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Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
Ip Competitiveness Jaiya
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Ip Competitiveness Jaiya

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  • 1. The Role of Intellectual Property in Enhancing the Competitiveness of SMEs <ul><li>Dr. Guriqbal Singh Jaiya </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Division </li></ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.wipo.int/sme </li></ul>
  • 2. Background <ul><li>In September 2000, the WIPO Assemblies approved the creation of “a substantial new program of activities, focusing on the IP-related needs of SMEs worldwide” </li></ul><ul><li>SMEs Division established in October 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Nine professionals and three administrative staff in the SMEs Division of WIPO </li></ul>
  • 3. Strategy <ul><li>1. Demystification </li></ul><ul><li>2. New audience </li></ul><ul><li>3. New Areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Proactive </li></ul><ul><li>5. E-Services </li></ul><ul><li>6. Partnership </li></ul>
  • 4. (1) Demystification <ul><li>Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Guides </li></ul><ul><li>Events and expert missions </li></ul><ul><li>Website and newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Magazine articles </li></ul>
  • 5. (1) Demystification (Studies) <ul><li>National Studies (on IP and SMEs) completed or under way in Argentina, Bhutan, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Sierra Leone, Romania, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Paraguay, Egypt, Morocco, Lebanon </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO Survey of IP Services to Tenants of European Technology Incubators </li></ul><ul><li>Norwegian SMEs and the IPR system </li></ul>
  • 6. (1) Demystification (Guides) <ul><li>WIPO/ITC Guide on Marketing of Crafts and Visual Arts; Role of Intellectual Property; A practical guide </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO/ITC Guide on Secrets of Intellectual Property: Guide for Small and Medium Sized Exporters </li></ul><ul><li>WIPO/ITC Guide on Exchanging Value : Negotiating Technology Licensing Agreements - A Training Manual </li></ul><ul><li>ITC Guide on Exporting Automotive Components </li></ul><ul><li>ITC Guide on Pharmaceutical SMEs (Forthcoming) </li></ul>
  • 7.  
  • 8. (1) Demystification (Guides) <ul><li>Published </li></ul><ul><li>Making a Mark (Trademarks) </li></ul><ul><li>Looking Good (Designs) </li></ul><ul><li>Inventing the Future (Patents) </li></ul>
  • 9. (1) Demystification (Guides) <ul><li>Translation and/or customization : Under way, with funding from several sources, in the following countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel, Kenya, Lebanon, Malaysia, Malta, Mongolia, Morocco, New Zealand, Philippines, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Tanzania, Tunisia, Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>16 Countries members of the OAPI </li></ul>
  • 10. (1) Demystification (Events) <ul><li>Special programs, seminar and workshops organized by the SMEs Division in Geneva in partnership with selected associations and organizations (IASP, INSME, IPI, MOST, WASME) </li></ul><ul><li>Annual WIPO Forum on IP and SMEs for IP Offices of OECD Countries </li></ul>
  • 11. (1) Demystification (Events) <ul><li>WIPO-Italy Forum on Textile and Clothing Industries of the Mediterranean Basin Countries (Prato, Italy - December 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Participants from Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey </li></ul>
  • 12. (1) Demystification (Website) <ul><li>The Website of the SMEs Division is in six UN languages (English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Russian and Chinese) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60,000 pages viewed every month in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Contents include sections such as IP for Business, IP and E-Commerce, Activities, Best Practices, Case Studies and Documents </li></ul>
  • 13. (1) Demystification (Website)
  • 14. (1) Demystification (Newsletter) <ul><li>Monthly e-newsletter in the 6 UN languages (Free) </li></ul><ul><li>Content includes articles, updates with information, links and documents </li></ul><ul><li>Launched in August 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of subscribers: >19,000 </li></ul>
  • 15. (1) Demystification (CD-ROM) <ul><li>50,000 copies of the SMEs Division CD-ROM distributed to SME support institutions, IP Offices and others worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and customization </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning CD ROM (in partnership with KIPO: “IP Panorama” ) </li></ul><ul><li>SAARC CD-ROM (in preparation) </li></ul>
