW LEARNING OUTCOME The Major Types of Advertising LO 2
  • 15. Creative Decisions in Advertising Discuss the creative decisions in developing an advertising campaign LO 3
  • 16. Creative Decisions in Advertising Advertising Campaign A series of related advertisements focusing on a common theme, slogan, and set of advertising appeals. LO 3
  • 17. Creative Decisions in Advertising LO 3 Determine the advertising objectives Make creative decisions Make media decisions Evaluate the campaign
  • 18. Setting Objectives: The DAGMAR Approach LO 3 Define target audience Define desired percentage change Define the time frame for change
  • 19. Creative Decisions LO 3 Develop and evaluate advertising appeals Execute the message Evaluate the campaign’s effectiveness Identify product benefits
  • 20.
    • “Sell the Sizzle, not the Steak”
    • Sell product’s benefits, not its attributes
    • A benefit should answer “What’s in it for me?”
    • Ask “So?” to determine if it is a benefit
    Identify Product Benefits LO 3
  • 21. Identify Product Benefits LO 3 - So? Attribute Benefit “ Powerade’s new line has been reformulated to combine the scientific benefits of sports drinks with B vitamins and to speed up energy metabolism.” “ So, you’ll satisfy your thirst with a great-tasting drink that will power you throughout the day.”
  • 22. Advertising Appeals LO 3 Profit Health Love or romance Fear Admiration Convenience Fun and pleasure Vanity and egotism Environmental Consciousness Product saves, makes, or protects money Appeals to body-conscious or health seekers Used in selling cosmetics and perfumes Social embarrassment, old age, losing health Reason for use of celebrity spokespeople Used for fast foods and microwave foods Key to advertising vacations, beer, parks Used for expensive or conspicuous items Centers around environmental protection
  • 23. Unique Selling Proposition LO 3 A desirable, exclusive, and believable advertising appeal selected as the theme for a campaign. Unique Selling Proposition
  • 24. Executing the Message LO 3 Mood or Image Musical Demon- stration Scientific Real/ Animated Product Symbols Fantasy Lifestyle Slice-of-Life Humorous Spokes-person/ Testimonial
  • 25. REVIEW LEARNING OUTCOME Creative Decisions for Ad Campaign LO 3 Set advertising objectives Identify benefits Develop appeal Evaluate campaign results Evaluating results helps marketers adjust objectives for future campaigns Execute message
  • 26. Media Decisions in Advertising Describe media evaluation and selection techniques LO 4
  • 27. Media Decisions in Advertising LO 4 Newspapers Magazines Yellow Pages Internet Radio Television Outdoor Media Direct Mail Trade Exhibits Cooperative Advertising Brochures Coupons Catalogs Special Events Monitored Media Unmonitored Media
  • 28. Major Advertising Media LO 4 Newspapers Magazines Radio Television Outdoor Media Yellow Pages Internet
  • 29. Newspapers LO 4 Advantages
    • Geographic selectivity
    • Short-term advertiser commitments
    • News value and immediacy
    • Year-round readership
    • High individual market coverage
    • Co-op and local tie-in availability
    • Short lead time
    Disadvantages
    • Limited demographic selectivity
    • Limited color
    • Low pass-along rate
    • May be expensive
  • 30. Free Newspapers?
    • The new Baltimore Examiner is delivering 250,000 newspapers—at no charge and unsolicited!
    • Advertising brings in the revenue for this niche publication targeting households with income of $73,000 or more.
    • The ads are $2,900 for a full page, compared with $17,000 for its competition, the Baltimore Sun.
    • The Examiner is betting that low ad rates and the target market will be a valuable proposition to advertisers.
    LO 4 SOURCE: Joseph T. Hallinan, “Do New Free Dailies Mean Sun is Setting for Paid Newspapers? ,” Wall Street Journal, April 5, 2006, B1.
  • 31. Cooperative Advertising LO 4 An arrangement in which the manufacturer and the retailer split the costs of advertising the manufacturer’s brand. Cooperative Advertising
  • 32. Magazines LO 4 Advantages Disadvantages
    • Good reproduction
    • Demographic selectivity
    • Regional/local selectivity
    • Long advertising life
    • High pass-along rate
    • Long-term advertiser commitments
    • Slow audience build-up
    • Limited demonstration capabilities
    • Lack of urgency
    • Long lead time
  • 33. Radio LO 4 Advantages Disadvantages
    • Low cost
    • Immediacy of message
    • Short notice scheduling
    • No seasonal audience change
    • Highly portable
    • Short-term advertiser commitments
    • Entertainment carryover
    • No visual treatment
    • Short advertising life
    • High frequency to generate comprehension and retention
    • Background distractions
    • Commercial clutter
  • 34. Television LO 4 Advantages Disadvantages
    • Wide, diverse audience
    • Low cost per thousand
    • Creative opportunities for demonstration
    • Immediacy of messages
    • Entertainment carryover
    • Demographic selectivity with cable
    • Short life of message
    • Consumer skepticism
    • High campaign cost
    • Little demographic selectivity with stations
    • Long-term advertiser commitments
    • Long lead times for production
    • Commercial clutter
  • 35. TV Advertising: Is Less More?
