Inventions And Discoveries


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Inventions And Discoveries

  1. 1. Applied Technology Discoveries Inventions
  2. 2. Conundrum <ul><li>Since No Hypothesis is Verifiable or Falsifiable, </li></ul><ul><li>how do we get Inventions or Discoveries To work? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conundrum Resolved <ul><li>Even if an Hypothesis underlies an Invention, one realizes an invention through trial and error. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of an inventive idea to practice is through experimentation or through an accumulation of Observations (try,try, and try again). </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis is a purported relationship between or among observations. Observations are made, not proven. </li></ul><ul><li>By definition, discovery is not derived from theory. Discovery is an unanticipated event . </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Matters of Life and Death </li></ul><ul><li>1900: Patients battle illness, while doctors can do little more than counsel and comfort them and keep them clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: Doctors treat and often cure patients with a vast array of medicines and medical technologies, but some diseases are still incurable. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mysteries of the Universe <ul><li>1900: The Milky Way galaxy (including some unexplained nebular clouds) is the known universe. Newton's laws explain the physical world. Matter is composed of atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: The Milky Way is just one galaxy among countless millions we have observed in the universe. There is no set of laws that explains all phenomena in the physical world, although there are many theories. Atoms are composed of many subatomic particles, all of which derive from energy. </li></ul>
  6. 6. In Search of Ourselves <ul><li>1900: There is no cure for the mentally ill, who are confined to insane asylums. &quot;Mind&quot; and &quot;body&quot; are thought of as two separate things. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: Mental illness can be treated with a range of therapies and medications. We know a great deal about the chemistry and the parts of the brain that control our behavior and thoughts. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Bigger, Better, Faster <ul><li>1900: The only way to view the Olympic games in Paris is in person. News about the games travels to America via telegraph and is printed in newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: Millions worldwide will watch the 2004 Greek Olympics on television, transmitted instantaneously by satellite. The news will spread as well by radio, newspaper, and the World Wide Web. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Origins <ul><li>1900: There is no good explanation for catastrophic events such as earthquakes. The Earth is thought to be a mere 50 million years old, and the evolution of species is hotly debated. </li></ul><ul><li>Today: The plates that make up the Earth's crust move over time, causing earthquakes and volcanoes. The earth is known to be 4,500 million years old. The genetic code of DNA, which drives evolution, is better understood every day. </li></ul>
  9. 9. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1900   Freud's book, &quot;The Interpretation of Dreams&quot; released </li></ul><ul><li>1900   Planck discovers the quantum nature of energy </li></ul><ul><li>1901   Marconi receives radio signal over Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>1903   Wright brothers fly first motorized plane </li></ul><ul><li>1905   Binet pioneers intelligence testing </li></ul><ul><li>1905   Einstein publishes the special theory of relativity </li></ul><ul><li>1907   Radiometric dating finds Earth is 2.2 billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>1909   Ehrlich finds cure for syphilis </li></ul><ul><li>1912   Leavitt sees correlation between Cepheids' period and luminosity </li></ul><ul><li>1912   Wegener proposes idea of continental drift </li></ul>
  10. 10. In 1901 Max Planck (1858 - 1947) devised a theory that perfectly described the experimental evidence, but part of it was a radical new idea: energy did not flow in a steady continuum, but was delivered in discrete packets Planck later called quanta.
  11. 11. Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) read an article that grabbed his attention. The article suggested the possibility of using radio waves to communicate without wires.The year was 1894, and the most modern way to send a message was over telegraph wires. (Heinrich Herz, for whom the units hertz and megahertz are named, had discovered and first produced radio waves in 1888.)