  • 16. (1) Demystification (Articles) <ul><li>Some articles recently published: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you are accused of copyright infringement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tapping into Patent Information: a buried treasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International trade in technology – licensing of know-how and trade secrets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Property and E-commerce: how to take care of your business’ website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore outsourcing and IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savvy marketing: merchandising of IP rights </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. (2) New Audience <ul><li>Bringing IP issues to SME events </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing new business perspective to IP events </li></ul><ul><li>New partnership: Open door policy </li></ul><ul><li>IGOs, government focal points, SME support, training and financial institutions, chambers of commerce and industry, SME associations, SME research institutions, private sector institutions, universities, etc... </li></ul>
  • 18. (3) New Areas <ul><li>Creative Industries </li></ul><ul><li>IP for financing (venture capital, securitization) </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting and valuation of IP assets </li></ul><ul><li>IP Asset Management, IP Due Diligence and IP Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal policies and IP (tax incentives for R&D activities, patenting, licensing etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>IP services to SMEs by incubators, technology parks, chambers of commerce and SME associations </li></ul><ul><li>IP needs of SMEs in agriculture, biotechnology, handicrafts, software, textiles, etc </li></ul>
  • 19. (4) Being Proactive <ul><li>Original Content </li></ul><ul><li>Links </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Case Studies </li></ul>
  • 20. (5) E-Services <ul><li>Web site content </li></ul><ul><li>SME mail </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail newsletter </li></ul><ul><li>Distance learning (proposed) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion forum (proposed) </li></ul>
  • 21. (6) Partnership <ul><li>National and Regional IP Offices </li></ul><ul><li>National SME focal points in government, private sector </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers of Commerce and Industry </li></ul><ul><li>SME Associations; Cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>Incubators, Science Parks, Technology Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Universities; R & D Institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Private Sector Consultants </li></ul><ul><li>SME Finance Institutions (including venture capitalists) </li></ul><ul><li>Other UN Agencies (ITC, ILO, UNIDO, AfDB) </li></ul>
  • 22. SME Competitiveness (I) <ul><li>In a knowledge-based economy, competitiveness of enterprises, including SMEs, is increasingly based on ability to provide high-value-added products at a competitive price </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization and trade liberalization has made it crucial for most enterprises, including SMEs, to become internationally competitive even when operating wholly in the domestic market </li></ul>
  • 23. SMEs Competitiveness (II) <ul><li>To become and remain competitive, SMEs need a coherent business strategy to constantly improve their efficiency, reduce production costs and enhance the reputation of their products by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investing in research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving management practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing creative and appealing designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectively marketing their products </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. SMEs Competitiveness (III) <ul><li>For this, SMEs must make significant investments of time and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Without intellectual property protection there is a strong risk that investments in R&D, product differentiation and marketing may be stolen/copied </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property rights enable SMEs to have exclusivity over the exploitation of their innovative new or original products, their creative designs and their brands. The exclusivity creates an appropriate incentive for investing in improving their competitiveness </li></ul>
  • 25. Centrality of Knowledge KNOWLEDGE underpins PERFORMANCE
  • 26. Pre -industrial era Industrial era The « knowledge economy »
  • 27. US COMPANIES’ INTANGIBLE ASSETS AS % OF TOTAL ASSETS
  • 28. Everything Depends on 5 Key Choices: <ul><li>Choosing the right business to be in </li></ul><ul><li>Creating the right strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Building the right systems </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the right organization </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the right people </li></ul>
  • 29. A business is a combination of ... <ul><li>Technology in the product or service, </li></ul><ul><li>Technology used to make the product or provide the service, </li></ul><ul><li>Features of the product or service, and </li></ul><ul><li>Customer needs met by the product or service, </li></ul>… that creates a potential or real economic relationship between a buyer and a seller.
