Key Protocols Accessible On The WebPresentation Transcript
ELC 200 Day 3
Signed Contracts (4 miseing)
Finish Discussion on the World Wide Web
Begin discussion on Internet Architecture
Assignment 1 is Due
Quiz 1 on Sep 24
Chap 1 & 2 from text
45 min time limit, each extra min or fraction of a min will cost 3 points
20 M/C @ 4 points each
4 short essays @ 5 points each
No class on Sep 27
I will post several discussion questions from Chap 3 & 4 on the evening of Sept 26 in the discussion boards in Blackboard
You must submit at least 2 answers and may submit up 4 answers
If you do not submit 2 answers, two points will taken from your quiz score total
+ 2 points will be added to your quiz score total for the first correct answer to every question.
+2 points for any student that submits 4 correct answers (they do not have to be first)
Only responses posted between 11 AM Sept 27 and 11 AM Sept 28 will graded
Assignment 2 is posted (well ahead of schedule)
Not due until Oct 4
Key Protocols Accessible on the Web
E-mail - the protocol for e-mail is Simple Mail Transport Protocol, or SMTP
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol makes possible transmission of hypertext over networks
VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol makes it possible to place a telephone call over the Web
Web Search Elements
Internet contains millions of Web sites dedicated to tens of thousands of topics
Key elements that make the search process feasible:
The Browser (cont'd)
A browser is a piece of software that allows users to navigate the Web
Microsoft Internet Explorer
The Browser (cont'd)
A browser is a Web client program that uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make requests of Web servers throughout the Internet on behalf of the browser user
Text-only mode such as Lynx
Graphic mode involves a graphical software program that retrieves text, audio, and video
Software programs configured to a Web browser to improve its capabilities
Working together with plug-ins, browsers today offer seamless multimedia experiences
A popular plug-in on the Web is Adobe Acrobat Reader
Microsoft developed software called Active X, which makes plug-ins unnecessary
This software makes it possible to embed animated objects and data on Web pages
Being a Microsoft product, Active X works best with Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser
Since 1999, it is now common to use the Web to listen to audio and watch video - prerecorded or live off the Internet
Streaming media is audio or video that begin to play as it downloads (streaming), done through buffering
Buffering is used to minimize the wait time between downloading and actual viewing of the material
RealPlayer and Windows Media Player are alternative options for the broadcast of real-time (live) events
Shockwave is multimedia software that allows for an entire multimedia display of audio, graphics, animation, and sound
Live Cam software essentially is a video camera that digitizes images and transmits them in real time to a Web server
Chat programs make it convenient for people to “talk” to each other in real time by typing messages and receiving responses (i.e. America Online’s Instant Messenger)
The Search Engine
A search process begins with a search engine:
a Web site or a database, along with the tools to generate that database and search its contents for “keywords” that describe what you’re looking for.
Other Definitions for Search Engines
A software program that collects and indexes Internet resources and provides a keyword search system allowing the user to identify and retrieve resources based on words, phrases, or patterns within those documents
A Web-based system for searching the information available on the Web
An automated system that relies on a software agent (otherwise known as spiders, robots or crawlers) that explores the World Wide Web following links from site to site and catalogs relevant text and content, storing Web pages and creating a customized index based on the user’s query of the search engine’s database
More on Search Engines
Two main elements of Web research are indexes and search engines
An index can help a searcher acquire general information or gain a feel for the general topic
An index can be hierarchical or alphabetical
Hierarchical indexing leads from general to specific topics
Alphabetical indexing contains sources that focus on a specific topic or area of concern
Other Components of a Web Search Engine
A spider is a program that roams the Web from link to link, identifying and scanning pages
A spider is software unique to a search engine that allows users to query the index and returns results in relevancy-ranked order (alphabetical)
Search Engine Improvements:
First-generation search engine returns results in schematic order, constructing a term relevancy rating of each hit and presenting search results in this order, also called “on the page” ranking.
Second-generation search engine organizes search results by peer ranking concept, domain, or site rather than by relevancy, also called “off the page” information.
Search Facts to Remember
People look up Web sites with search engines.
People usually use bookmarks to visit their favorite Web sites.
A Web site must be quick and current.
