Making Knowledge Work For You


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  • Making Knowledge Work For You

    1. 1. Making Knowledge Work for You OERU/OECS Workshop on Knowledge Management 5 June, 2003 Presented by: Galina Arkusinski and Veronica Grigera, World Bank
    2. 2. <ul><li>Professor Story </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let these who know tell those who don’t know” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>What is Knowledge Management (KM)? </li></ul><ul><li>Steps and elements of an effective KM System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation and Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean for you? </li></ul>
    4. 4. What is Knowledge Management? <ul><li>No single definition of Knowledge Management </li></ul><ul><li>KM is a people process , the way we work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Capture & Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Sharing & Dissemination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application  Learning  Knowledge Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information vs. Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tacit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>What Are Some Ways in Which We Capture & Share Knowledge? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Ways in Which We Capture and Share Knowledge? <ul><li>Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minutes of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proceedings from conferences or other events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repositories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filing/Records Management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web content databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning events/training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face/meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why Manage and Share Knowledge? <ul><li>A bit of KM history - Idea of Sharing Knowledge is not new; Private sector budget cuts and staff retirement; Growing competition; Need to do more with less </li></ul><ul><li>Build on experiences - Enable subsequent practitioners and decision makers to build on earlier experiences; Work “smarter” not necessarily harder, finding innovative ways of doing business </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid repetitive mistakes - Use lessons learned and good practices resulting in improved quality </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate costly rework – Reuse knowledge and information, No re-inventing the wheel; Less redundancy resulting in greater efficiency and time saving/faster turnaround </li></ul>
    8. 8. Steps to Creating a KM System <ul><li>Get Started </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessments (clients/audience - who creates knowledge and who needs it, Knowledge Inventory, IT infrastructure assessment) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop Strategy and Action Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives, deliverables, timeline, responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and Evaluation/Indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design and Launch KM Initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: OERU Website, OERU Newsletter, OERU Advisory Service, ICT TAC collaboration, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expand and Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale up pilots with the help of suitable technology and ensure adequate support and recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutionalize KM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate, replicate, integrate/standardize across institution </li></ul></ul>Source: APQC
    9. 9. Elements of an Effective KM System <ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory service </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pubs, library & records mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Enablers </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy, policy, guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>M&E system </li></ul><ul><li>IT infrastructure & Training </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding business processes and workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Audience understanding & targeted communicat. </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Mgmt (recognition) </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Stakeholder buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and change management– sharing and teamwork (change is a result of KS) </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>See “ Why should we share knowledge ?” </li></ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>See ”Ways in which we capture and share knowledge and information ” </li></ul>
    10. 10. Website: Strategy and Functions <ul><li>Why do we share through the web? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide information and create awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To support strategy and organizational objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To influence audience behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desired functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization and compliance - efficiencies and consistent user experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater functionality - what’s new, cross-referencing, dynamic views, launch first attachment, search, print-friendly version, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User friendliness - logical left navigation, crumb trail, pop ups for foreign links, Contact Us, context, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Web: Some Lessons Learned <ul><li>Not every document belongs on the web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use the web as a strategic tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make large documents web-ready </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiology works against us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary reflex and eye strain, nausea, inability to adjust font </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web content should be in web-ready format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brief text - first 11 seconds are critical (incl. the time it takes to load graphics) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>scannable