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Learning Styles

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  • 1. Directing Learning Experiences Student Learning Styles
  • 2. Objectives
    • Discuss the importance of considering students' learning styles when designing lessons
    • Evaluate the learning style of your students
    • Assess your own learning style
    • Design lessons that take into account differences in students' learning styles
  • 3. Why Is It Important to Know Students Learning Styles?
    • Students process information differently
    • If educators teach exclusively to one style student’s comfort level may be diminished
    • If only taught in one style students may lose mental dexterity to think in different ways
    • Meet the learning needs of all students
  • 4. Field-dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Dependent Learner
    • perceives globally
    • experiences in a global fashion, adheres to structures as givenships
    • social orientation
    • learns material with social content best
  • 5. Field-dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Dependent Learners
    • attends best to material relevant to own experience
    • requires externally defined goals and reinforcements
    • needs organization provided
    • more affected by criticism
    • uses spectator approach for concept attainment
  • 6. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Independent Learners
    • perceives analytically
    • experiences in an articulated fashion, imposes structure or restrictions
    • makes specific concept distinctions, little overlap
    • impersonal orientation
  • 7. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Independent Learners-
    • learns social material as an intentional task
    • interested in new concepts for their own sake
    • has self-defined goals and reinforcement
    • can self-structure situations
    • less affected by criticism
    • uses hypothesis-testing approach to attain concepts
  • 8. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Dependent Teaching Styles
    • prefers teaching situations that allow interaction and discussion with students
    • uses questions to check on student learning following instruction
    • uses student-centered activities
    • viewed by students as teaching facts
    • provides less feedback, avoids negative evaluation
    • strong in establishing a warm and personal learning environment
  • 9. Field-Dependent and Field Independent Characteristics (Garger & Guild, 1984)
    • Field Independent Teaching Styles
    • prefers impersonal teaching situations such as lectures, emphasizes cognitive aspects of instruction
    • uses questions to introduce topics and probe student answers
    • uses teacher-organized learning situations
    • viewed by students as encouraging to apply principles
    • gives corrective feedback, uses negative evaluation
    • strong in organizing and guiding student learning
  • 10. Learning Styles Analytic vs. Global Learners www.wavefront.com/~nelson/styles.htm
    • Analytical Learners
    • Left-brained
    • Words
    • Numbers
    • Parts
    • Sequential
    • Linear
    • Detail
    • Verbal
    • Punctual
    • Organized
    • Global Learners
    • Right-brained
    • Images
    • Patterns
    • Wholes
    • Simultaneous
    • Patterns
    • Whole picture
    • Non-verbal
    • Without sense of time
    • Creative
    • Intuitive
    • Spontaneous
  • 11. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities
    • VISUAL - (learn by seeing and writing)
    • 40% of learners
    • Can be verbal (sees words) or pictorial (sees pictures)
    • Remembers faces but not names
    • Vivid imaginations
    • Think in pictures
    • Facial expression tells what their emotions are
    • Uses color
    • Caution: TV, Movies, Nintendo can be addicting
  • 12. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities
    • AUDITORY - (learn by listening)
    • 30% of learners
    • Learn from verbal instruction
    • Need phonics
    • Enjoy plays
    • Write lightly and it is not always legible
    • Remember names and forget faces
    • Distracted by noise
    • Remember by listening, especially with music
    • Games and pictures are annoying and distracting
  • 13. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities
    • KINESTHETIC - (large motor, whole body learning)
    • Learn by doing
    • Not avid reader
    • Poor spellers
    • Remember what was done
    • Doesn't "hear" things as well
    • Touch is important
    • Attacks things physically - fight, hit, pound
    • Impulsive
    • Needs math and science manipulatives
    • Loves games
  • 14. Learning Styles Sensory Learning Modalities
    • TACTILE - (small motor learning)
    • Most of the same traits as kinesthetic
    • Note: Kinesthetic and tactile learners have the most difficulty learning to read.
    • Note: All children are very kinesthetic to age 6.