A Web site should address the privacy and navigation concerns of the user.
The “bottleneck” problem
People are reluctant to pay to surf a Web site.
Search Engines Are Getting Smarter
Experts are working feverishly at making search engines more intelligent
An example of incorporating “intelligence” into search engines is a software agent called Query Tracker that supplements a user’s query with its own, and it gains in performance with prolonged use and feedback.
Another intelligent search engine application is IBM’s WebFountain that determines whether an entity is a person’s name, a corporate logo, a product, or a discount and then goes ahead and attaches a metadata tag to it.
On the drawing board is “thinking in pictures” as an alternative way to search the Web
Query Tracker Source: Adapted from Anthes, Gary H., “Search For Tomorrow” Computerworld, April 5, 2004, 26.
Search Engine Optimization
A way of trying to increase the number of visitors to a Web site by ranking high in the search results displayed by a search engine
One way to optimize is via hyperlinks
Tips for Search Engine Optimization
General keywords are nowhere as good as specific keyword phrases
Check the Web site of the competition for ideas
Think of what visitors would search for in the page you’re optimizing
Include the most important keyword phrases in heading tags on your page
Finalize the list of keyword phrases for the pages you optimize
The title tag of your page is the most important factor to consider
Visitors as well as search engines read your pages by looking at keywords to see what you have to offer
Many people have a false impression that good metatags are all that is needed to achieve good listings in the search engine
There are two metatags that can help in listing your Web site: meta keywords and meta descriptions
Meta tags <title>Amazon.com: Online Shopping for Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, DVDs & more</title> <meta name="description" content="Online shopping from the earth's biggest selection of books, magazines, music, DVDs, videos, electronics, computers, software, apparel & accessories, shoes, jewelry, tools & hardware, housewares, furniture, sporting goods, beauty & personal care, broadband & dsl, gourmet food & just about anything else." /> <meta name="keywords" content="Amazon, Amazon.com, Books, Online Shopping, Book Store, Magazine, Subscription, Music, CDs, DVDs, Videos, Electronics, Video Games, Computers, Cell Phones, Toys, Games, Apparel, Accessories, Shoes, Jewelry, Watches, Office Products, Sports & Outdoors, Sporting Goods, Baby Products, Health, Personal Care, Beauty, Home, Garden, Bed & Bath, Furniture, Tools, Hardware, Vacuums, Outdoor Living, Automotive Parts, Pet Supplies, Broadband, DSL" /> </head>
Internet Service Providers
Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that links users to the Internet for a fee
Services offered by ISPs
Linking consumers and businesses to the Internet
Monitoring and maintaining customers’ Web sites
Providing network management and system integration
Providing backbone access services for other ISPs (like PSI and UUNET)
Offering payment systems for online purchases
Internet Service Providers (cont'd)
Initially, the cost for Internet access often exceeded $1,000 per month
Many of today’s ISPs offer unlimited access for as low as $5 per month
Many local governments are funding the use of the Internet because of its political, educational, and commercial benefits
The problem for some ISPs is sudden growth without advance planning to accommodate that growth
A well managed ISP requires:
A highly skilled technical staff
Healthy budget to bring the technology in line with the voracious
Ensure a balance between creativity and control and between managing growth and a stable technical infrastructure appetite of today’s consumer
Stability and Reliability of the Web
No one single agency or company owns the Internet
Each company on the Internet owns its own network
Links between these companies and the Internet are owned by telephone companies and ISPs
The organization that coordinates Internet functions is the Internet Society
Internet is designed to be indefinitely extendable
Reliability depends primarily on the quality of service providers’ equipment
The WWW is a global network of millions of Web servers and Web browsers connected by the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
The WWW is a giant client/server system
Content is held by Web servers and requested by clients or browsers
Clients display the information sent by the Web server on their monitors
Web servers provide pages of multimedia information in seconds
The most important element of a Web site is its links to other pages within the site or across sites
Web Fundamentals - URLs and HTTP
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are central to the Web in e-commerce
A URL such as http://www.virginia.edu consists of two key parts:
http:// (Hypertext Transport Protocol) is a protocol designator
www.virginia.edu is the server name:
www after the double slash tells the network that the material requested is located on a dedicated Web server
Virginia is the name of the Web site requested
Edu is a code for the domain of the Web server indicating that the site is an edu cational institution
Two main security protocols
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol for transmitting private information in a secure way over the Internet
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) provides various security features such as client/server authentication and allows Web clients and servers to specify privacy capabilities
Security is a major concern
Key Terms for Internet Literacy
Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that links users to the Internet for a fee; the entrance ramp to the Internet.