format (79% of users scan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eye tracking consideration (center and left) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users value content and speed more than graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>know your audience, provide relevant content, and use appropriate language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a stale site is a big turn off for the user, update your site on a regular basis </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Web Strategy: Good Practice <ul><li>Develop web strategy, guidelines and monitoring and evaluation system </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate stand alone websites and web-based applications into one system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization for technical and support efficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform guidelines (with some degree of flexibility) for consistent user experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared training and lessons learned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate resources to sustain and ensure quality (web manager, web content specialist, work plan, training) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Communities of Practice: Strategy and Functions A group of professionals… <ul><ul><li>with common problems, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with common pursuit of solutions, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>themselves embodying a store of knowledge. </li></ul></ul>OERU Leadership & Facilitation Sub-Regional Wider Community TACs Thematic Groups
    14. 14. Communities of Practice: Lessons Learned <ul><li>Strategy, Coordination and Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for strategy and functioning, responsive governing structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure must be flexible and accommodating to changing needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For effective activity, need for leadership, nurturing & stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Tools, Incentives and Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to provide the ‘right’ mechanism for people to people information sharing through workshops, meetings, electronic means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to identify knowledge champions and leaders and recognize them for their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to encourage participation and ownership </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Advisory Service: Purpose <ul><li>To improve the quality of projects by </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating the sharing and exchange of knowledge and ideas through effective, just-in-time, customized pro-active and re-active information sharing activities . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Advisory Service: Functions <ul><li>Provides just enough and just-in-time information and acts as a one-stop-shop for information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as the hub and main contact point of information and provides human interface to KM activities </li></ul><ul><li>Systematically shares and disseminates information and current events in a customized fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Provides answers to your questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulls together responses from various information sources & experts in the filed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathers experience and tacit knowledge from a range of experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the interactions with clients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitates the development of knowledge resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures knowledge from answered questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packages and organizes them for future re-use </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Advisory Service: Activity Advisory Service Request from Client Advisory Service shares request with appropriate experts, thematic group and conducts research on appropriated databases Resources are pulled together by Thematic Groups and Advisory Service and response is formulated Advisory Service responds to client and provides just enough information, just in time… Knowledge from responses is synthesized and stored for re-use
    18. 18. Advisory Service: Lessons Learned <ul><li>Provide the Human Touch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a human contact one-stop-shop for clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide excellent customer service and market service to priority clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on high quality/timely response & trust , build a relationship with clients; they will be the ones helping with future requests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain good relationship with experts, communities of practice & management ; helps provide best quality response and keeps you up to date </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide the right type of service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop centralized service of knowledge dissemination & management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service staff must have sectoral knowledge & excellent researchers skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from giving fish to giving fishing lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a tracking system that captures and tracks request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and synthesize knowledge for reuse and use the web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use mechanism for monitoring & evaluation of services; share results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuously develop service and participate in larger KM activities & communities of practice </li></ul>
    19. 19. Advisory Service: Good Practice <ul><li>Management support with good understanding of purpose and role for advisory service </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of client needs and how to best connect with them </li></ul><ul><li>Build and maintain trust and legitimacy from clients </li></ul><ul><li>Responsive staff with sectoral expertise and customer service orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate tools such as an effective tracking mechanism, library services, access to information, support for change from mgmt. and effective use of web </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate organization and space with a meeting area </li></ul><ul><li>Effective networking and outreach activities </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone of service are the thematic groups, experts and knowledge creators </li></ul>
