Lean Manufacturing Principles


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  • Lean Manufacturing Principles

    2. 2. The Connection <ul><li>North Carolina State University </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching, Research, Extension and Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>College of Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Extension Service (IES) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Industrial Extension Service <ul><ul><li>Lean Enterprise Advancement Program (LEAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-plant applications, manufacturing networks, public training, Shingo Prize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Performance and Standards (APS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORUMS, QS, ISO, Six Sigma, Project management, NC Awards for Excellence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training, technical assistance, needs assessment in ISO, HAZWOPER, HAZMAT, ergonomics and industrial hygiene </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy and Facilities Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy usage assessments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Lean Enterprise Advancement Program Mission - Improve the quality, cost and delivery of North Carolina manufacturing firms to improve their competitiveness by understanding and implementing lean enterprise business systems based on TPS model.
    5. 5. <ul><li>The LEAP mission is accomplished through - </li></ul><ul><li>training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturing networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lean assessments </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. LEAN THINKING <ul><ul><li>VALUE - what customers are willing to pay for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VALUE STREAM - the steps that deliver value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLOW - organizing the Value Stream to be continuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PULL - responding to downstream customer demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERFECTION - relentless continuous improvement (culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--- Lean Thinking , Womack and Jones, 1996 </li></ul></ul>Key Principles of Lean Thinking
    7. 7. Defining Lean “ A systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste (non-value added activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection .” The MEP Lean Network Lean is:
    8. 8. Lean Goals- TPS “True North” <ul><li>Zero defects </li></ul><ul><li>100% value-add </li></ul><ul><li>Lot size of one </li></ul><ul><li>Pull of the customer </li></ul>TSSC
    9. 9. LEAN MANUFACTURING Why Become Lean? <ul><li>PQCDSM </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Customer Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Sales and Profits </li></ul><ul><li>Insure Long-term Health of Company </li></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>Create Sustainable Competitive Advantage </li></ul>
    10. 10. Typical Results from Lean Conversions Lead Time Reduction Productivity Increase WIP Reduction Quality Improvement Space Utilization Flexibility Skill Enhancement Visual Management 0 25 50 75 100 Percentage of Benefits Achieved
    11. 11. LEAN MANUFACTURING Where has Lean been successfully implemented? <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textiles and Apparel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing and Packaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare </li></ul>
    12. 12. Developing a Lean Factory The Goal and Getting There from Here <ul><li>The Goal - Lean Throughout the Entire Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Set Aggressive Improvement Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements of Existing Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize Current Problem Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the Lean Production System Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Commit to the Continuous Improvement Process </li></ul><ul><li>Just do it! </li></ul>
    13. 13. Value Added/Non-value Added <ul><li>Value-added: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANY ACTIVITY THAT PHYSICALLY CHANGES THE MATERIAL BEING WORKED ON (not rework/repair!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machining Knitting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drilling Spreading/Cutting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly Dying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting Sewing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-value added: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANY ACTIVITY THAT TAKES TIME, MATERIAL, OR SPACE BUT DOES NOT PHYSICALLY CHANGE THE MATERIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting Stacking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counting Checking </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>8 Wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Excess inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Defects </li></ul><ul><li>Non-value added processing </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Underutilized people </li></ul><ul><li>Excess motion </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul>Lean = Eliminating the waste Typically 95% of Total Lead Time is Non-Value Added!!! Value added 5% Non-value added