A Browser is a software program loaded on a PC that allows you to access or read information stored on the Internet. It is the client program that enables you to interface with the Internet.
Server is the destination point on the Internet where the information you are seeking is stored.
Electronic mail (e-mail) is probably the most popular and abused network application across all user categories.
Key Terms for Internet Literacy (c ont’d )
File transfer protocol (FTP) is a standard protocol that allows you to copy files from computer to computer
Telnet is a basic Internet protocol that allows you to log on to a computer and access files from a remote location as if they were local files
Bulletin board systems (BBS) is a computer-based meeting and announcement system that allows local people to exchange information free of charge. A BBS generally has a simple interface to the Internet for users to access services like e-mail and NetNews.
Key Terms for Internet Literacy (cont'd)
Web pages are written in a language called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Language specifies display features that visually structure a page
Best known for publishing static information (flows in one direction)
How to allow the user to interact with a Web site?
Common gateway interface (CGI) scripts execute a process on the server. When executed, the script passes data (posted form) provided by the customer for verification and action.
Java programming language or Java makes it possible for the customer to interact directly with the program on the screen.
The Web has changed the way business and information technology work together.
E-commerce is transforming the Internet from a “browse-and-surf” environment into a mammoth information exchange.
The important thing is to keep an eye on the technologies, as they evolve, and to be familiar with the changes before taking a dive into the Internet.
Strategize first, test the waters, and be sure you have a unique product supported by qualified staff to follow up on the Web traffic that it attracts.
The Web is the fastest growing, most user-friendly, and most commercially popular technology to date.
The Internet owes its existence to the Pentagon, where it originally was created for military research.
The Internet is physically hierarchical. High-speed backbones are at the top, with regional and individual networks at the bottom.
Internet service providers link commercial traffic to its destination.
Chapter Summary (cont’d)
The Internet has many uses; it also has many limitations.
World Wide Web is a global hypertext network of millions of Web servers and browsers connected by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and its many derivatives.
It is important to learn the language of the Internet before starting an e-commerce project.
The Internet and the Web have changed the way business and technology work together.
The focus of this chapter is on several learning objectives
Types of networks required to conduct e-commerce
The technical backbone behind accessing information on Web sites
How information is transferred between a customer’s browser and a Web site on the Internet
How a message is handled in transit on the Internet
Hardware and software requirements to support a Web site for e-commerce
Factors to consider in designing and managing networks
Building Blocks of Electronic Commerce
The Internet is a network of networks
Network is any-to-any communications
Each station on the network has a unique address (much like a phone number) called an IP address
Routers and switches forward traffic between network segments
Protocols are rules that govern the way a network operates:
How data travel in packets
How electrical signals represent data on a network cable
What Is a (computer) Network?
A connection between at least two computers for the purpose of sharing resources
All networks are based on the concept of sharing
Why connect if you don’t share?
Types of Networks
Peer-to-Peer Networks are the linking of several PCs so that each acts as a peer, sharing and exchanging information without the need for a centralized server
Client / Server Networks are a cluster of computers (called clients) connected to one or more servers to form a network
Computers are linked together as equals
No centralized server or control
Any computer can share its resources with any other computer on the same network in any way and whenever it chooses
Users are network administrators in that they control access to the resources residing on their own computer
Can result in institutionalized chaos, and security can be a problem
Peer-to-Peer Networks ( cont'd )
Setup usually connects fewer than 10 computer
As the number of users increases, the peer-to-peer environment becomes impractical
Basic Peer-to-Peer Network
Pros and Cons of Peer-to-Peer Network
A server is simply a special-purpose computer designed to address a client’s requests
A client is any computer or workstation connected to the server within a network
All programs or applications reside on the server
The client downloads software and/or data from the server
When the client finishes data may be uploaded back to the server
Pros and Cons of Client/Server Network
A Web site’s address includes the name of the host computer’s link the Web site resides on
Each host is identified by a unique host number (called an IP address) and by a name that is easier to remember than the number
IP Address Arithmetic
An IP address consists of 32 binary digits or bits (zeros and ones)
Divide the 32 bits into 4 groups of 8 bits called a byte, or octet
Each octet represents a decimal value from 0 through 255
Write the four decimal values separated by dots
126.96.36.199 - computer friendly, but not human friendly
Every host on the Internet has a host number
My address (use scientific calculator in XP)
A host name is an Internet address consisting of text labels separated by dots
Host name is people friendly
Host names used instead of IP addresses or host numbers
Wouldn’t it be great if the phone system worked this way?
