Directing Learning Experiences Student Learning Styles
Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the importance of considering students' learning styles when designing lessons  </li></ul><ul><...
Why Is It Important to Know Students Learning Styles? <ul><li>Students process information differently </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Field-dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics    (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Learner </li></u...
Field-dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics   (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Learners </li></u...
Field-Dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics    (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Learners </li>...
Field-Dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics    (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Learners- </li...
Field-Dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics    (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Teaching Styles ...
Field-Dependent and   Field Independent Characteristics    (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Teaching Style...
Learning Styles Analytic vs. Global Learners www.wavefront.com/~nelson/styles.htm <ul><li>Analytical Learners </li></ul><u...
Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>VISUAL - (learn by seeing and writing)  </li></ul><ul><li>40% of learn...
Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>AUDITORY - (learn by listening) </li></ul><ul><li>30% of learners  </l...
Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>KINESTHETIC - (large motor, whole body learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Lea...
Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>TACTILE - (small motor learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the same tr...
Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/pu...
Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>thinkers (skeptical, tend to make decisions based on...
Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 1 (concrete, reflective). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characte...
Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 2 (abstract, reflective).  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A charact...
Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 3 (abstract, active).  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteris...
Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 4 (concrete, active).  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteris...
Learning Styles Models Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) <ul><li>Quadrant A  (left brain, cerebral). Logical, ana...
Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>sensing learners (concrete, practical, oriented towar...
Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>inductive learners (prefer presentations that proceed...
Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>or reflective learners (learn by thinking things thro...
Determine Student and Teacher Learning Styles <ul><li>Observation of students in class and response to assignments </li></...
How do we develop lessons that consider learning styles? <ul><li>Develop lesson to suit teachers learning style and add di...
Application  <ul><li>Students will complete one of the learning styles inventories. </li></ul><ul><li>http://snow.utoronto...
Evaluation <ul><li>Teaching Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-semester Exam </li></ul>
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Learning Styles

