1900: The Milky Way galaxy (including some unexplained nebular clouds) is the known universe. Newton's laws explain the physical world. Matter is composed of atoms.
Today: The Milky Way is just one galaxy among countless millions we have observed in the universe. There is no set of laws that explains all phenomena in the physical world, although there are many theories. Atoms are composed of many subatomic particles, all of which derive from energy.
1900: There is no good explanation for catastrophic events such as earthquakes. The Earth is thought to be a mere 50 million years old, and the evolution of species is hotly debated.
Today: The plates that make up the Earth's crust move over time, causing earthquakes and volcanoes. The earth is known to be 4,500 million years old. The genetic code of DNA, which drives evolution, is better understood every day.
1900 Freud's book, "The Interpretation of Dreams" released
1900 Planck discovers the quantum nature of energy
1901 Marconi receives radio signal over Atlantic
1903 Wright brothers fly first motorized plane
1905 Binet pioneers intelligence testing
1905 Einstein publishes the special theory of relativity
1907 Radiometric dating finds Earth is 2.2 billion years old
1909 Ehrlich finds cure for syphilis
1912 Leavitt sees correlation between Cepheids' period and luminosity
1912 Wegener proposes idea of continental drift
In 1901 Max Planck (1858 - 1947) devised a theory that perfectly described the experimental evidence, but part of it was a radical new idea: energy did not flow in a steady continuum, but was delivered in discrete packets Planck later called quanta.
Guglielmo Marconi (1874 - 1937) read an article that grabbed his attention. The article suggested the possibility of using radio waves to communicate without wires.The year was 1894, and the most modern way to send a message was over telegraph wires. (Heinrich Herz, for whom the units hertz and megahertz are named, had discovered and first produced radio waves in 1888.)
Moniz who was born in Portugal, studied medicine in the University of Coimbra and neurology in Bordeaux and Paris. He returned to the University of Coimbra as Chairman of Neurology but he entered politics and served as minister of Foreign Affairs and later as Ambassador to Spain. He left politics, returned to the University of Coimbra where he conceived visualization of cerebral blood vessels by roentgenography. The medium he developed with comparative safety was sodium iodide. When colloidal thorium dioxide was developed he followed up this lead for cerebral angiography to visualize intracranial tumor, vascular abnormalities, aneurysms. He also developed frontal leucotomy for psychology. Both cerebral angiography and psychosurgery have given him lasting fame.
Transistor is invented 1947. The group was led by William Shockley and included Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and others, physicists who had worked with quantum theory , especially in solids. After two years of frustrating but very exciting work, Bardeen and Brattain created an amplifying circuit that seemed to work, using the element germanium.
. A bank of blinking lights indicate the mysterious processes going on within: That classic symbol of a computer has lasted long after computers evolved into friendly desktop tools. This was not a dream of science fiction, but a representation of ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer), the gigantic machine credited with starting the modern computer age ENIAC is built 1945 (Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer)
1962 Rachel Carlson’s "Silent Spring" is published
Watson and Crick used Randall’s data and that of other scientists to build their ultimately correct and detailed description of DNA's structure in 1953. Franklin was not bitter, but pleased, and set out to publish a corroborating report of the Watson-Crick model. Her career was eventually cut short by illness. It is a tremendous shame that Franklin did not receive due credit for her essential role in this discovery, either during her lifetime or after her untimely death at age 37 due to cancer Rosalind Franklin (1920 - 1958)
Watson and Crick describe structure of DNA 1953
Disturbed by the profligate use of synthetic chemical pesticides after World War II, Rachel Carson reluctantly changed her focus in order to warn the public about the long term effects of misusing pesticides. In Silent Spring (1962) she challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world.
1963 Magnetic bands provide evidence of sea-floor spreading
1965 Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation
1967 Bell and Hewish discover pulsars
1969 Apollo astronauts land on the Moon
1971 First commercial microprocessor is introduced
1972 CT scan and MRI introduced
1974 Johanson finds 3.2 million-year-old Lucy
Neil Armstrong as he was preparing for his Gemini VIII mission, March 16, 1966. Armstrong who was also an X-15 pilot had the honor of being the first man to set foot on the surface of the moon at 10:56 P.M., July 20, 1969, during the mission of Apollo XI .
Penzias and Wilson discover cosmic microwave radiation 1965
. Johanson ignored the counselor's advice, pursued higher education, and won his Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Chicago. Within a year of earning his doctorate, he made news around the world with a discovery that dramatically altered our understanding of human evolution. The fossilized bones of a creature Johanson called Lucy constitute the oldest, most complete specimen of an extinct species which was not human, but from which the human race may be descended
Orville/Wilber Wright First powered flight (1903).
John Fleming Invented the diode (1904)
Christian Hulsmeyer The first radar system used in shipping (1904)
Leo Baekeland Inventor of plastic (1905)
Reginald Fessenden Invented radio broadcasting (1906)
Mary Phelps Jacob Invented the bra (1913)
Gidoen Sundback Invented the zip (1913)
John Thompson Invented the sub-machine gun (1920)
Orville and Wilbur Wright are credited with making the first successful manned controlled powered flight on December 17 th 1903. However, the Wright brothers did not start the process of making a heavier than air powered flight .