  • 15. Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-Prism.htm
    • extraverts (try things out, focus on the outer world of people)
    • or introverts (think things through, focus on the inner world of ideas);
    • sensors (practical, detail-oriented, focus on facts and procedures)
    • or intuitors (imaginative, concept-oriented, focus on meanings and possibilities);
  • 16. Learning Styles Models The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • thinkers (skeptical, tend to make decisions based on logic and rules)
    • or feelers (appreciative, tend to make decisions based on personal and humanistic considerations);
    • judgers (set and follow agendas, seek closure even with incomplete data)
    • or perceivers (adapt to changing circumstances, resist closure to obtain more data).
  • 17. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model
    • Type 1 (concrete, reflective).
      • A characteristic question of this learning type is "Why?"
      • learners respond well to explanations of how course material relates to their experience, their interests, and their future careers.
      • To be effective instructor should function as a motivator.
  • 18. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model
    • Type 2 (abstract, reflective).
      • A characteristic question of this learning type is "What?"
      • learners respond to information presented in an organized, logical fashion and benefit if they have time for reflection.
      • To be effective, the instructor should function as an expert.
  • 19. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model
    • Type 3 (abstract, active).
      • A characteristic question of this learning type is "How?"
      • learners respond to having opportunities to work actively on well-defined tasks and to learn by trial-and-error in an environment that allows them to fail safely.
      • To be effective, the instructor should function as a coach, providing guided practice and feedback.
  • 20. Learning Styles Models Kolb's Learning Style Model
    • Type 4 (concrete, active).
      • A characteristic question of this learning type is "What if?"
      • learners like applying course material in new situations to solve real problems.
      • To be effective, the instructor should stay out of the way, maximizing opportunities for the students to discover things for themselves.
  • 21. Learning Styles Models Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI)
    • Quadrant A (left brain, cerebral). Logical, analytical, quantitative, factual, critical
    • Quadrant B (left brain, limbic). Sequential, organized, planned, detailed, structured
    • Quadrant C (right brain, limbic). Emotional, interpersonal, sensory, kinesthetic, symbolic
    • Quadrant D (right brain, cerebral). Visual, holistic, innovative
  • 22. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model
    • sensing learners (concrete, practical, oriented toward facts and procedures)
    • or intuitive learners (conceptual, innovative, oriented toward theories and meanings)
    • visual learners (prefer visual representations of presented material--pictures, diagrams, flow charts)
    • or verbal learners (prefer written and spoken explanations)
  • 23. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model
    • inductive learners (prefer presentations that proceed from the specific to the general)
    • or deductive learners (prefer presentations that go from the general to the specific)
    • active learners (learn by trying things out, working with others)
  • 24. Learning Styles Models Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model
    • or reflective learners (learn by thinking things through, working alone)
    • sequential learners (linear, orderly, learn in small incremental steps)
    • or global learners (holistic, systems thinkers, learn in large leaps)
  • 25. Determine Student and Teacher Learning Styles
    • Observation of students in class and response to assignments
    • GEFT Test
    • MBTI
    • Several tests on-line
  • 26. How do we develop lessons that consider learning styles?
    • Develop lesson to suit teachers learning style and add diverse activities
    • Vary assessment activities
    • Include the use of all the senses
    • Use a variety of teaching techniques
    • Offer alternative paths
    • Type of feedback given
    • Variety of instructional materials
  • 27. Application
    • Students will complete one of the learning styles inventories.
    • http://snow.utoronto.ca/Learn2/mod3/index.html
    • Learning Styles Test of the Center for New Discoveries in Learning http://www.howtolearn.com/personal.html
    •   Keirsey Character Sorter & Keirsey Temperament Sorter http://keirsey.com/
    • http://www.womensmedia.com/seminar-learningstyle.html
    • http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSpage.html
    • http://www.d.umn.edu/student/loon/acad/strat/lrnsty.html
    • http://capital2.capital.edu/faculty/afields/STYLE.HTM
    • Demonstrate knowledge of learning styles in lesson plans and peer teaching.
  • 28. Evaluation
    • Teaching Plans
    • Mid-semester Exam

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