  • 30. Major factors determining success of a new product in the market <ul><li>The product provides functional advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Lower price for comparable product </li></ul><ul><li>More attractive design (look) </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation of brand </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access: Available in the main retail shops </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent product quality </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent after-sales services </li></ul>
  • 31. Innovation <ul><li>May be expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Risky and full of uncertainties </li></ul><ul><li>Requires skilled labour </li></ul><ul><li>Results may be copied by others </li></ul>
  • 32. Innovation <ul><li>But: </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to advancement of Science ad Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to enhancing the competitiveness and technological capacity of a country / enterprise (SME) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances image of country / enterprise / university </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid technological dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Basic and Applied Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits/Results may be controlled through ownership linked to intellectual property rights </li></ul>
  • 33. The Innovation Process <ul><li>An innovation starts as an idea/concept that is refined and developed before application. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations may be inspired by reality (known problem). The innovation (new product development) process, which leads to useful technology, requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development (up-scaling, testing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience with a product results in feedback and leads to incrementally or radically improved innovations. </li></ul>
  • 34. Marketing principles……. <ul><li>Identify opportunities and threats </li></ul><ul><li>Identify customer needs </li></ul><ul><li>React to a competitive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Careful planning to make a New or improved product </li></ul><ul><li>Use the 4 P’s…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place (distribution) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retain flexibility to react to changes </li></ul>
  • 35. Product Development Strategies Old Market New Market Old Product New Product Market Penetration Product Development Market Development Product Diversification
  • 36. Entrepreneurship <ul><li>Entrepreneurship drives innovation , competitiveness, job creation and economic growth . </li></ul><ul><li>It allows new/innovative ideas to turn into successful ventures in high-tech sectors and/or can unlock the personal potential of disadvantaged people to create jobs for themselves and find a better place in society. </li></ul>
  • 37. Entrepreneurship <ul><li>Entrepreneurship , in small business or large, focuses on &quot;what may be&quot; or &quot;what can be&quot; . </li></ul><ul><li>One is practicing entrepreneurship by looking for what is needed, what is missing, what is changing, and what consumers will buy during the coming years. </li></ul>
  • 38. Entrepreneurship <ul><li>Entrepreneurs have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A passion for what they do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The creativity and ability to innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sense of independence and self- reliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Usually) a high level of self confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A willingness and capability (though not necessarily capacity or preference) for taking risks </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Entrepreneurship <ul><li>Entrepreneurs do not (usually) have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A tolerance for organizational bureaucracies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A penchant for following rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A structured approach to developing and implementing ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The foresight to plan a course of action once the idea is implemented and established </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Entrepreneurial Success 1. People (Entrepreneur /Entrepreneurial Team) 2. Opportunity (Marriage of Market and Product/Service) 3. Access to Resources (Land. Labor, Capital, Knowledge ) And the fit amongst these three elements
  • 41. New Product Development <ul><li>Stages in a New Product Development process: </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Generation </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Development and Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Business Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Beta Testing and Market Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Commercialization </li></ul>
  • 42. Basic Message 1 <ul><li>IP adds value at every stage of the value chain from creative/innovative idea to putting a new, better, and cheaper, product/service in the market: </li></ul>Literary / artistic creation Invention Financing Product Design Commercialization Marketing Licensing Exporting Patents / Utility Models Copyright Patents / Utility models Industrial Designs Trademarks Trademarks, Ind. Designs All IP rights All IP rights
  • 43. Basic Message 2 <ul><li>IP strategy should be an integral part of the overall business strategy of an SME </li></ul><ul><li>The IP strategy of an SME influenced by its creative/innovative capacity, financial resources, field of technology, competitive environment, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT : Ignoring the IP system altogether, as is often the case for SSIs, is in itself an IP strategy and may eventually prove costly </li></ul>
  • 44. Introduction to IP Management 1 <ul><li>Legal </li></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Export </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Tax </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Automation </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul>
  • 45. Introduction to IP Management 2 <ul><li>Trademarks (Brands) </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Patents and Utility Models </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright and Related Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Secrets </li></ul><ul><li>New Varieties of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Unfair Competition </li></ul>