    15. 15. Value Stream Mapping A simple diagram of every step involved in the material and information flows needed to bring a product from order to delivery. Value stream maps can be drawn for different points in time as a way to raise consciousness of opportunities for improvement. - Lean Lexicon
    16. 16. - Learning to See
    17. 17. Lean Production System Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement
    18. 18. Toyota’s Philosophy <ul><li>Customer first </li></ul><ul><li>People are the most valuable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen (continuous improvement) </li></ul><ul><li>Shop floor focus </li></ul>
    19. 19. Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement Lean Production System
    20. 20. Stability The Four Ms <ul><li>Operations safely carried out with all task organized in the best known sequence and by using the most effective combination of resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>huMans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Stability The 5S’s <ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep only what is needed in your area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stabilize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A place for everything and everything in its place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean up the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop system (rules) to maintain what has been done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self discipline to maintain established procedures </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The 5S’s - Before Stability
    23. 23. Stability The 5S’s
    24. 24. Stability Courtesy of National Textiles The 5S’s
    25. 25. Stability Visual Controls <ul><li>Visual Controls are simple signals that provide an immediate understanding of a situation or condition. They are efficient, self regulating, and worker managed. Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color coded dies, tools, pallets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines on the floor to delineate storage areas, walk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ways, work areas, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved lighting </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Stability Visual Controls
    27. 27. Stability Plant Layout Raw Stock Q C Receiving Shipping Shear Screw Machine Q C Stamp Assembly Brake Mill Lathe Weld Finish Grind Parts Stock Drill
    28. 28. Cellular Layout Market Demand = 220,000 Units Per Year Takt Time = 27 Seconds Stability Lathe Mill Mill Inspect Drill Drill Test Drill Pack 1 2 3 4 5 10 9 8 7 6 27 Seconds 27 Seconds Inspect 27 Seconds
    29. 29. Stability Cellular Layout Courtesy of Duff-Norton, Charlotte, NC
    30. 30. Stability Total Productive Maintenance <ul><li>Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) is a series of methods to keep equipment running </li></ul><ul><li>The goals of the TPM process include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop people who are equipment-knowledgeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create well-engineered equipment: building in safety and quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an environment where enthusiasm and creativity flourish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize equipment productivity and capacity as measured by Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>Related Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup and Adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idling and Minor Stoppages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Speed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related Losses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects and Rework </li></ul></ul>OEE = Availability × Performance Efficiency × Rate of Quality Availability When or how often do you lose total availability of your equipment? How long are your set-ups? Does your equipment break down frequently? Performance Efficiency Does your equipment start and stop a lot? Does your equipment run at 100% of its designed speed? Rate of Quality Do you manufacture quality products? Are your processes repeatable? Stability The Six Big Losses that downgrade Machine Effectiveness:
    32. 32. Sample Daily Operator PM Daily Operator PM  1. Check coolant level through clear Plexiglas  2. Check heat exchanger fans (strings should be moving)  3. Check servo drive fans (string should be moving)  4. Check heat exchanger air filter (change when dark)  5. Check servo drive air filter (change when dark)  6. Check way lube reservoir (add when low)  7. Check main motor air filter (change when dark)  8. Check main motor cooling fan (string should move)  9. Check mist collector motor and air filter (change when dark)  10. Check bar feeder hydraulic motor air filter  11. Check bar feeder hydraulic oil level (add when low)
    33. 33. Developing a Lean Factory Summary – Stability in Manufacturing Processes <ul><li>4Ms </li></ul><ul><li>5S </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Total Productive Maintenance </li></ul>
    34. 34. Lean Production System Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement
    35. 35. Just-in-Time Pull System <ul><li>Pull System is a flexible and simple method of controlling/balancing the flow of resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating waste of handling, storage, expediting, obsolescence, repair, rework, facilities, equipment, excess inventory (work-in-process and finished). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pull System consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production based on actual consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Sight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Communication </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Just-in-Time Pull System <ul><li>Kanban </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A signal to indicate when more parts are needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Order or Produce) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Card, empty Bin, In Process Kanban (IPK) on plant floor </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Just-in-Time Pull System Courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co., Southern Pines, NC
    38. 38. Just-in-Time <ul><li>A carton of milk is removed from shelf </li></ul><ul><li>A stock person restocks the empty location, </li></ul><ul><li>but only brings what shelf can accommodate </li></ul><ul><li>the supermarket combines visual control, pull system, </li></ul><ul><li>Kanban, 5S </li></ul>Supermarket Analogy
    39. 39. Just-in-Time Quick Changeover (Set-up Reduction) <ul><li>Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a series of techniques for changeovers of production machinery in less than ten minutes (single digit minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set-up Reduction Program Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve smaller lots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain consistent quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To minimize inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce lead times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To address frustration of setup personnel </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Identify internal vs. external changeover tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze each task’s real purpose and function </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on no/low cost solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to eliminate changeover time </li></ul>Just-in-Time Basic SMED Principles
    41. 41. Just-in-Time Positioning Pins Positioning Pins
    42. 42. No/Low Cost Solution: One-Turn Methods Pear-Shaped Hole Method Tighten Here Attach and Remove Here Just-in-Time
    43. 43. No/Low Cost Solution: One-Turn Methods Speed Nut Just-in-Time
    44. 44. No/Low Cost Solution: One-Turn Methods Wing Nut Method Just-in-Time
    45. 45. No/Low Cost Solution: One-Motion Methods Cam Method Just-in-Time
    46. 46. Just-in-Time Quick Changeover Not quick: Must heat molds and plates before changeover Quicker: Test stand with hot plates to pre-heat molds and plates Courtesy of Playtex Panama, Santo Domingo, DR
    47. 47. Just-in-Time Continuous Flow - Batch Size Reduction <ul><li>The best batch size is one - one piece flow, or make one and move one! </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: Reduces WIP, lead time, cycle time, etc. and improves quality </li></ul>
    48. 48. 10 minutes 10 minutes • Batch & Queue Processing Lead Time: 30+ minutes for total order 21+ minutes for first piece 10 minutes Process C Just-in-Time Process A Process B 12 min. for total order 3 min. for first part Process B Process A Process C • Continuous Flow Processing
    49. 49. Takt Time = Demand Rate Work Time Available Number of Units Sold GOAL: Produce to Demand Just-in-Time Takt Time =
    50. 50. Developing a Lean Factory Summary - Just-in-Time <ul><li>Pull Systems/Kanban </li></ul><ul><li>Point Of Use Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Changeover/Setup Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Takt Time </li></ul>
    51. 51. Lean Production System Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement
    52. 52. Jidoka Quality at the Source <ul><li>Source Inspection: Operators must be certain that the product they are passing to the next work station is of acceptable quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Operators must be given the means to perform inspection at the source , before they pass it along. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Jidoka Quality at the Source Courtesy Sara Lee Intimate Apparel, Villanueva, Honduras Source Inspection at Molding
    54. 54. Jidoka Courtesy of National Textiles “ Bull’s Eye” for checking package size
    55. 55. Jidoka Quality at the Source <ul><li>Samples or established standards are visible tools that can be used in the cell for such purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Process Documentation defining quality inspection requirements for each work station may need to be developed </li></ul>
    56. 56. Jidoka Poka-Yoke (Mistake Proofing) A Poka-yoke device is any mechanism that either prevents a mistake from being made or makes the mistake obvious at a glance. Poka-yoke devices: - perform well when corrective action involves trying to eliminate oversights and omissions. - can reduce the time and cost of informative inspection to near zero. - used w ith source inspection, can ensure that proper operating conditions exist prior to actual production.
    57. 57. Jidoka Poka-Yoke (Mistake Proofing) Examples: Fueling area of car has three mistake-proofing devices: 1.filling pipe insert keeps larger, leaded-fuel nozzle from being inserted 2.gas cap tether does not allow the motorist to drive off without the cap 3.gas cap is fitted with ratchet to signal proper tightness and prevent over-tightening.