Why isn’t it?
Networks and Numbers
Host number divided into two parts
Network part - 2 octets
Local part - 2 octets
University of Virginia host number
191 . 170 . 64 . 12
All UVa addresses begin with 191 . 170
UMS is 130.111
64 identifies a subnet at UVa
12 is the machine on the subnet
Networks and Sizes
Networks are classified in three sizes:
Class A (large)
Class B (medium)
Class C (small)
Class D is a multicast network
The initial bits of the IP address tells the size of the network host
IP Address Classes WRONG! 3,720,183,052 532,676,100 254 2,097,150 Class C 1,073,577,988 65,534 16,382 Class B 2,113,928,964 16,777,214 126 Class A total # Hosts / network # of networks
Class A Networks
A host is in a Class A network if the first bit of the first octet is 0
Class A network host number format
NNN.LLL.LLL.LLL NNN = network part
LLL = local part
There are 7 bits left in the first octet for network host number - 126 Class A networks (2 16 )
The part in the text is wrong also!
The remaining three octets are for the local host id on the network - 16 million local hosts (2 24 )
Class B Networks
A host is in a Class B network if the first two bits of the first octet are 10
Class B network host number format
NNN.NNN.LLL.LLL NNN = network part
LLL = local part
There are 14 bits left in the first two octets for network host number - 16000 Class B networks (2 14 )
The remaining two octets are for the local host id on the network - 65000 local hosts (2 16 )
Class C Networks
A host is in a Class C network if the first three bits of the first octet are 110
Class C network host number format
NNN.NNN.NNN.LLL NNN = network part
LLL = local part
There are 21 bits left in the first three octets for network host number - 2 million Class C networks (2 21 )
The remaining one octet is for the local host id on the network - 254 local hosts (2 8 )
[Note: 2 8 = 256, however, two of the local host ids are reserved]
Class D Networks
A host is in a Class D network if the first four bits of the first octet are 1110
Used for multicasting
The packet goes to all hosts on that subnet.
Network Class Example
UVa network host number is 188.8.131.52
Binary representation for the 191 is
First two bits are 10 -> Class B network
UVa is a class B network
65,000 possible hosts in UVa network (2 16 )
Network Class Example
UMS network host number is 184.108.40.206
Binary representation for the 130 is
First two bits are 10 -> Class B network
UMS is a class B network
65,000 possible hosts in UMS network (2 16 )
Zones and Domain Names
An Internet name is decoded from right to left
Zone name is the last (rightmost) part of a domain name preceded by a dot, specifying the type of domain name
Zones are classified in two ways:
Three-letter zone names
Two-letter zone names
Domain name is a Web address that contains two or more word groups separated by periods
www.virginia.com => domain name
.com => zone
Sample Zone Names
Common Geographical Two-Letter Zone Names
How to Pick a Domain Name
Pointer for picking domain names
If you sell bricks, pick a domain name containing a word like brick
Consider name length and ease of remembering the name
Hyphens to force search engines to see keywords in your domain name
Make sure the domain name is easy for Web users to remember and find
The domain name should suggest the nature of your product or service
The domain name should serve as a trademark
The domain name should be free of legal conflicts
How to Register a Domain Name
Check if the domain name you propose has been taken
One of the most popular and reliable registration sites is www.internic.net/alpha.html
I use www.godaddy.com
Packets and Protocols
All data sent through the Internet are sent as packets
A packet is a sequence of bits that carries identifying information for transmitting the data as well as the data itself
A single packet contains a header to keep track of the actual data it carries
Packets range in size from 100 bytes to 2,000 bytes
Messages that are larger than the standard packet size are split into a series of packets for transmission
Packets and Internet Protocols
Protocols are pieces of software that run on every node or computer and allow every pair of computers to communicate directly without having to know much about each other, except for the IP address
Protocols govern communication between peer processes on different systems
Differing client browser and Web server
Protocols used in connection with the Internet include many functions and the TCP/IP protocol suite
The way data are exchanged between two communicating computers
Divides data into packets (datagrams), which also contain control information like Internet addresses of the source and destination computers