  • 46. SMEs and Intellectual Property <ul><li>Patent for the fountain pen that could store ink </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Model for the grip and pipette for injection of ink </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Design: smart design with the grip in the shape of an arrow </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark : provided on the product and the packaging to distinguish it from other pens </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Japanese Patent Office </li></ul>
  • 47. Role of Brands In a highly competitive world, where manufacturers are losing their pricing power, branding is seen as a way of clawing back some of the lost influence
  • 48. But... <ul><li>Brand Building Requires Time a nd Money </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Nourishing Should be a Continuous Process </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Profile/Exposure, Greater its Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Often Target of Counterfeiting/Criminal Activities </li></ul>
  • 49. Creating a New or Stronger Image... … requires a VIABLE PRODUCT (based on creativity and Innovation)
  • 50. Trademarks <ul><li>Trademarks are identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarks are a guarantee of good quality </li></ul>
  • 51. “ Brand” Companies Nike... Adidas... Reebok... Levi-Strauss… … Own No Factories
  • 52. Trademarks <ul><li>Trademarks are valuable business assets </li></ul><ul><li>Interbrand 2003 Annual Survey of the world’s most valuable global brands: </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola: 70.45 billion US$ Microsoft : 65.17 billion US$ IBM: 51.71 US$. </li></ul>
  • 53. Value of a brand value is affected by... <ul><li>New inventions </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptability to change (Management, Employees) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in consumer tastes </li></ul><ul><li>Situation and trends in the economy </li></ul><ul><li>Industry trends and brands trends </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of technological developments </li></ul>
  • 54. Management of Brands <ul><li>Registration and renewal; domestic or abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark/Brand Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment (with or without the business) </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing (Exclusive or non-exclusive; Quality Control; registered user) </li></ul><ul><li>Franchising </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Tax Liability (M & A; Divestiture) </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul>
  • 55. Case study on Trademark Protection <ul><li>An Italian businessman buys unmarked t-shirts from manufacturers of generic clothing, attaches his trademark (Pickwick®, which pictures a rebellious-looking teenager) and begins to sell them to retail stores </li></ul><ul><li>Started in a garage in the periphery of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Today the Pickwick trademark is perceived by Italian teenagers as a synonym of style and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Pickwick has began to export its products across Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Its trademark is its most valuable asset. </li></ul>
  • 56. Collective Mark <ul><ul><li>Woolmark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>registered by the Woolmark Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a quality assurance symbol denoting that the products on which it is applied, are made from 100% wool and comply with strict performance specification set down by the Woolmark Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>registered in over 140 countries </li></ul></ul>
  • 57. Case Study on Geographical Indications <ul><li>Tequila </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1977 Tequila was registered as a geographical indication in Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tequila registered through Lisbon agreement and mutual recognition agreements with the EU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Mexican producers from 5 specified regions of the country (where the raw material “agave” grows) are entitled to produce Tequila </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 190 million liters produced annually, employment giving direct employment to over 36,000 Mexicans </li></ul></ul>
  • 58. Industrial Designs <ul><li>Business point of view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make your product appealing to consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customize products in order to target different customers (e.g. Swatch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the brand (e.g. Apple ’s « Think Different » strategy) </li></ul></ul>
  • 59. Industrial Design Contd. <ul><li>Rocking Kangaroo (wood) registered in Australia in 1995 by Daniel Gasser </li></ul>
  • 60. Industrial Design Contd. <ul><ul><li>Chair, registered in Australia in August 5, 1985 by Raymond Leslie Strachan and Brenda Mary Strachan, trading as Strachan Woodworks </li></ul></ul>
  • 61. Case Study on Industrial Design Protection <ul><li>Trax® is a system of public seating manufactured by OMK Design Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed for British Rail. Had to be visually appealing , comfortable and weather-resistant </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990, installed in railway stations in UK </li></ul><ul><li>12 years later, installed in over 60 airports </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial design protection in UK, France, Germany, Italy, Benelux, Australia and the US has guaranteed a degree of exclusivity keeping imitators away </li></ul>
  • 62. Case Study on Trade Secrets Monday April 9 3:45 AM ET Fruit of the Loom Sues Competitor CHICAGO (AP) - Fruit of the Loom is suing competitor Gildan Activewear Inc., accusing the Montreal company of stealing trade secrets to grab a competitive edge in the cutthroat apparel business. Fruit of the Loom contends the reports include production goals for plants in El Salvador, Honduras and Mexico that would allow Gildan to estimate production costs . They detail sales to specific customers, trends in demand and budget information.
  • 63. Case Study:FBI Arrests Man Selling Software Debug Code <ul><li>HINDUSTAN TIMES, New Delhi, August 28, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Shekhar Verma arrested August 25, Ashok Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric Software Solutions Limited (GSSL) </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality Agreement (Not to disclose, sell, transfer, or assign any information on the project </li></ul><ul><li>US Software Giant, SOLID Works, engaged GSSL for debugging source Code of “Solid Works 2001 Plus” </li></ul><ul><li>Left GSSL in June 2002; took copy of source code </li></ul>
  • 64. Patents Example: ring-pull cans The inventor licensed the system to Coca-Cola at 1/10 of a penny per can. During the period of validity of the patent the inventor obtained 148,000 UK pounds a day on royalties.
