Manufacture Of Textiles
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Manufacture Of Textiles Manufacture Of Textiles Presentation Transcript

  • Waste Water Emissions in Austria Michael Nagy
  • Contents of Presentation
    • Goals of Emission Indicators in Austria
    • „ Classical“ Policy Demands
    • Nowadays Policy Demands
    • Examples
    • Outlook
    • Conclusion
  • Goals of Emission Indicators in Austria
    • To answer national policy relevant questions:
      • Status
      • Trends
      • Forecasts
    • Fulfillment of international reporting exercises:
      • EU-Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive
      • EU-Water Framework Directive
      • EPER  PRTR
      • Eurostat / OECD Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters
      • ....
  • “ Classical” Policy Demands
    • “ Classical” indicators
      • Population connected to collecting system and waste water treatment plants
      • Waste water quantities (m³) discharged (urban / industry)
      • Organic pollutants (BOD / COD) discharged (urban / industry)
      • Nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) discharged (urban / industry)
      • ( Dangerous substances )
    • “ Classical” policy relevant questions :
      • What is the % of population connected to collecting system and urban waste water treatment plants?
      • Is pollution from urban areas and industry increasing or decreasing?
  • Characteristics of „Classical“ Waste Water Indicators
    • Focus on point sources discharging into surface waters
    • Policy relevant questions were related to the facts that:
      • pollution of surface waters stemmed mainly from point sources
      • big potential for improvement of treatment technologies and production processes
    • Indicators have been the basis for regulations on limitation of discharged pollutants (production sector specific), investments , subsidies and other measures
    • Indicators have been used for monitoring of progress and assessment of achievement of policy goals
  • „ Classical„ Indicator: Connection Rate to Sewerage Goal as defined in 90ies: achieved
  • “ Classical” Indicator: Treatment Efficiencies and Discharges
  • Nowadays Questions (Examples) with Policy Relevancy
    • Which measures (as e.g. required according to EU-WFD) are the most cost-effective ones?
      • What are the costs to reduce 1 unit of a pollutant discharged from agriculture / industry / urban areas / ....?
    • What are the socio-economic effects of measures (to reduce pressures on waters caused by pollution)?
    • What are the socio-economic effects originating from polluted waters ?
      • Health of society
      • Economic activities dependent from clean water: e.g. fishery, drinking water production, tourism,...
      • Other uncertain effects of loss of healthy environment
  • Characteristics of nowadays Waste Water Indicators
    • Better consideration of diffuse pollution  to consider ALL sources of pollution
    • Sector-specific aggregation  link with economic indicators
    • Goals
      • identify cost-efficient measures
      • assess socio-economic effects
      • monitor effects of changed production-technologies
      • ...
  • NAMEA-Table Austria („Butterfly – matrix“ on direct discharges)) ..... Economic indicators Economic activities Emissions
  • COD Emissions (direct discharges) COD Manufacture of pulp, paper and paper products (21) Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products (24) Sewage and refuse disposal, sanitation and similar activities (90) Households
  • Share of COD emissions
  • Nitrogen Emissions (direct discharges) Nitrogen (total) Agriculture, hunting and related service activities (01) Forestry (02) Households
  • Share of Nitrogen emissions
  • Chrome Emissions (direct discharges) Chrome Manufacture of basic metals (27) Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products (26) Manufacture of textiles (17) Leather (19)
  • Share of Chrome Emissions
  • Data Collection
    • A lot of „historically grown” data collections exist:
      • National Accounts
      • Every-day water management
      • National reports on the status of the environment
      • International reporting obligations (WFD, UWWTD, EPER,...)
        • Austrian Emissions Inventory: updated once a year with data from regional authorities (for each individual “significiant” discharger)
    • To further develop emission accounts
      • Demonstrate usefulness to policy makers (e.g. for purposes of EU-WFD)
      • Use already existing data collections as far as possible (usually legally binding)
      • Modify data collections (and their legal basis) where this is necessary (coverage, sector-specific aggregation)
  • Outlook
    • Emission accounts project in 2006:
      • Use of data of the Austrian Emission Inventory on Surface Waters (developed according to EU-WFD, covers “significant” point sources and diffuse sources) for NAMEA-Water Emissions (2004-2005 data)
      • Develop methodology for consistent time-series based on WFD-data
    • Overall goal: Regular update on the basis of WFD-data
  • Conclusion
    • Emission accounts are addressing nowadays policy-relevant questions
    • Existing data collection system is not very flexible – use of existing data sets as far as possible
    • Set-up specific data collections where necessary (e.g. Emissions Register)
    • Promotion of usefulness of (emission) accounts is very important:
      • discussion of costs and benefits of measures
      • discussion with different stakeholders (e.g. agriculture versus industry as polluters of waters)
      • monitoring of environmental efficiency
      • definition of policy goals
  • Thank you very much for your attention! [email_address]
  • MONERIS ( MO delling N utrient E mission in RI ver S ystems)
  • Data for Moneris
    • data of river flow (from gauging stations)
    • water quality (nutrient concentrations from monitoring stations)
    • statistical data about nutrient inputs into the catchment
    • geographical data (stored and analysed in a Geographic Information System (GIS)
    • If contacts to developers of Moneris and further background material are needed  send me an email: nagym@un.org
  • Other relevant information on diffuse emissions
    • European Harmonised Procedures for Quantification of Nutrient Losses from Diffuse Sources - EUROHARP
    • Web: http://euroharp.org/index.htm