Packet switching makes it possible to enable multiple communicating computers to share the network efficiently, quickly, and accurately
OSI Reference Model
Network (Internet) Layer
Data Link Layer
OSI Reference Model - ( cont’d )
A seven-layer model that defines the basic network functions
Each layer handles a different portion of the communications process with specific network functions
ISO 7-layer Model Node A Node B Data translation MIME, encryption, etc. User applications FTP, email, browser, etc. End-to-End control Error correction (TCP) Link management MAC, physical addressing Session management Dialog management, security Manages data transfer Message routing (IP) Physical hardware Media, signal transmission Messages Messages Messages Messages Packets Frames Bits on physical medium Layer 7 Application Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Level 1 Physical Layer 7 Application Layer 6 Presentation Layer 5 Session Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Data Link Level 1 Physical
Communicates with the actual application in use
Standards at the application layer specify how two application programs should communicate
The main standard hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
Hypertext markup language (HTML) is a standard set of codes representing text or graphics
The application layer is where the user begins to do something useful
Simple network management protocol (SNMP) is a protocol that controls network devices at the application layer
Domain naming service (DNS) is software that converts IP addresses into easy-to-remember names for the user
Presentation and Session Layers
The network’s translator
Converts data into a format for network transmission and converts incoming data into a format the receiving application can understand
Facilitates a “session” between two parties to communicate across a network
Keeps track of the status of the exchange and ensures that only designated parties are allowed to participate
Enforces security protocols
Manages the transmission or flow of data between two computers or across a network
Manages the data flow is by segmenting data into multiple packets
Acknowledges successful transmissions and requests retransmission if packets are damaged or arrive in error
Breaks the connection when transmission ends
Standard for the transport layer is the transmission control protocol (TCP)
Network (Internet) Layer
Routes messages across multiple nodes
Handles network congestion
Standard for routing packets is the Internet Protocol (IP)
Resends lost packets automatically
Defines how data are subdivided into packets
Data Link Layer
The “basement” of the Internet
Messages at the data link layer are called data frames the basic unit of Internet traffic
Another way of sending packets is over an Ethernet
Framing and error detection are handled automatically by Ethernet hardware
Ethernet broadcasts a message to all the computers linked to it, but only the computer with the right address broadcasts an answer
Lowest layer in the journey of a message from source to destination
Converts bits into signals for outgoing messages and signals into bits for incoming messages
TCP/IP protocols are not restricted to the Internet
Companies have found TCP/IP useful for:
Creating intranets, or internal company networks
Forming extranets to connect with vendors and suppliers and establish shared databases
Network Cable Types
Network connectivity means:
Speed of data transfer
Ease of installation
There are three types of cable
Two pairs of insulated wires twisted around each other, even enclosed in a plastic sheath
The most commonly used type of networking cable in the
Originally used to connect a telephone to a wall jack
Least expensive cable medium
Shielded and unshielded twisted pair
Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling does not have shielding against electrical interference
Shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling has an electrically grounded woven copper mesh or aluminum foil wrapped around each twisted pair and another metal mesh wrapped around a multiple bundle of wires to reduce electromagnetic interference
Uses light rather than voltage to carry data
Fiber enables digitized light signals to be transmitted more than 60 miles without being amplified
Outperforms copper and coaxial media with fewer transmission losses, lower interference, and higher bandwidth
It is the most expensive of all network media types
Each segment that transmits incoming and receiving data must contain an incoming cable and an outgoing cable
It requires highly skilled installers and special connectors
Optical Fiber Source: Adapted from Panko, Raymond, Business Data Communications and Networking (3 rd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001, p. 278.
