Ipd Lecture 2nd Week


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Ipd Lecture 2nd Week

  1. 1. Objectives of Lecture <ul><li>Have the students become familiar with the following: </li></ul><ul><li>1) The definitions of design, manufacturing and IPD </li></ul><ul><li>2) The various philosophies of design </li></ul><ul><li>3) The role of engineering, industrial design and business in new product development </li></ul><ul><li>4) The importance of innovation and new technology in materials and processes </li></ul><ul><li>5) Product development in the context of business </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Design Process: Introduction <ul><li>Design: to fashion something new after a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Design is the essence of engineering </li></ul><ul><li>To pull together -- synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy a recognized need of society </li></ul><ul><li>Learn design by experience </li></ul><ul><li>Science discovers -- engineers create </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis is an important tool for design </li></ul><ul><li>Domain of design is global </li></ul>
  3. 3. Design is a Process <ul><li>System, subsystem and component design </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential process </li></ul><ul><li>Iterative process </li></ul><ul><li>Starts and Ends with the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison and contrast to scientific method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need Concepts Feasibility Produce Sell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and cost as key factors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Major Models In the Course <ul><li>Ulrich and Eppinger </li></ul><ul><li>Roozenberg and Eckels </li></ul><ul><li>Pugh – Total Design </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors in Product Design </li></ul><ul><li>Many others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human-centered Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Design Methodology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Steps in the Design Process <ul><li>Recognition of a customer’s need </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering of information </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution, sales and customer support </li></ul>
  6. 6. Recognition of a Customer’s Needs <ul><li>Market research identifies customers and needs </li></ul><ul><li>R&D creates ideas that are relevant to an organization’s capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Needs arise from dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology push(examples computers, audio) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of a Problem <ul><li>Design Process and possible solutions depend on how the problem is defined </li></ul><ul><li>Define problem in broad terms </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth limited by time, money and other resources </li></ul><ul><li>Separate exiting solutions from the problem itself </li></ul><ul><li>Write down a formal problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>Include objectives and goals, constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Gather information and reevaluate statement </li></ul>
  8. 8. Definition of a Problem <ul><li>Create four categories of objectives/goals </li></ul><ul><li>Musts </li></ul><ul><li>Must Not's </li></ul><ul><li>Wants </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Want </li></ul><ul><li>In class exercise: Identify a common dissatisfaction with a common product. Each team create a problem definition. Compare definitions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gathering Information <ul><li>Previous exercise is just the start -- based on personal experience (i.e. only one or two customers--you!!) </li></ul><ul><li>Information needed is often not in text books, but in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Reports, trade journals, patents, handbooks etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts -- in-house or subcontractors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: Where can you find the right information? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you get it? Is it credible? Is it applicable to your needs? Is there ever enough information? ….. </li></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conceptualization <ul><li>Identify components, systems, chunks in various combinations to satisfy customer’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Employ inventiveness and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Employ models </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize </li></ul><ul><li>Think across disciplines and products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend analysis, Hierarchical Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be curious -- How things work? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evaluate Early and Often <ul><li>Weighing and judging at various steps </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical checks </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Sense-Check </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensional consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Limits and bounds </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense checks </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to freeze the concept -- just one more design iteration -- just one more feature </li></ul>
  12. 12. Communication <ul><li>Does the client really know what they want? </li></ul><ul><li>Written and Oral communication = 60% of engineers time </li></ul><ul><li>Dialog needed not periodic reports </li></ul><ul><li>Use what ever works: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale models Sketches Drawings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks-like mock ups CAD Model </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Morphology of Design <ul><li>Phase I. Feasibility Study </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II. Preliminary Design Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III. Detailed Design </li></ul><ul><li>Phase IV. Plan for Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Phase V. Plan for Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Phase VI. Plan for Use </li></ul><ul><li>Phase VII. Plan for Product Replacement </li></ul>
  14. 14. Other Design Considerations <ul><li>Functional Requirements – we will read Suh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic Vs Statistical Prediction Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reparability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Life Cycle-- materials, producibility, durability, recycle </li></ul><ul><li>Standards and regulations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other Design Considerations <ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Design for intentional misuse -- lawn mower </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors - Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Product characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of a kind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large expensive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to code </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Design Drawings <ul><li>Standard way (legal) to Communicate Design </li></ul><ul><li>Multiview layout </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly layout </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial views </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed drawings: Dimensions and Tolerances </li></ul><ul><li>Surface finish </li></ul><ul><li>Material and Process Notes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tolerances <ul><li>Interchangeability of part </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for mating parts </li></ul><ul><li>Classes of fit </li></ul><ul><li>Allowable variation of size, location and form </li></ul><ul><li>GD&T standards </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dimensions <ul><li>Identify mating features </li></ul><ul><li>Determine types and classes of fits (size variations) </li></ul><ul><li>Locate features from Datums </li></ul><ul><li>Use GD&T approach to apply location variation </li></ul><ul><li>Size other features </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Assembly </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sizes <ul><li>Rationalize size -- pump example </li></ul><ul><li>Use geometric rather than arithmetic--WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages to limit the number of sizes of a product: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spare parts </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Surface Roughness <ul><li>Roughness effects fatigue, wear, fit </li></ul><ul><li>Roughness specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Waviness </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and manufacturing operations </li></ul>
  21. 21. CAD/CAM/CAE <ul><li>Geometric modeling and down stream applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo realism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FEM/FEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinematic/dynamic simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Component analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process Simulation in the design stage </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Design to Standards <ul><li>Product Data Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering Change Management </li></ul><ul><li>Interface to Business Information Management </li></ul><ul><li>Data Exchange between vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Design Automation - parametric models, group technology </li></ul><ul><li>Design rules and codes (parametric design) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concurrent Engineering <ul><li>Replace by Integrated Product Development </li></ul><ul><li>Teams to include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product design people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production systems people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market analysis people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales, distribution and service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Design Review <ul><li>Design requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Operational requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability requirements </li></ul>
  25. 25. Objectives of Design Review <ul><li>Review and redesign focuses on achieving the performance, producibility, reliability and cost (As compared to what) objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Engineering of competitor’s products </li></ul><ul><li>Still must sell it to a customer </li></ul><ul><li>Early bird gets the profit </li></ul>