    58. 58. Jidoka Poka-Yoke (Mistake Proofing)
    59. 59. <ul><li>A visual management tool that highlights the status of operations in an area at a single glance and that signals whenever an abnormality occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>An andon can indicate production status (for example, which machines are operating), an abnormality (for example, machine downtime, a quality problem, tooling faults, operator delays, and material shortages), and needed actions, such as changeovers. An andon can also be used to display the status of production in terms of the number of units planned versus actual output. </li></ul>Jidoka Andon --- The Lean Lexicon
    60. 60. Jidoka Andon Courtesy of Sara Lee Intimate Apparel
    61. 61. “ When I was asked to attend the general manager’s meeting the first time, I was happy to attend because I thought I could say that there were no problems in my department. And I said so when it was my turn to report. Then, this General Manager from Toyota looked straight into my eyes and said, ‘Steve, when you say you do not have a problem, that is the problem.’” At this moment, I realized that in order to succeed in this business, I have to change my way of thinking totally. --- From JIT Kakumei no Shogeki by Kiyoshi Suzaki, p. 14. Jidoka Identifying Problems
    62. 62. Jidoka Identifying Problems - Trystorming Courtesy of National Textiles Before After
    63. 63. Jidoka
    64. 64. Developing a Lean Factory Summary - Jidoka <ul><li>Quality at the Source </li></ul><ul><li>Poka Yoke </li></ul><ul><li>Andons </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Problem Solving </li></ul>
    65. 65. Lean Production System Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement
    66. 66. Standardization Standardized Work <ul><li>Establishing precise procedures for each operator’s work in a production process, based on three elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Takt time , which is the rate at which products must be made in a process in order to meet customer demand. </li></ul><ul><li>The precise work sequence , in which an operator performs tasks within takt time. </li></ul><ul><li>The standard inventory , including units in machines, required to keep the process operating smoothly. </li></ul>--- The Lean Lexicon
    67. 67. Standardization
    68. 68. Standardization Standard Work Board Courtesy of Ingersoll-Rand Co., Southern Pines, NC
    69. 69. Takt Time = 10 seconds Standardization
    70. 70. <ul><li>Leveling the type and quantity of production over a fixed period of time. This enables production to efficiently meet customer demands while avoiding batching and results in minimum inventories, capital costs, manpower, and production lead time through the whole value stream. </li></ul>Standardization Heijunka --- The Lean Lexicon
    71. 71. A tool used to level the mix and volume of production by distributing kanban within a facility at fixed intervals. Also called a leveling box. A load-leveling box has a column of kanban slots for each pitch interval, and a row of kanban slots for each product type. Standardization Heijunka Box --- Learning to See
    72. 72. The practice of releasing production instructions to work areas and withdrawing completed product from work areas at a fixed, frequent pace. In this type of handling system, a material handler, or waterstrider, performs a route through a facility at precisely determined time intervals. Standardization Paced Withdrawal --- Learning to See
    73. 73. Standardization Courtesy of Duff-Norton, Charlotte, NC
    74. 74. The location where a predetermined standard inventory is kept to supply downstream processes. Supermarkets are ordinarily located near the supplying process to help that process see customer usage and requirements. Standardization Supermarket --- Learning to See
    75. 75. Supermarket Pull System Courtesy of Seamless Textiles, Humacao, PR Standardization
    76. 76. Kaizen <ul><li>Continuous improvement of an entire value stream or an individual process to create more value with less waste. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two levels of kaizen (Rother and Shook 1999, p.8) : </li></ul><ul><li>System or flow kaizen focusing on the overall value stream (kaizen for management). </li></ul><ul><li>Process kaizen focusing on individual processes (kaizen for work teams and team leaders). </li></ul>- Lean Lexicon Standardization
    77. 77. Developing a Lean Factory Summary - Standardization <ul><li>Standardized Work </li></ul><ul><li>Heijunka/Leveling </li></ul><ul><li>Paced Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Supermarket </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen </li></ul>
    78. 78. Lean Production System Goals - highest quality, lowest cost, shortest lead times Heijunka Standardized Work Kaizen <ul><li>Just-In-Time </li></ul><ul><li>continuous flow </li></ul><ul><li>takt time/pace </li></ul><ul><li>pull system </li></ul><ul><li>triggers </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><li>separate man & </li></ul><ul><li>machine work </li></ul><ul><li>identify abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>conditions </li></ul><ul><li>poka yoke </li></ul>Stable Manufacturing Process Involvement
    79. 79. Involvement Workplace Practices <ul><li>Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with rotation of highly specified jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross trained and multi-skilled employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>who can work many operations within a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and even operations in different cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Process quality, not inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Use of participatory decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Control Circles, team-based problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solving, suggestion systems, etc. </li></ul></ul>
    80. 80. Keys To Success <ul><li>Focus on the goal- eliminate waste! </li></ul><ul><li>Gather baseline information and measure results </li></ul><ul><li>Get everyone involved </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it simple </li></ul>
    81. 81. Reference Materials <ul><li>Lean Thinking by Jim Womack and Daniel Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Production Simplified by Pascal Dennis </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to See , Mike Rother, John Shook, The Lean Enterprise Institute, Inc, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System” by Stephen Spear and H. Kent Bowen, Harvard Business Review, September-October 1999, pp. 96-106 </li></ul>
    82. 82. Lean Enterprise Advancement Program (LEAP) www.ies.ncsu.edu/lean