    • The number of ads in TV shows is a longstanding complaint of viewers and advertisers.
    • The media is cluttered and consumers change channels or speed through commercials on a DVR.
    • Tests are being conducted to feature shorter commercial pods.
    LO 4 SOURCE: Suzanne Vranica, “TV-Ad Test to Show if Less is More ,” Wall Street Journal, April 5,2006, B3. Year Commercial Minutes per Hour
  • 36. Outdoor Media LO 4 Advantages Disadvantages
    • Repetition
    • Moderate cost
    • Flexibility
    • Geographic selectivity
    • Short message
    • Lack of demographic selectivity
    • High “noise” level
  • 37. Internet LO 4 Advantages Disadvantages
    • Fast growing
    • Ability to reach narrow target audience
    • Short lead time
    • Moderate cost
    • Difficult to measure ad effectiveness and ROI
    • Ad exposure relies on “click through” from banner ads
    • Not all consumers have access to Internet
    Online http://www.fox.com http://www.abc.com
  • 38. Alternative Media LO 4 Ads in Movies Interactive Kiosks Computer Screen Savers Shopping Carts DVDs Advertainments Cell Phone Ads Subway Tunnel Ads Floor Ads Video Game Ads
  • 39. Videogame Advertising
    • Microsoft plans to acquire Massive inc., a start-up that places ads in video games.
    • Ads are inserted into the game environment.
    • Video games could become a large new medium for advertising.
    LO 4 SOURCE: Robert A. Guth and Nick Wingfield, “Microsoft’s ‘Massive’ Move into Game Ads ,” Wall Street Journal, April 26,2006, B1.
  • 40. Directory Assistance Advertising
    • Companies are offering free telephone directory assistance—but there’s an advertisement first.
    • The audio ads are narrowly targeted, and are 10 to 12 seconds.
    • The growth of such free services could represent another change in the telecom industry.
    • Dial 1-800-FREE411 or 1-800-411-METRO
    LO 4 SOURCE: Rebecca Buckman, “Your Listing, and a Word From Our Sponsor ,” Wall Street Journal, April 20,2006, B1.
  • 41. Qualitative Factors in Media Selection
    • Attention to the commercial and the program
    • Program liking
    • Lack of distractions
    • Other audience behaviors
    LO 4
  • 42. Media Scheduling LO 4 Continuous Media Schedule Flighted Media Schedule Pulsing Media Schedule Seasonal Media Schedule Advertising is run steadily throughout the period. Advertising is run heavily every other month or every two weeks. Advertising combines continuous scheduling with flighting. Advertising is run only when the product is likely to be used.
  • 43. Media Scheduling on the Web
    • Competition for Web advertising spots is driving up prices.
    • Some Web advertisers now run campaigns based on time of day. Examples:
      • McDonald’s: breakfast meals during morning hours
      • Xerox: copier ads during the workday
      • Budweiser: beer ads on Friday afternoons
    • Scheduling Web ads during prime times is a more efficient use of ad dollars and more targeted.
    LO 4 SOURCE: David Kesmodel, “More Marketers Place Web Ads by Time of Day ,” Wall Street Journal, June 23, 2006, B1.
  • 44. REVIEW LEARNING OUTCOME Media Evaluation and Selection LO 4 Type: Newspaper Magazine Radio Television Outdoor Internet Alternative Considerations: Mix How much of each? Cost per contact How much per person? Reach How many people? Frequency How often? Audience selectivity How targeted is audience? Scheduling: continuous flighted pulsing seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall
  • 45. Public Relations Discuss the role of public relations in the promotional mix LO 5
  • 46. Public Relations LO 5 The element in the promotional mix that:
    • evaluates public attitudes
    • identifies issues of public concern
    • executes programs to gain public acceptance
    Public Relations
  • 47. Functions of Public Relations LO 5 Press relations Product publicity Corporate communication Public affairs Lobbying Employee and investor relations Crisis management
  • 48. Public Relations Tools LO 5 Product placement Consumer education Event sponsorship Issue sponsorship Internet Web sites New product publicity Online http://www.vw.com http://www.chevrolet.com
  • 49. Example of Consumer Education
    • Corporations are teaching public school students about personal finance.
    • People under age 25 are a fast-growing group for credit card debt increases and bankruptcy.
    • Is it appropriate to use educational materials with a corporate identity?
    • How should financial literacy be taught?
    LO 5 SOURCE: Diya Gullapalli, “Your Kid’s Teacher: The Bank ,” Wall Street Journal, April 8-9, 2006, B1.
  • 50. Managing Unfavorable Publicity LO 5 Crisis Management A coordinated effort to handle the effects of unfavorable publicity or of an unfavorable event.
  • 51. Biz Flix Ed T V LO 5
  • 52. REVIEW LEARNING OUTCOME The Role of Public Relations LO 5