    20. 20. Thursday afternoon, Country Director Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala calls urgently requesting specific data and examples on unit costs in Tertiary Education, cost recovery and innovative fund-raising methods in Tertiary Education for a Monday presentation to the Minister of Education, Nigeria. Without, electronic access from mission she needs hard copies of all data to be faxed. The EAS identifies relevant World Bank staff, launches request and coordinates response for urgent query. World Bank Education Anchor World Bank Sectoral IT and Resource Center World Bank DECDG 1. DECDG gathers additional research for Ngozi 2. Additionally, DECDG pouches to Ngozi a copy of the World Development Indicators CD, a hard copy of the WDI, and other WDI related information 1. Sectoral colleagues provide data on Expenditure by level of education as a percent of GDP for UK, USA, Indonesia, France, Brazil and Malaysia 1. The EAS researches data and statistical tables through SIMA 2. Economics of Education team provides cost recovery information and examples of innovative funding raising methods 2. Sectoral provides cost recovery information found through a search of JOLIS, ERIC database, UNESBIB, etc. 3. Sectoral copies key portions of relevant publications and EAS compiles information 3. The EdStats team sends data tables on four education indicators Example of Urgent Request Assistance in the Field
    21. 21. Dean Nielsen contacts the Education Advisory Service for assistance in helping East Timorese officials concerning the development of language policy. The EAS contacts Bank Education staff as well as colleagues in other institutions with experience in language policy and education systems. World Bank Education Anchor World Bank Task Managers Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) 1. Sends query to SIL staff around the World 2. Connects Dean to Mozambican colleague in MoE who produces further research 3. Summarizes the use of local language in various African countries 1.Task Manager who worked in Mozambique agrees to share experience 1. Provides 5 contacts with expertise in developing Portuguese learning materials 1. Responds with examples from the Former Soviet Union 2. Refers Dean to Soros Foundation and Peace Corps 3. Provides information on literacy and basic education in Mozambique 2. Contacts Cape Verdean colleague working in literacy and adult education 2. Experts who worked on post-conflict language policy transitions in Ethiopia and Namibia share their experience 4. Connects Dean to linguistic anthropologists in West Timor who further assist him on the ground 4. Provides a policy matrix and tool for choosing between mother-tongue, sub-national and language of wider communication Timor Leste Story Example of far-reaching collaboration
    22. 22. KM Implementation: What Have we Learned? <ul><li>The Role of Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for collaboration, coordination and management support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for adequate time and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for change management and implementation strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for measurement/evaluation and early demonstrated results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Role of Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of effective client needs, Knowledge, IT/Web Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a separate initiative but how we work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is demand-driven and should be built in line with the workflow and business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A blueprint approach does not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture or IT should not be tackled first </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Successful Implementation: What should we focus on? <ul><li>Business processes and people </li></ul><ul><li>Use methods that work in your specific environment and framework </li></ul><ul><li>Partner with IT </li></ul><ul><li>Measure and demonstrate results early and gain trust </li></ul><ul><li>Apply lessons learned in KM Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Have a flexible structure that is responsive to client needs </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize success and reward it </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage participation and sense of ownership </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>Wise Man Story </li></ul><ul><li>“ The answer to this question, my dear friends, is in your very own hands” </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>Read the Following Case Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ayuda Urbana: Creating Communities on Urban Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divide Participants into 4 Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Have Each Group respond to the following Questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate Discussion with Each Group responding to one of the posed Questions </li></ul>CASE STUDY Ayuda Urbana: Creating Communities on Urban Issues <ul><li>Facilitated Discussion of KM Case Study- Ayuda Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Read the following case study and as a group take a couple of minutes to </li></ul><ul><li>discuss and respond the following questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What elements of KM did the Ayuda Urbana Case Study develop? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why were they successful? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What else could they have done? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is this case study relevant to you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share examples of successful KM practices you have been involved with. