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Information Systems

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  • 1. Information Systems
  • 2. Session 1
    • Objectives
      • Ensure a common understanding of the assignment
      • Explore the new economy and the role of information and related technologies
      • Provide an overview for Sessions 1-4
  • 3. IS - Lecturers
    • Forbes Gibb (1-4)
      • forbes . [email_address] . strath .ac. uk
    • George Weir (5-8)
      • george . [email_address] . strath .ac. uk
  • 4. Schedule – Sessions 1-4
    • Class 1 - The new economy
    • Class 2 - The process oriented enterprise; information strategy
    • Class 3 – Information systems and the enterprise
    • Class 4 - Process and service management
  • 5. Overview - Information Strategy Formulation
    • Understand the market (e.g. 5 Forces)
    • Understand the environment (e.g. PLEETS/PEST)
    • Understand the business (i.e. strategy)
    • ____________________________________________
    • Understand how the business works (i.e. process analysis)
    • Understand information needs and flows (i.e. requirements analysis)
    • Understand current capabilities, strengths and weaknesses (i.e. information audit)
    • ____________________________________________
    • Understand governance requirements (i.e. information policy and law)
    • Understand IT opportunities (e.g. technology tracking)
    • Understand IT impact (e.g. business analysis frameworks)
  • 6. The Enterprise as a System Corporate/ business strategy Information strategy Cultural and contextual issues Processes Inputs (costs) Outputs (value) Corporate environment
  • 7. Assignment
    • Choose 1 of 2 topics
    • Range 3000-4000 words
    • Descriptive component (theory and examples)
    • Analytical component (research, interpretation, appraisal and application)
    • Resist the temptation to plagiarise!
  • 8. The New Economy
    • Knowledge
      • Intellectual capital a key measure of strength
      • Shift from labour to knowledge workers
      • Smart products (smart meters); sensing software (LivePerson)
    • Digitisation
      • Mode: UK spent £30 bn online in 2006, online advertising overtook outdoor advertising
      • Substitution: information rather than inventory
      • Content: e-books, e-journals, digital libraries, etc.
      • Online recruitment and job-seeking
  • 9. The New Economy
    • Virtualisation
      • Generation @ and virtual communities (e.g. MySpace.com, Buzz-Oven, Facebook.com)
      • Virtual markets and worlds (e.g. Google, Second Life)
      • Virtual fakes; virtual pickets; virtual affairs; virtual taxes; virtual PCs (e.g. Mojo)
      • Virtual property and identities (e.g. Entropia, NetIDme)
    • Molecularisation
      • Micro-market segmentation, personalisation and localisation (e.g. Joost)
      • Mass customisation rather than mass production
      • Cell-based manufacturing
  • 10. The New Economy
    • Integration/internetworking
      • CRM, ERP and SCM linking demand chain
      • Technologies that sense, think, link, and adapt (e.g. autonomic computing, insurance as you drive, e-plates, Hypertags)
      • Viral marketing
    • Disintermediation
      • Reduction of intermediate staging of goods
      • Digital cameras
      • Self-publishing (e.g. Lulu)
      • Wireless microcontrollers
  • 11. The New Economy
    • Convergence
      • Content aggregators (e.g. Yahoo, Google, MySpace); content + pricing (BHG)
      • Home entertainment hubs (e.g. Lifebox)
      • Mobile ‘phones and micropayments, and place tagging, and …
    • Innovation
      • Infomediaries
      • Change business model and processes
      • Crowdsourcing (e.g. Cambrian House, InnoCentive)
  • 12. The New Economy
    • Prosumption
      • Get customer to do the work:
        • Check orders
        • Build specification
        • Check accounts, raise SOs/DDS, etc.
        • Create adverts
    • Immediacy
      • Built to order (BTO)
      • Online auctions and quotations
      • Location based information (e.g. SLifter, Semapedia, place tags)
      • Kiosk based retailing (e.g. Experticity, ClairVista)
  • 13. The New Economy
    • Globalisation
      • Pervasive presence
      • Real-time collaboration
      • 24 hour shopping + clicks and mortar
    • Discordance
      • Privacy and civil liberty issues
      • Asymmetric benefits
      • Digital crime
      • Disruptive technologies
  • 14. Music Industry
    • Recordings and song rights.
    • 5 companies have 80% of the market.
    • Performers sign with recording companies.
    • Songwriters sign with publishing companies.
    • Record companies distribute to retailers.