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Learning Styles

  1. 1. Directing Learning Experiences Student Learning Styles
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the importance of considering students' learning styles when designing lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the learning style of your students </li></ul><ul><li>Assess your own learning style </li></ul><ul><li>Design lessons that take into account differences in students' learning styles </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Is It Important to Know Students Learning Styles? <ul><li>Students process information differently </li></ul><ul><li>If educators teach exclusively to one style student’s comfort level may be diminished </li></ul><ul><li>If only taught in one style students may lose mental dexterity to think in different ways </li></ul><ul><li>Meet the learning needs of all students </li></ul>
  4. 4. Field-dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Learner </li></ul><ul><li>perceives globally </li></ul><ul><li>experiences in a global fashion, adheres to structures as givenships </li></ul><ul><li>social orientation </li></ul><ul><li>learns material with social content best </li></ul>
  5. 5. Field-dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Learners </li></ul><ul><li>attends best to material relevant to own experience </li></ul><ul><li>requires externally defined goals and reinforcements </li></ul><ul><li>needs organization provided </li></ul><ul><li>more affected by criticism </li></ul><ul><li>uses spectator approach for concept attainment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Learners </li></ul><ul><li>perceives analytically </li></ul><ul><li>experiences in an articulated fashion, imposes structure or restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>makes specific concept distinctions, little overlap </li></ul><ul><li>impersonal orientation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Learners- </li></ul><ul><li>learns social material as an intentional task </li></ul><ul><li>interested in new concepts for their own sake </li></ul><ul><li>has self-defined goals and reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>can self-structure situations </li></ul><ul><li>less affected by criticism </li></ul><ul><li>uses hypothesis-testing approach to attain concepts </li></ul>
  8. 8. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Dependent Teaching Styles </li></ul><ul><li>prefers teaching situations that allow interaction and discussion with students </li></ul><ul><li>uses questions to check on student learning following instruction </li></ul><ul><li>uses student-centered activities </li></ul><ul><li>viewed by students as teaching facts </li></ul><ul><li>provides less feedback, avoids negative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>strong in establishing a warm and personal learning environment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984) <ul><li>Field Independent Teaching Styles </li></ul><ul><li>prefers impersonal teaching situations such as lectures, emphasizes cognitive aspects of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>uses questions to introduce topics and probe student answers </li></ul><ul><li>uses teacher-organized learning situations </li></ul><ul><li>viewed by students as encouraging to apply principles </li></ul><ul><li>gives corrective feedback, uses negative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>strong in organizing and guiding student learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learning Styles Analytic vs. Global Learners www.wavefront.com/~nelson/styles.htm <ul><li>Analytical Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Left-brained </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Detail </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Punctual </li></ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul><ul><li>Global Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Right-brained </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Wholes </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Whole picture </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Without sense of time </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>VISUAL - (learn by seeing and writing) </li></ul><ul><li>40% of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Can be verbal (sees words) or pictorial (sees pictures) </li></ul><ul><li>Remembers faces but not names </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid imaginations </li></ul><ul><li>Think in pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression tells what their emotions are </li></ul><ul><li>Uses color </li></ul><ul><li>Caution: TV, Movies, Nintendo can be addicting </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>AUDITORY - (learn by listening) </li></ul><ul><li>30% of learners </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from verbal instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Need phonics </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy plays </li></ul><ul><li>Write lightly and it is not always legible </li></ul><ul><li>Remember names and forget faces </li></ul><ul><li>Distracted by noise </li></ul><ul><li>Remember by listening, especially with music </li></ul><ul><li>Games and pictures are annoying and distracting </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>KINESTHETIC - (large motor, whole body learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by doing </li></ul><ul><li>Not avid reader </li></ul><ul><li>Poor spellers </li></ul><ul><li>Remember what was done </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn't &quot;hear&quot; things as well </li></ul><ul><li>Touch is important </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks things physically - fight, hit, pound </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Needs math and science manipulatives </li></ul><ul><li>Loves games </li></ul>
  14. 14. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities <ul><li>TACTILE - (small motor learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the same traits as kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Kinesthetic and tactile learners have the most difficulty learning to read. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: All children are very kinesthetic to age 6. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-Prism.htm </li></ul><ul><li>extraverts (try things out, focus on the outer world of people) </li></ul><ul><li>or introverts (think things through, focus on the inner world of ideas); </li></ul><ul><li>sensors (practical, detail-oriented, focus on facts and procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>or intuitors (imaginative, concept-oriented, focus on meanings and possibilities); </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) <ul><li>thinkers (skeptical, tend to make decisions based on logic and rules) </li></ul><ul><li>or feelers (appreciative, tend to make decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations); </li></ul><ul><li>judgers (set and follow agendas, seek closure even with incomplete data) </li></ul><ul><li>or perceivers (adapt to changing circumstances, resist closure to obtain more data). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 1 (concrete, reflective). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic question of this learning type is &quot;Why?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners respond well to explanations of how course material relates to their experience, their interests, and their future careers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be effective instructor should function as a motivator. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 2 (abstract, reflective). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic question of this learning type is &quot;What?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners respond to information presented in an organized, logical fashion and benefit if they have time for reflection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be effective, the instructor should function as an expert. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 3 (abstract, active). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic question of this learning type is &quot;How?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners respond to having opportunities to work actively on well-defined tasks and to learn by trial-and-error in an environment that allows them to fail safely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be effective, the instructor should function as a coach, providing guided practice and feedback. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model <ul><li>Type 4 (concrete, active). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A characteristic question of this learning type is &quot;What if?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners like applying course material in new situations to solve real problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be effective, the instructor should stay out of the way, maximizing opportunities for the students to discover things for themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Learning Styles Models Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) <ul><li>Quadrant A (left brain, cerebral). Logical, analytical, quantitative, factual, critical </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant B (left brain, limbic). Sequential, organized, planned, detailed, structured </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant C (right brain, limbic). Emotional, interpersonal, sensory, kinesthetic, symbolic </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant D (right brain, cerebral). Visual, holistic, innovative </li></ul>
  22. 22. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>sensing learners (concrete, practical, oriented toward facts and procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>or intuitive learners (conceptual, innovative, oriented toward theories and meanings) </li></ul><ul><li>visual learners (prefer visual representations of presented material--pictures, diagrams, flow charts) </li></ul><ul><li>or verbal learners (prefer written and spoken explanations) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>inductive learners (prefer presentations that proceed from the specific to the general) </li></ul><ul><li>or deductive learners (prefer presentations that go from the general to the specific) </li></ul><ul><li>active learners (learn by trying things out, working with others) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model <ul><li>or reflective learners (learn by thinking things through, working alone) </li></ul><ul><li>sequential learners (linear, orderly, learn in small incremental steps) </li></ul><ul><li>or global learners (holistic, systems thinkers, learn in large leaps) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Determine Student and Teacher Learning Styles <ul><li>Observation of students in class and response to assignments </li></ul><ul><li>GEFT Test </li></ul><ul><li>MBTI </li></ul><ul><li>Several tests on-line </li></ul>
  26. 26. How do we develop lessons that consider learning styles? <ul><li>Develop lesson to suit teachers learning style and add diverse activities </li></ul><ul><li>Vary assessment activities </li></ul><ul><li>Include the use of all the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of teaching techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Offer alternative paths </li></ul><ul><li>Type of feedback given </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of instructional materials </li></ul>
  27. 27. Application <ul><li>Students will complete one of the learning styles inventories. </li></ul><ul><li>http://snow.utoronto.ca/Learn2/mod3/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles Test of the Center for New Discoveries in Learning http://www.howtolearn.com/personal.html </li></ul><ul><li>  Keirsey Character Sorter & Keirsey Temperament Sorter http://keirsey.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.womensmedia.com/seminar-learningstyle.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/lrnsty.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://capital2.capital.edu/faculty/afields/STYLE.HTM </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge of learning styles in lesson plans and peer teaching. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Evaluation <ul><li>Teaching Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-semester Exam </li></ul>

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