Past Behavior: A cquisition , U se , and P ossession
Behavioral Correlation Changes Over Time Expected and Actual Purchase Rates During a 60-Day Period PRODUCT/SERVICE STATED INTENTION TO PURCHASE (%) ACTUAL PURCHASE (%) DIFFERENCE (%) Ride local public transportation 22.5 21.7 -0.8 Purchase tax-sheltered investment 11.4 7.2 -4.2 Purchase stereo system 17.6 15.6 -2.0 Trip on cruise ship 4.2 3.7 -0.5 Purchase new automobile 14.3 14.1 -0.2
Behavioral Correlates: Intentions are Complex… Deeper Meaning
1. Understand the technology and its role.
2. Understand the consumer motivations and the context in which the product will be bought and used.
3. Make sure the survey is of consumer behavioral groups with the greatest purchase potential.
4. Go beyond the simplistic and traditional “intent to purchase” questions.
Behavioral Correlates: Measuring Intentions In actuality, how would you assess your chances of buying a newly constructed home in the area during the next two or three years, assuming you found one that met your requirements with regard to quality and price? Ages of children that you would be interested in enrolling in this unique Christian school: [__________] [__________] [___________] □ 100% certain to buy □ Better than 50-50 □ About 50-50 □ Less than 50-50 □ Zero-no chance We are interested in your reactions towards sending your children to a unique private school. The school would be focused around a non-denominational religious setting. It would be located in a very attractive physical setting. It would contain extensive recreational opportunities, but the primary focus would be spiritual and academic. It would range from kindergarten through high school. It would cost roughly $1,500 to $2,000 a year for tuition. How interested would you be in sending your children to this unique Christian school? □ Very Interested □ Interested □ Not Interested □ I have no school-age children
3. Young marrieds, children, youngest child under six
4. Older marrieds, children, youngest child six or over
5. Older marrieds, children maintaining separate households
6. Solitary survivor, older single people
Non-Behavioral Correlates Life Style indicators : Activities, Interests, Opinions Life Style: Tour Gliders Tour Glides . Members of the Tour Glides segment find the appeal of motorcycling in long-distance touring. They like riding long distances, use their bike both for touring and everyday transportation, are more interested in the comfort of their motorcycle than its speed, prefer riding with a passenger, and to wear a helmet. More than the average HD rider, Tour Glides are traditionally religious, have somewhat old-fashioned tastes and habits, are disciplinarians with their children, like reading, and feel they live a full and interesting life. They are less ambitious than others, and are distinctively unattracted by social gatherings and danger. Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With TOUR GLIDERS I like long‑distance touring bikes. I use my bike for touring. My bike is made more for comfort than for speed. I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I usually ride with someone on the back of my bike. I like it best when someone is on my bike with me. When I ride I wear leather boots. I use my bike for everyday transportation. My bike is really quick. I only wave at other riders on bikes like mine. I like to ride aggressively. I have spent a lot of money modifying my bike. I like to have my bike look really different. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I have spent lots on speed modifications for my bike. I get excited about motocross or scrambling. I like dirt bikes.
Life Style: Dream Riders Vanilla Dream Riders. The Vanilla Dream Riders are more interested in the dream of motorcycling than in motorcycling itself, and are otherwise just plain vanilla—a relatively undistinguished group. This is the largest, oldest, among the best educated and wealthiest segment of HD owners, and having the newest motorcycles, yet riding them least and tied (with the Hog Heaven segment) in spending the least accessorizing them. Vanilla Dream Riders like wearing a helmet, tend to have a “stock” bike, and mainly use it for short trips around town. They are distinctively unaffiliated with the “live to ride” ethic, and receive relatively little psychic satisfaction from riding. Their motorcycle is merely a possession, having no real place as a “family member.” They are conservative in their moral values, marital roles, and daily behavior. DREAM RIDERS Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. My bike is pretty much stock. I mainly use my bike for short trips around town. To me, a motorcycle is just transportation. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. All things considered, I think Japanese bikes are the best. Hot 4‑cylinder bikes sound fantastic. I like to ride alone. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." Riding, to me, is often a magical experience. To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. My bike is everything to me. When I am riding in a group, the group almost becomes one. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I spend most of my free time with my bike buddies. I like to have my bike look really different. Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With
Life Style: Hard Core The Hard Core. More than other segments, members of the Hard Core are on the fringe of society, and identify with the stereotypical biker subculture. They are the youngest, next-to-least well-educated, and certainly the poorest, yet spend nearly 50 percent more than any other segment in accessorizing their motorcycles. Virtually all are blue-collar workers. In relative terms, Hard Core members are much more likely than others to feel like an outlaw, and to believe people would call them and their friends “dirty bikers.” Note, however, that they still only “slightly agree” that these lifestyles describe them well. More than others, the Hard Core likes to be outrageous, likes danger, favors legalizing marijuana, and embraces the ethic of “eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we die.” Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With HARD CORE Some people would call me and my friends "outlaws." I have spent lots on speed modifications for my bike. Sometimes I feel like an "outlaw." Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I think it's true that "real men wear black." My bike is everything to me. I have spent a lot of money modifying my bike. I spend most of my free time with my bike buddies. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. I like tattoos. My bike is pretty much stock. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I like the spacecraft look of some bikes today. Hot 4‑cylinder bikes sound fantastic. My bike is made more for comfort than for speed. I mainly use my bike for short trips around town.