  12. 12. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1913   Ford installs first moving assembly line </li></ul><ul><li>1913   Rutherford and Bohr describe atomic structure </li></ul><ul><li>1913   Watson launches behaviorist school of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>1915   Einstein announces the general theory of relativity </li></ul><ul><li>1915   Pellagra shown to be dietary disease </li></ul><ul><li>1920   Electric consumer appliances proliferate </li></ul><ul><li>1920   KDKA begins to broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>1922   Banting and Best isolate insulin </li></ul><ul><li>1923   Eugenics movement reaches its height </li></ul><ul><li>1923   Piaget describes stages of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>1924   Hubble identifies a new galaxy </li></ul><ul><li>1926   Television is developed </li></ul><ul><li>1927   Big bang theory is introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1927   Heisenberg the states uncertainty principle </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ford installs first moving assembly line 1913
  14. 14. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1928 Fleming discovers penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>1929   Hubble finds proof that the universe is expanding </li></ul><ul><li>1931   Lawrence invents the cyclotron </li></ul><ul><li>1932   Chadwick discovers the neutron </li></ul><ul><li>1935   Moniz develops lobotomy for mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>1935   Nylon is invented </li></ul>
  15. 15. In 1934 they pulled their first long, strong, flexible strands of a synthetic polymer fiber out of a test tube. The corporation patented it as &quot; nylon &quot; Wallace Carothers (1896 - 1937)
  16. 16. DR. EGAS MONIZ (1875-1955) <ul><li>Moniz who was born in Portugal, studied medicine in the University of Coimbra and neurology in Bordeaux and Paris. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of Neurology but he entered politics and served as minister of Foreign Affairs and later as Ambassador to Spain. He left politics, returned to the University of Coimbra where he conceived visualization of cerebral blood vessels by roentgenography. The medium he developed with comparative safety was sodium iodide. When colloidal thorium dioxide was developed he followed up this lead for cerebral angiography to visualize intracranial tumor, vascular abnormalities, aneurysms. He also developed frontal leucotomy for psychology. Both cerebral angiography and psychosurgery have given him lasting fame. </li></ul>
  17. 17. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1938   Electroshock therapy introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1942   Fermi creates controlled nuclear reaction </li></ul><ul><li>1945   ENIAC is built </li></ul><ul><li>1945   The first atomic bomb is detonated </li></ul><ul><li>1947   Libby introduces radiocarbon dating </li></ul><ul><li>1947   Transistor is invented </li></ul><ul><li>1950   Drugs developed for leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>1952   Drug for treating schizophrenia identified </li></ul><ul><li>1952   Salk produces polio vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>1953   Amino acids are created in laboratory </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transistor is invented 1947. The group was led by William Shockley and included Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and others, physicists who had worked with quantum theory , especially in solids. After two years of frustrating but very exciting work, Bardeen and Brattain created an amplifying circuit that seemed to work, using the element germanium.
  19. 19. Salk produces polio vaccine 1952
  20. 20. . A bank of blinking lights indicate the mysterious processes going on within: That classic symbol of a computer has lasted long after computers evolved into friendly desktop tools. This was not a dream of science fiction, but a representation of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer), the gigantic machine credited with starting the modern computer age ENIAC is built 1945 (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer)
  21. 21. The first atomic bomb is detonated 1945
  22. 22. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1953   Great Global Rift is discovered </li></ul><ul><li>1953   Piltdown Man is revealed as fake </li></ul><ul><li>1953   Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>1954   First successful kidney transplant performed </li></ul><ul><li>1959   Leakey family discovers human ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>1960   Hess proposes sea-floor spreading </li></ul><ul><li>1962   Rachel Carlson’s &quot;Silent Spring&quot; is published </li></ul>
  23. 23. Watson and Crick used Randall’s data and that of other scientists to build their ultimately correct and detailed description of DNA's structure in 1953. Franklin was not bitter, but pleased, and set out to publish a corroborating report of the Watson-Crick model. Her career was eventually cut short by illness. It is a tremendous shame that Franklin did not receive due credit for her essential role in this discovery, either during her lifetime or after her untimely death at age 37 due to cancer Rosalind Franklin (1920 - 1958)
  24. 24. Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA 1953
  25. 25. Disturbed by the profligate use of synthetic chemical pesticides after World War II, Rachel Carson reluctantly changed her focus in order to warn the public about the long term effects of misusing pesticides. In Silent Spring (1962) she challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world.
  26. 26. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1963   Magnetic bands provide evidence of sea-floor spreading </li></ul><ul><li>1965   Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation </li></ul><ul><li>1967   Bell and Hewish discover pulsars </li></ul><ul><li>1969   Apollo astronauts land on the Moon </li></ul><ul><li>1971   First commercial microprocessor is introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1972 CT scan and MRI introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1974   Johanson finds 3.2 million-year-old Lucy </li></ul>
  27. 27. Neil Armstrong as he was preparing for his Gemini VIII mission, March 16, 1966. Armstrong who was also an X-15 pilot had the honor of being the first man to set foot on the surface of the moon at 10:56 P.M., July 20, 1969, during the mission of Apollo XI .