Fred. Banting / Charles Best Isolated insulin (1921)
Karel Capek Invented the first robot (1921)
Clarence Birdseye Started the idea of frozen food (1924)
John Logie Baird Invented the television London (1925)
Robert Goddard Invented liquid fuel rocket (1926)
Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin (1928)
Frank Whittle The jet engine (1930)
In 1927, Baird demonstrated colour television and a video-recording system he called a "Phonovision". In 1928, Baird made the first transatlantic television transmission and one year later he started regular 30-line mechanical broadcasts.
In 1926, Goddard launched his first prototype rocket, called Nell, at his aunt’s farm. Nell stood 10 feet tall. When its oxygen-gasoline fuel mix was ignited, nothing happened….at first. Then the ignition caught and Nell was launched at 60 mph and climbed to a modest 14 metres before falling back into a cabbage patch.
One of the most important medical advances in history began by accident. On the morning of September 3 rd , 1928, Professor Alexander Fleming was having a clear up of his cluttered laboratory. He was sorting through a number of glass plates which had previously been coated with staphyloccus bacteria as part of research Fleming was doing. One of the plates had mould on it. The mould was in the shape of a ring and the area around the ring seemed to be free of the bacteria staphyloccus. The mould was penicillium notatum. Fleming had a life long interest in ways of killing off bacteria and he concluded that the bacteria on the plate around the ring had been killed off by some substance that had come from the mould.
Percy Shaw Inventor of cats eyes - road safety (1934)
Laszlo Jose Biro Invented the ball point pen (1938)
Igor Sikorsky Inventor of the modern helicopter (1939)
Enrico Fermi First nuclear reactor Chicago (1942)
Willem Kolff Invented the kidney dialysis machine (1944)
Percy Spencer Invented the microwave oven (1946)
George de Mestral Invented Velcro (1948)
In 1939, Igor Sikorsky built and flew his VS-300 in America. His machine had the familiar single main lifting engine and an engine mounted at the rear which gave the pilot directional control. The VS-300 had an open-plan cockpit.
Carl Djerassi Developed the contraceptive pill (1951)
Sir Christopher Cockerell Invented the hovercraft (1955)
Jonas Salk Made the vaccine for polio (1955)
Jack Kilby First microchip (1958)
Wilson Greatbatch Invented the first heart pacemaker (1960)
Douglas Engelbart Invented the computer mouse (1964)
Stephanie Kwolek Invented kevlar (1966)
Upon receiving his M.D., Jonas Salk began his studies in immunization against influenza, trying to develop a vaccine against this disease. His attention was caught by the study of poliomyelitis, which led to the development of the now-famous Salk Vaccine against polio.
Wilson Greatbatch is known for inventing the implantable cardiac pacemaker. The pacemaker has been used in over three million heart patients helping them live longer and better. Mr. Greatbatch has a lifelong commitment to improving and refining his invention. He currently holds more than 240 patents and is member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame and the National Academy of Engineering. Wilson was born in Western New York and currently lives near a dairy farm outside of Buffalo. cardiac pacemaker Wilson Greatbatch
Phone tooth invented by James Auger and Jimmy Loizeau.
Nano-tex - nanotechnology wearable fabrics invented by Nano-tex LLC.
Birth control patch invented by Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical.
Foveon Camera Chip invented by Richard Merrill.
Date Rape Drug Spotter invented by Francisco Guerra.
Solar Tower invented by Jorge Schlaich.
Virtual keyboard invented by Canesta and VKB.
ICOPOD invented by Sanford Ponder.
These stylish shelters were a big hit at the Burning Man festival this summer, but they're not just for fun. Fashioned from a single piece of laminated paperboard (plus a floor and a door), they are sturdy, wind resistant, waterproof, well insulated and require no special skills or tools to assemble — perfect, according to their inventor, for use as temporary housing in a war or a natural disaster. The Shade Pod, an open-air version with legs, is just right for lawn parties. ICOPOD
Optical Camouflage System invented by Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami, and Naoki Kawakami
Toyota's Hybrid Car
Ice Bike invented by Dan Hanebrink
New Toy Robots: Max the robotic cat invented by Omron , LUCKY, THE ROVING ROBO-RAPTOR invented by Walt Disney Imagineering, and Sony builds Aibo a companion called Orio
New Fabrics, Salmon Skin Leather invented by Claudia Escobar and Skini , Luminex a glowing fabric invented by Luminex.
Java Log - (log for your fireplace made from used coffee grinds) invented by Rod Sprules
Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency
The No-Contact Jacket invented by Adam Whiton and Yolita Nugent, protects the wearer by electric shocking any attackers.
Inventions 2000+ Infrared Fever Screening System used in public buildings to scan for people with a high temperature from a fever or sars invented by Singapore Technologies Electronics and the Singapore Defense Science and Technology Agency