Information Systems

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Information Systems

  1. 1. Information Systems
  2. 2. Session 1 <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure a common understanding of the assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore the new economy and the role of information and related technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an overview for Sessions 1-4 </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. IS - Lecturers <ul><li>Forbes Gibb (1-4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forbes . [email_address] . strath .ac. uk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Weir (5-8) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>george . [email_address] . strath .ac. uk </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Schedule – Sessions 1-4 <ul><li>Class 1 - The new economy </li></ul><ul><li>Class 2 - The process oriented enterprise; information strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Class 3 – Information systems and the enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Class 4 - Process and service management </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview - Information Strategy Formulation <ul><li>Understand the market (e.g. 5 Forces) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the environment (e.g. PLEETS/PEST) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the business (i.e. strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how the business works (i.e. process analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand information needs and flows (i.e. requirements analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand current capabilities, strengths and weaknesses (i.e. information audit) </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Understand governance requirements (i.e. information policy and law) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand IT opportunities (e.g. technology tracking) </li></ul><ul><li>Understand IT impact (e.g. business analysis frameworks) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Enterprise as a System Corporate/ business strategy Information strategy Cultural and contextual issues Processes Inputs (costs) Outputs (value) Corporate environment
  7. 7. Assignment <ul><li>Choose 1 of 2 topics </li></ul><ul><li>Range 3000-4000 words </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive component (theory and examples) </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical component (research, interpretation, appraisal and application) </li></ul><ul><li>Resist the temptation to plagiarise! </li></ul>
  8. 8. The New Economy <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual capital a key measure of strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from labour to knowledge workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart products (smart meters); sensing software (LivePerson) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digitisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode: UK spent £30 bn online in 2006, online advertising overtook outdoor advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitution: information rather than inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: e-books, e-journals, digital libraries, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online recruitment and job-seeking </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The New Economy <ul><li>Virtualisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation @ and virtual communities (e.g. MySpace.com, Buzz-Oven, Facebook.com) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual markets and worlds (e.g. Google, Second Life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual fakes; virtual pickets; virtual affairs; virtual taxes; virtual PCs (e.g. Mojo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual property and identities (e.g. Entropia, NetIDme) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molecularisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-market segmentation, personalisation and localisation (e.g. Joost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass customisation rather than mass production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-based manufacturing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The New Economy <ul><li>Integration/internetworking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CRM, ERP and SCM linking demand chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technologies that sense, think, link, and adapt (e.g. autonomic computing, insurance as you drive, e-plates, Hypertags) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disintermediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of intermediate staging of goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-publishing (e.g. Lulu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless microcontrollers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The New Economy <ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content aggregators (e.g. Yahoo, Google, MySpace); content + pricing (BHG) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home entertainment hubs (e.g. Lifebox) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile ‘phones and micropayments, and place tagging, and … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infomediaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change business model and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing (e.g. Cambrian House, InnoCentive) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The New Economy <ul><li>Prosumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get customer to do the work: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check orders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build specification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check accounts, raise SOs/DDS, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create adverts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built to order (BTO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online auctions and quotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location based information (e.g. SLifter, Semapedia, place tags) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiosk based retailing (e.g. Experticity, ClairVista) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The New Economy <ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pervasive presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 