  28. 28. Apollo astronauts land on the Moon 1969
  29. 29. Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation 1965
  30. 30. . Johanson ignored the counselor's advice, pursued higher education, and won his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Chicago. Within a year of earning his doctorate, he made news around the world with a discovery that dramatically altered our understanding of human evolution. The fossilized bones of a creature Johanson called Lucy constitute the oldest, most complete specimen of an extinct species which was not human, but from which the human race may be descended
  31. 31. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1975   Personal computer industry is launched </li></ul><ul><li>1975   Role of endorphins discovered </li></ul><ul><li>1976   Cosmic string theory introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1977   Life is found near deep ocean vents </li></ul><ul><li>1980   World Health Organization declares smallpox eradicated </li></ul><ul><li>1980   Alvarez finds evidence of dinosaur-killing asteroid </li></ul>
  32. 32. People and Discoveries <ul><li>1981   AIDS is officially recognized </li></ul><ul><li>1987   Antidepressant Prozac introduced </li></ul><ul><li>1992   The Internet gives rise to the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>1993   Search for behavioral genes </li></ul><ul><li>1994   4.4 million-year-old human ancestor is found </li></ul><ul><li>1996   Meteorite from Mars points to possibility of life on other planets </li></ul>
  33. 33. People and Inventions Overview 1900 to 2003 <ul><li>Inventors and their inventions from 1900 to 2003 have come to dominate our lives. Here are a few of the major inventions and their inventors from the twentieth and twenty first Century . </li></ul>
  34. 34. People and Inventions <ul><li>Orville/Wilber Wright First powered flight (1903). </li></ul><ul><li>John Fleming Invented the diode (1904) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Hulsmeyer The first radar system used in shipping (1904) </li></ul><ul><li>Leo Baekeland Inventor of plastic (1905) </li></ul><ul><li>Reginald Fessenden Invented radio broadcasting (1906) </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Phelps Jacob Invented the bra (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Gidoen Sundback Invented the zip (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>John Thompson Invented the sub-machine gun (1920) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Orville and Wilbur Wright are credited with making the first successful manned controlled powered flight on December 17 th 1903. However, the Wright brothers did not start the process of making a heavier than air powered flight .
  36. 36. People and Inventions <ul><li>Fred. Banting / Charles Best Isolated insulin (1921) </li></ul><ul><li>Karel Capek Invented the first robot (1921) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarence Birdseye Started the idea of frozen food (1924) </li></ul><ul><li>John Logie Baird Invented the television London (1925) </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Goddard Invented liquid fuel rocket (1926) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Whittle The jet engine (1930) </li></ul>
  37. 37. In 1927, Baird demonstrated colour television and a video-recording system he called a &quot;Phonovision&quot;. In 1928, Baird made the first transatlantic television transmission and one year later he started regular 30-line mechanical broadcasts.
  38. 38. In 1926, Goddard launched his first prototype rocket, called Nell, at his aunt’s farm. Nell stood 10 feet tall. When its oxygen-gasoline fuel mix was ignited, nothing happened….at first. Then the ignition caught and Nell was launched at 60 mph and climbed to a modest 14 metres before falling back into a cabbage patch.
  39. 39. Antibiotics transformed medicine. <ul><li>One of the most important medical advances in history began by accident. On the morning of September 3 rd , 1928, Professor Alexander Fleming was having a clear up of his cluttered laboratory. He was sorting through a number of glass plates which had previously been coated with staphyloccus bacteria as part of research Fleming was doing. One of the plates had mould on it. The mould was in the shape of a ring and the area around the ring seemed to be free of the bacteria staphyloccus. The mould was penicillium notatum. Fleming had a life long interest in ways of killing off bacteria and he concluded that the bacteria on the plate around the ring had been killed off by some substance that had come from the mould. </li></ul>
  40. 40. People and Inventions <ul><li>Percy Shaw Inventor of cats eyes - road safety (1934) </li></ul><ul><li>Laszlo Jose Biro Invented the ball point pen (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Igor Sikorsky Inventor of the modern helicopter (1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Enrico Fermi First nuclear reactor Chicago (1942) </li></ul><ul><li>Willem Kolff Invented the kidney dialysis machine (1944) </li></ul><ul><li>Percy Spencer Invented the microwave oven (1946) </li></ul><ul><li>George de Mestral Invented Velcro (1948) </li></ul>
  41. 41. In 1939, Igor Sikorsky built and flew his VS-300 in America. His machine had the familiar single main lifting engine and an engine mounted at the rear which gave the pilot directional control. The VS-300 had an open-plan cockpit.
  42. 42. People and Inventions <ul><li>Carl Djerassi Developed the contraceptive pill (1951) </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Christopher Cockerell Invented the hovercraft (1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Jonas Salk Made the vaccine for polio (1955) </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Kilby First microchip (1958) </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson Greatbatch Invented the first heart pacemaker (1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Engelbart Invented the computer mouse (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>Stephanie Kwolek Invented kevlar (1966) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Upon receiving his M.D., Jonas Salk began his studies in immunization against influenza, trying to develop a vaccine against this disease. His attention was caught by the study of poliomyelitis, which led to the development of the now-famous Salk Vaccine against polio.