Fiber Optic Selection Criteria
Attenuation or delay, the reduction of signal strength due to gravitational pull
Dispersion , the time distortion of an optical signal that results from discrete wave-length components traveling at different rates
Mode-field diameter (MFD) , the functional parameter that determines optical performance when a fiber is coupled to a light source, spliced, or bent
An early version of the way computers were connected to a network
The cable in cable TV
Has a copper core that is much thicker than twisted-pair cable, so it allows higher data transmission rates over long distances
Transmits up to 10 Mbps for a distance of up to 500 meters
Main drawback is its inflexibility and low security
Data communication without physical attachments
Three types of wireless data transmission technology:
Microwave transmission is used to connect LANs in separate buildings that must be within the line of sight of each other
Radio technology by radio frequency with no distance limitations
Infrared transmission operates at frequencies approaching the speed of light
Network Interface Card
A card installed in a slot in the PC to allow communication between the PC and other PCs in the LAN and beyond
To communicate over a telephone line the PC needs a modem, a device that converts digital signals into analog format for outgoing transmission and converts incoming messages from analog to digital format for computer processing
Hubs and Switches
Hub is a piece of hardware that operates at the OSI physical layer and acts as a connecting point
Switch is a piece of hardware that offers a direct connection to a particular PC
Network Components (cont'd)
A piece of hardware that operates at the OSI Internet layer, linking the network into little chunks called network segments
Usually “intelligent” and evaluate the network traffic and can stop local traffic from entering and causing congestion
Make intelligent path choices
Filter out packets that need not be received
Expensive and difficult to operate
A special-purpose computer that allows communication between dissimilar systems on the network
Network Design Considerations STEP 1: Factors to Keep in Mind
Location - Where will the network be installed?
Capacity - What is the optimum traffic capacity of the network?
Distance Limitations - What is the distance of the farthest PC to the server?
Cost - What is the estimated cost of the proposed network installation?
Potential Growth - How easily and how well can the network be scaled to meet growing demands?
Security - How secure is the proposed network?
Network Design Considerations STEP 2: Hardware and Software Considerations
Disaster Recovery and Fault-Tolerance Requirements
Conduct a survey of current technology and constraints
Document network requirements
Decide on the network operating systems
Decide on the file server hardware platform
Determine the physical environment and client support
Network management tasks:
Maintain an acceptable level of system availability
Assure good response time
Run the network at optimal capacity
Route voice and data traffic around the clock
Enable managers, employees, and customers to communicate effectively regardless of time, distance, or location
Managerial Factors – ( cont’d )
Key components of a typical network management system:
The manager - the network administrator manages the network via software loaded on a special workstation
Managed nodes - the manager monitors nodes or pieces of software call agents that communicate with the manager on behalf of the node
Objects - Ports on the managed node that the agent represents to the manager
Management Information Base (MIB) - software that defines the objects that can exist, based on the initial design of the database
Requests and Responses - uses SNMP to allow the manager and agents to work through pre-established cycles
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
High demand for Technical talent
Constructive & Timely Feedback
Recognition & Appreciation
Championing Staff Causes
Support Employee Career goals
Match Industry Standards for Salary
A network is a connection between at least two computers for the purpose of sharing resources.
Internet host numbers are divided into two parts: the network part (first two numbers) and the local part (second two numbers).
Messages, invoicing, and other information transmission on the Internet are made possible by protocols, standards, and other software that transmits information via packets through a cable to its destination.
The OSI Reference Model is a seven-layer model that defines the basic network functions.
The standard for the transport layer is TCP, which is the most popular standard used on the Internet.
Chapter Summary ( cont'd )
To communicate over a line, you need a modem, which converts incoming analog signals into digital signals.
Several factors need to be considered in designing a network: location, capacity, distance limitations, cost, potential growth, and security.
Factors to be considered in selecting network architecture include: hardware requirements, software requirements, disaster recovery and fault-tolerance requirements, and corporate culture and organizational factors.
The main implication of networking for management is that firms need to have a work environment that technical people find conducive for long-term employment and one that promotes a career path for qualified employees.