  • 65. Patents <ul><li>Patents reward disclosure rather than secrecy </li></ul>
  • 66. Total Number of Patent Documents Worldwide <ul><li>There are 40 million patent documents worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>The 40 million patent documents describe approximately 13 . 5 million inventions </li></ul><ul><li>On the average, for every invention a patent is applied for in three different countries </li></ul>
  • 67. Ever Increasing Number of Patent Documents <ul><li>Every year almost 1,000,000 patent documents (patent applications and granted patents) were published over the past 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Every 30 seconds a new patent document is added to the vast technical library of patent documents </li></ul>
  • 68. Content of a Patent Document <ul><li>Identification information (business) </li></ul><ul><li>Legal information </li></ul><ul><li>Technical information </li></ul>
  • 69. Claims <ul><li>A series of numbered statements in a patent specification, usually following the description, that define the invention and establish the scope of the monopoly conferred by the patent. </li></ul><ul><li>At least one such statement (usually the first) will be self contained - this is known as an independent claim . Others may refer to previous claims and using wording such as ”... as claimed in claim 1 or claim 2...” - these are known as dependent claims . </li></ul>
  • 70. Technical Information Contained in a Patent Document <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background and discussion of relevant prior art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem to be solved by the invention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solution to the problem in broad terms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed description with examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawings where appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Search results </li></ul><ul><li>International Patent Classification </li></ul>
  • 71. Advantages of Patent Documents as a Source of Technological Information <ul><li>Most current and up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform structure makes reading easier </li></ul><ul><li>Not published elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Well organized due to classification system </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated information </li></ul><ul><li>Quick and easy access (internet) </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul>
  • 72. Patent Protection <ul><ul><li>Provides the exclusive right to commercialize the innovative product in the selected markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates the licensing or sale of an invention to foreign firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the negotiating power of a firm vis-à-vis competitors (particularly good for cross-licensing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May enhance the image of the company (in the eyes of investors, partners, consumers) as being technologically developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates the establishment of partnerships and joint ventures in domestic and foreign markets </li></ul></ul>
  • 73. Case study on Patent Protection <ul><li>Case study on the commercialization of a patented product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Croatian pharmaceutical company (Pliva) discovers new antibiotic (Azythromicin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pliva applies for patent protection in Croatia and in various potential export markets using the Patent Cooperation Treaty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large pharmaceutical company (Pfizer) searches patent databases and discovers the Pliva patent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pliva licenses Pfizer to produce the antibiotic in the US as well as in some other countries in Western Europe, while Pliva maintains the exclusive right to commercialize the antibiotic in Eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
  • 74. COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS <ul><li>Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Performing Rights (Musical and Dramatic Works) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Make Derivative Works </li></ul><ul><li>General Designs and Vessel Hull Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Translations Constitute Derivative Works, </li></ul>
  • 75. WHAT IS A COPYRIGHT? Among other things, a copyright is the right to make copies A copyright is a bundle of rights that include the right to reproduce, prepare derivative works, distribute copies, perform the work publicly (live performance), display the copyrighted work publicly, and in the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of digital audio transmission (webcast).
  • 76. WHAT DOES COPYRIGHT COVER? <ul><li>Artistic works that typically appeal to the senses such as sight and sound. Original Works of Authorship </li></ul>Examples: Books, plays, poems, sculptures, dolls, vessel hull designs, paintings, photographs, computer programs, news papers, furniture, websites, magazines, architectural works, motion pictures, audiovisual works, dance steps, designs
  • 77. Checklist <ul><li>Integrate IP into the company’s business strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that trade secrets are kept within the enterprise and prepare, where appropriate, confidentiality agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure that patentable inventions are not shared with others or published before filing a patent application </li></ul><ul><li>For export-oriented firms, make sure IP is protected in all potential export markets </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that any modifications and/or improvements to protected inventions are further protected </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure maintenance fees are paid on time </li></ul>
  • 78. Checklist Contd... <ul><ul><li>Use patent information available in patent databases to develop your business strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When conducting joint research with other enterprises or research institutes, or when engaging external consultants make sure that there is sufficient clarity on who will own potential IP generated from the research project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the market and make sure that your IP assets are not being infringed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your IP portfolio as leverage when seeking sources to finance your business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct an IP Audit </li></ul></ul>
  • 79. Thank You Guriqbal Singh Jaiya [email_address] www.wipo.int/sme/en/index.html www.wipo.org

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