    • Royalties 6-8%
    • $30bn industry but only 10% of records make a profit; $500,000 to trial new artist. Falling sales
  • 15. Fashion Industry
    • Clothing, shoes and accessories.
    • Highly fragmented industry.
    • Strong branding at high street level.
    • Problems of seasonality, sizing, short shelf lives.
  • 16. Group Exercise 1
    • Provide an example for each of Tapscott’s twelve themes of how the music industry or the fashion industry are adapting to the demands of the new economy.
    • Come back and report!
  • 17. The New Economy
    • Dan Tapscott identifies twelve themes:
    • Knowledge
    • Digitisation
    • Virtualisation
    • Molecularisation
    • Integration/internetworking
    • Disintermediation
  • 18. The New Economy
    • Convergence
    • Innovation
    • Prosumption
    • Immediacy
    • Globalisation
    • Discordance
  • 19. Music Industry
    • Knowledge – Authors/performers create and manage IPR; Digital Rights Management (DRM) and licensing; online investment in bands (Sellaband)
    • Digitisation - MP3; e-sheet music; i-Tunes; ColdPlay + Gnarls Barkley digital only singles; X-box marketplace; ringtones; i-Liners (Click Five); 75% of UK single sales
    • Virtualisation - Internet jukeboxes; web tours; artist melds; e-labels (Cordless); virtual groups (e.g. Gorillaz)
  • 20. Music Industry
    • Molecularisation - Shift to track as unit; microbilling; Cordless moving to cluster concept; customised ‘phones (Warner); tailored internet radio (Last.fm)
    • Integration - Radiocasting/podcasting; mobile ‘phones and MP3/videos; additional content for digital radio; USB Based singles + content
    • Disintermediation - Artists sell direct to listener; digital production; band web pages
  • 21. Music Industry
    • Convergence - Content-rich web-sites; i-Pod and similar storage devices; digital audio postcards; dual discs; Gap’s Hoodio; iPod jackets; Nordstrum Silverscreen
    • Innovation - Free downloads (Arctic Monkeys; SpiralFrog); new infomediaries for artists (TuneTribe); spoofing; branded i-Pods; complementors; exclusive alliances (e.g. i-Tunes and Starbucks); new royalty models; voicetones; digital radio downloads; honesty box (e.g. Radiohead)
  • 22. Music Industry
    • Prosumption - Fans build albums; post-production editing; GarageBand; Flux (MTV’s home content channel)
    • Immediacy - Instant access to new recordings; pre-lease servers for radio stations; blogs, etc., as sources of faster marketing information
  • 23. Music Industry
    • Globalisation - Independents can promote, sell and perform globally (Arctic Monkeys); one stop licensing for online rights
    • Discordance - Piracy ($2.4bn per annum; 10%+ loss; 40:1 downloads); preferential treatment of artists; parallel sourcing; Bowie Bonds; proprietary standards; Sony XCP DRM software; online fulfilment tax breaks
  • 24. Fashion Industry
    • Knowledge - Physical vs. brand component; Global Style Network; Adidas “1” trainers
    • Digitisation - Whole body scanners; cyclograms
    • Virtualisation - Webbie Tookay; digital personal mannequins
    • Molecularisation - Customised clothing; Skim unique ID
  • 25. Fashion Industry
    • Integration - Benetton JIT system; body scan data can be used to search kiosk of goods; RFIDs for tracking
    • Disintermediation - Levis build to order
    • Convergence - Gap’s Hoodio; iPod jackets; wearable computers; golf analysers; Sensatex diagnostic textiles; Nordstrum SilverScreen
    • Innovation - Power generating trainers and fabrics; smart fabrics; zoom and rotate online
  • 26. Fashion Industry
    • Prosumption - Nike customised shoes; Shirttailor.com BTO
    • Immediacy - Faster sourcing of materials and finished goods. More spent online in US than computers and software ($18.3bn in 2006)
    • Globalisation - Brands; BTO co-ordinated globally
    • Discordance - Design thefts; fast fashion; differential pricing
  • 27. Bits versus Atoms Music Fashion Information Intensity Customer Propensity Supplier Propensity Information Intensity Customer Propensity Supplier Propensity
  • 28. Summary
    • Technology offers opportunities to :
      • Change the way enterprises operate
      • Enhance the products and services they offer
      • Shift or reduce costs
    • But, they introduce issues related to:
      • Governance, protection, measurement, abuse, control and deployment
  • 29. For Tomorrow
    • Think about what supermarkets do…..

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