  44. 44. Wilson Greatbatch is known for inventing the implantable cardiac pacemaker. The pacemaker has been used in over three million heart patients helping them live longer and better. Mr. Greatbatch has a lifelong commitment to improving and refining his invention. He currently holds more than 240 patents and is member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame and the National Academy of Engineering. Wilson was born in Western New York and currently lives near a dairy farm outside of Buffalo. cardiac pacemaker Wilson Greatbatch
  45. 45. People and Inventions <ul><li>J. Kilby, J. Merryman and J. von Tassel The portable calculator (1967) </li></ul><ul><li>George Gray Invented the LCD and LED (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Herbert Boyer Genetic engineering (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Akio Morita Personal stereo (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners-Lee World Wide Web (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Wilmut First cloned sheep - Dolly (1997) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal
  47. 47. Inventions 2000+ <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions of 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly transformer fluid from vegetable oils invented by T.V. Oommen . </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid Sense infusion pump invented (automatic and standardized intravenous applicator). </li></ul>
  48. 48. Inventions 2000+ <ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions of 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>AbioCor artificial heart invented by Abiomed - the Abiocor represents groundbreaking medical miniaturization technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Nuvaring birth control invented by Organon. </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel cell bike invented by Aprilia. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-cleaning windows invented by PPG Industries. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The AbioCor™ Implantable Replacement Heart
  50. 50. Inventions 2000+ <ul><ul><ul><li>Inventions of 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson. </li></ul><ul><li>Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau. </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-tex - nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented by Nano-tex LLC. </li></ul><ul><li>Birth control patch invented by Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical. </li></ul><ul><li>Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill. </li></ul><ul><li>Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Tower invented by Jorge Schlaich. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB. </li></ul><ul><li>ICOPOD invented by Sanford Ponder. </li></ul>
  51. 51. These stylish shelters were a big hit at the Burning Man festival this summer, but they're not just for fun. Fashioned from a single piece of laminated paperboard (plus a floor and a door), they are sturdy, wind resistant, waterproof, well insulated and require no special skills or tools to assemble — perfect, according to their inventor, for use as temporary housing in a war or a natural disaster. The Shade Pod, an open-air version with legs, is just right for lawn parties. ICOPOD
  52. 52. Inventions 2000+ <ul><li>Inventions of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Camouflage System invented by Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami, and Naoki Kawakami </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota's Hybrid Car </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink </li></ul><ul><li>New Toy Robots: Max the robotic cat invented by Omron , LUCKY, THE ROVING ROBO-RAPTOR invented by Walt Disney Imagineering, and Sony builds Aibo a companion called Orio </li></ul><ul><li>New Fabrics, Salmon Skin Leather invented by Claudia Escobar and Skini , Luminex a glowing fabric invented by Luminex.  </li></ul><ul><li>Java Log - (log for your fireplace made from used coffee grinds) invented by Rod Sprules </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency </li></ul><ul><li>The No-Contact Jacket invented by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, protects the wearer by electric shocking any attackers.  </li></ul>
  53. 53. Salmon Skin Leather <ul><li>Pioneers in Haute Couture fashion garments. </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful Exotic Innovative Eco-Friendly designs. </li></ul><ul><li>A hand-made exclusive collection.   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>SKINILONDON, The Studio, 22, Inks Green, Chingford, London E4 9EL, ENGLAND, U.K. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide: Tel: INT CODE + 208 926 6877 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: INT CODE + 208 925 8708 </li></ul><ul><li>UK: Tel: 0208 926 6877 </li></ul><ul><li>Fax: 0208 925 8708 </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  54. 54. Inventions 2000+ <ul><li>Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundation. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Inventions 2000+ Bridge Tilts for Boat Traffic
  56. 56. Inventions 2000+ Rocket Plane
  57. 57. Inventions 2000+ Plane/Boat
  58. 58. Inventions 2000+ <ul><li>Braille Glove invented by Ryan Patterson . </li></ul>
  59. 59. Inventions 2000+ Wireless Kanji Translator
  60. 60. Inventions 2000+ Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency
  61. 61. Inventions 2000+ Max the robotic cat
  62. 62. Inventions 2000+ Toyota's Hybrid Car
  63. 63. Inventions 2000+