hour shopping + clicks and mortar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discordance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy and civil liberty issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymmetric benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptive technologies </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Music Industry <ul><li>Recordings and song rights. </li></ul><ul><li>5 companies have 80% of the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Performers sign with recording companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Songwriters sign with publishing companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Record companies distribute to retailers. </li></ul><ul><li>Royalties 6-8% </li></ul><ul><li>$30bn industry but only 10% of records make a profit; $500,000 to trial new artist. Falling sales </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fashion Industry <ul><li>Clothing, shoes and accessories. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly fragmented industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong branding at high street level. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of seasonality, sizing, short shelf lives. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Group Exercise 1 <ul><li>Provide an example for each of Tapscott’s twelve themes of how the music industry or the fashion industry are adapting to the demands of the new economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Come back and report! </li></ul>
  17. 17. The New Economy <ul><li>Dan Tapscott identifies twelve themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Molecularisation </li></ul><ul><li>Integration/internetworking </li></ul><ul><li>Disintermediation </li></ul>
  18. 18. The New Economy <ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Prosumption </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Discordance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Music Industry <ul><li>Knowledge – Authors/performers create and manage IPR; Digital Rights Management (DRM) and licensing; online investment in bands (Sellaband) </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation - MP3; e-sheet music; i-Tunes; ColdPlay + Gnarls Barkley digital only singles; X-box marketplace; ringtones; i-Liners (Click Five); 75% of UK single sales </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualisation - Internet jukeboxes; web tours; artist melds; e-labels (Cordless); virtual groups (e.g. Gorillaz) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Music Industry <ul><li>Molecularisation - Shift to track as unit; microbilling; Cordless moving to cluster concept; customised ‘phones (Warner); tailored internet radio (Last.fm) </li></ul><ul><li>Integration - Radiocasting/podcasting; mobile ‘phones and MP3/videos; additional content for digital radio; USB Based singles + content </li></ul><ul><li>Disintermediation - Artists sell direct to listener; digital production; band web pages </li></ul>
  21. 21. Music Industry <ul><li>Convergence - Content-rich web-sites; i-Pod and similar storage devices; digital audio postcards; dual discs; Gap’s Hoodio; iPod jackets; Nordstrum Silverscreen </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation - Free downloads (Arctic Monkeys; SpiralFrog); new infomediaries for artists (TuneTribe); spoofing; branded i-Pods; complementors; exclusive alliances (e.g. i-Tunes and Starbucks); new royalty models; voicetones; digital radio downloads; honesty box (e.g. Radiohead) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Music Industry <ul><li>Prosumption - Fans build albums; post-production editing; GarageBand; Flux (MTV’s home content channel) </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy - Instant access to new recordings; pre-lease servers for radio stations; blogs, etc., as sources of faster marketing information </li></ul>
  23. 23. Music Industry <ul><li>Globalisation - Independents can promote, sell and perform globally (Arctic Monkeys); one stop licensing for online rights </li></ul><ul><li>Discordance - Piracy ($2.4bn per annum; 10%+ loss; 40:1 downloads); preferential treatment of artists; parallel sourcing; Bowie Bonds; proprietary standards; Sony XCP DRM software; online fulfilment tax breaks </li></ul>
  24. 24. Fashion Industry <ul><li>Knowledge - Physical vs. brand component; Global Style Network; Adidas “1” trainers </li></ul><ul><li>Digitisation - Whole body scanners; cyclograms </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualisation - Webbie Tookay; digital personal mannequins </li></ul><ul><li>Molecularisation - Customised clothing; Skim unique ID </li></ul>
  25. 25. Fashion Industry <ul><li>Integration - Benetton JIT system; body scan data can be used to search kiosk of goods; RFIDs for tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Disintermediation - Levis build to order </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence - Gap’s Hoodio; iPod jackets; wearable computers; golf analysers; Sensatex diagnostic textiles; Nordstrum SilverScreen </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation - Power generating trainers and fabrics; smart fabrics; zoom and rotate online </li></ul>
  26. 26. Fashion Industry <ul><li>Prosumption - Nike customised shoes; Shirttailor.com BTO </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy - Faster sourcing of materials and finished goods. More spent online in US than computers and software ($18.3bn in 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation - Brands; BTO co-ordinated globally </li></ul><ul><li>Discordance - Design thefts; fast fashion; differential pricing </li></ul>
  27. 27. Bits versus Atoms Music Fashion Information Intensity Customer Propensity Supplier Propensity Information Intensity Customer Propensity Supplier Propensity
  28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Technology offers opportunities to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the way enterprises operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance the products and services they offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift or reduce costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, they introduce issues related to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governance, protection, measurement, abuse, control and deployment </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. For Tomorrow <ul><li>Think about what supermarkets do….. </li></ul>

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