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. CASE STUDY Ayuda Urbana: Communities on Urban Issues <ul><li>Responding to client need Urban development policies in Central America and the Caribbean are critical for millions of people who live in hundreds of crowded cities. The quality of transportation, water and sanitation, social services, and more depends largely on the ability of local urban officials to analyze problems using information from reliable sources and to learn from the experiences of their counterparts in other cities in the region. However, getting relevant and timely information and establishing a dialogue with others present difficult challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ayuda Urbana initiative is a direct response to these challenges. By linking staff at municipal governments in Guatemala City, Panama City, Havana, Managua, Mexico City, San Jose, San Salvador, San Juan, Santo Domingo, and Tegucigalpa, it serves as a forum for sharing knowledge on pressing urban issues and priorities. What distinguishes Ayuda Urbana from other programs is that it originated from a request made in early-2000 by several mayors in the Central American and Caribbean region who recognized the value of collaboration across borders in addressing problems in their cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating vital communities of practice How does Ayuda Urbana facilitate knowledge sharing? What is its focus? How has it created communities of practice? Ayuda Urbana comprises dozens of practitioners specializing in various aspects of urban planning and management in the above cities. While the World Bank played a significant role in convening and guiding the preliminary discussions, the mayors and their staff themselves chose the eight topics of most concern to them: e-government, urban upgrading, environmental sanitation, municipal finance, urban transportation, the renovation of historical city centers and poverty alleviation, disaster management, and integrated urban development. Members of Ayuda Urbana share knowledge in the following ways: </li></ul>
    27. 27. Ayuda Urbana: Communities on Urban Issues (Continued) <ul><li>Workshops: Every 2-3 months, several staff from each municipal government and, depending on the topic, representatives from local non-governmental organizations meet to exchange experiences on one of the eight topics. The priority is on inviting those staff with expertise on that particular topic. Content experts from the World Bank also have participated. During each workshop, participants choose a facilitator who puts together resources on the topic and disseminates them to the group using the website and email. </li></ul><ul><li>Website: A prominent feature of Ayuda Urbana an interactive website that complements the face-to-face workshops by serving as a repository of key documents selected by members for their suitability to their needs. It also acts as a portal to the websites of the member municipalities. In addition, the website provides access to a help desk that members use to pose questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Online discussion: Through the discussion forum on the website and through informal email messages, members post inquiries to each other and share relevant information. </li></ul><ul><li>The result of these different activities has been continuous learning for Ayuda Urbana members: eight thematic communities of practice that contribute to better decision-making on important issues, serve as a means of problem solving for the entire group, and generate the type of knowledge that urban practitioners need in their daily work. For example, one question raised recently was regarding the price of waste management services - a member in San Salvador explained how the price was determined in his municipality, and this information was shared with other members. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    28. 28. Ayuda Urbana: Communities on Urban Issues (Continued) <ul><li>Working in partnership Ayuda Urbana is a partnership in every sense. It works closely with the municipal governments in the ten cities mentioned above and with the CAMC (Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean) region of the Unión de Ciudades Capitales Iberoamericanas (UCCI), a partner organization actively involved in training technical staff in metropolitan areas. Funding for the project comes from the Dutch Government and the UK Department for International Development. The World Bank has provided overall coordination and the assistance of experts from the Urban Poor Thematic Group and other related Thematic Groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Building capacity and replicating the model Ayuda Urbana was designed from the start as a sustainable project that will be completely owned and operated by its clients. Not surprisingly, a plan is in place that will hand over the website to the members in 2002, publish a training manual for how to manage the community, and allows the different cities to alternate as hosts of the website and developers of new content. The project is also serving as a model that can be replicated in other countries as they seek to form their own communities of practice on urban issues. China, for example, is now launching a major initiative linking hundreds of municipalities, while India is organizing a similar project on a smaller scale. Ayuda Urbana coordinators are advising the World Bank task teams working in these countries. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Ayuda Urbana: Communities on Urban Issues (Continued) <ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice are extremely powerful: As informal organizations, the eight communities within Ayuda Urbana are effective in knowledge sharing and problem solving. Ayuda Urbana's real value is on how it has facilitated the formation of thematic communities by actively connecting practitioners in the same region who share similar responsibilities, concerns, and challenges. Complementary activities: A lively and productive community of practice is sustained by activities that enhance the impact of each other on learning and knowledge sharing among its members. Client needs are all-important: At every step, consultation with members is the key - the members must drive the ideas and content. Best practice is subjective: Best practice, as defined by development agencies, may not be appropriate for other groups and organizations. Members must choose which policy topics, content, and activities are appropriate for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts For further information on Ayuda Urbana, go to: Prepared by Ronald Kim of the Knowledge Sharing Unit, in collaboration with Roberto Chavez, Mariana Ramirez-Corzo, and Erika Puspa at the Urban Sector. </li></ul>