Life Style: Hog Heaven Hog Heaven. The Hog Heaven segment finds great psychic and spiritual satisfaction in owning and riding a Harley Davidson motorcycle. Although their accessories spending on their motorcycle this past year is lowest of any, they spent second highest over their years of owning this bike. More than others, these riders feel like an “old wild west cowboy” and closer to nature when they ride. They have many motorcycle friends, and when group riding they feel the group becomes “one.” They do not like helmets, and feel cars are like a “cage.” This segment is distinctively mechanically inclined, likes to work on their motorcycles, has old-fashioned tastes and habits, reads relatively little, and is less likely than others to believe in a life after death. Hog Heaven members often think about how short life really is. Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With HOG HEAVEN When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I really believe that cars are confining, like a "cage." Women admire my motorcycle. When I ride I feel like an Old Wild West cowboy. I feel close to other motorcyclists I see on the road. When I am riding in a group, the group almost becomes one. When I'm on my bike I feel closer to nature. I like the attention I get when I'm on my bike. To me, motorcycles are a symbol of freedom. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." I like dirt bikes. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I like bikes with plastic farings and engine covers. I like good bikes no matter where they are made. I like long‑distance touring bikes. All of my real friends ride bikes. My bike is pretty much stock. I don't pay much attention to what I wear when I ride. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. Hot 4‑cylinder bikes sound fantastic.
Life Style: Zen Riders Zen Riders. As Zen Riders ride they too find solace and spiritual satisfaction, but find it in motorcycling itself, and escape life’s stresses in doing so. They include the highest percentage of married riders, but otherwise are typical of HD owners in most demographic characteristics. More than others, Zen Riders find motorcycling fulfilling in many of its dimensions: their motorcycle seems alive, they like dirt bikes and the even the sound of 4-cylinder Japanese motorcycles. Zen Riders are more impulsive and believe they are more ambitious than other segments, like to party, and have trouble relaxing in everyday life. They are “modern” husbands, are opposed to legalizing marijuana, but are willing to take chances and to run risks. Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With ZEN RIDERS I like dirt bikes. When I'm on my bike, people seem to be admiring me. I like the attention I get when I'm on my bike. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. I get excited about motocross or scrambling. I think it's true that "real men wear black." Hot 4‑cylinder bikes sound fantastic. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. I like to have my bike look really different. My motorcycle often seems like it's alive. When I ride I wear leather boots. I use my bike for everyday transportation. I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. I use my bike for touring. Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I like to ride alone. To me, a motorcycle is just transportation. I usually wear leather chaps when I ride. I like to wear chapter "colors." I really believe that cars are confining, like a "cage."
Life Style: Live to Ride Live to Ride. The Live to Ride segment “rides to live and lives to ride;” they ride more than any other segment, and motorcycles represent a total lifestyle to them. Members of this, the smallest segment, are most likely to have bought their motorcycle new, and ride it the most by a wide margin. They simply love riding; more than other HD owners, they use their bike for everyday transportation, like riding long distances and use their bike for touring. They find riding to be a magical experience, and motorcycling is a total lifestyle to them. If they did not have a family, members of this segment would quit their jobs and take off. They agree with an “eat, drink, and be merry” premise, like to create a stir, like danger, and get lots of satisfaction from their hobbies. They care little about their appearance and tend not to believe in a life after death. Least Frequently Agreed With Least Frequently Agreed With LIVE TO RIDE I love to ride long distances ... to me, 500 miles is a short trip. Motorcycles are a total lifestyle to me. Riding, to me, is often a magical experience. It's true that "I live to ride and ride to live." My bike is everything to me. My bike sometimes seems to have magical power. Sometimes I feel like an "outlaw." I use my bike for touring. When I'm on my bike it's sometimes a spiritual experience. Some people would call me a "dirty biker." I mainly use my bike for short trips around town. Most of the time, my motorcycle is just parked. My bike is pretty much stock. I don't know many other people that ride motorcycles. I like wearing a helmet when I ride. I like to spend time at my motorcycle dealership. All things considered, I think Japanese bikes are the best. Women should only be passengers on motorcycles. My bike is really quick. Hot 4‑cylinder bikes sound fantastic.
Customer satisfaction usually leads to Customer Loyalty & Product Repurchase
Overall, how satisfied are you with (Brand Name) ?
Would you recommend (Brand Name) ?
Do you intend to repurchase (Brand Name) ?
Bias in the Interview Process RESPONDENT Background characteristics: Age Education Socioeconomic status Race Religion Sex Etc. Psychological factors: Perceptions Attitudes Expectations Motives Background characteristics: Age Education Socioeconomic status Race Religion Sex Etc. Psychological factors: Perceptions Attitudes Expectations Motives Behavioral factors: Errors in asking questions Errors in probing Errors in motivating Errors in recording responses Behavioral factors: Errors in asking questions Errors in probing Errors in motivating Errors in recording responses INTERVIEWER A I B I C I C R B R A R
The process of using mail survey techniques to obtain information from potential respondents can be viewed as a special case of “social exchange.” Very simply, social exchange theory asserts that the actions of individuals are motivated by the return (or rewards) these actions are expected to, or usually do, bring from others. Whether a given behavior occurs is a function of the perceived costs of engaging in that activity and the rewards (not necessarily monetary) one expects the other participant to provide at a later date.
In order to maximize survey response, three conditions must be present: (1) the costs for responding must be minimized, (2) the rewards must be maximized, (3) potential respondents must believe that rewards will be provided.
Reducing dissonance is an important component of the “respond/not respond” decision by potential survey respondents.
Dissonance is triggered by receipt of a questionnaire and cover letter asking for participation. Failure to respond might be inconsistent with a person’s self-perception of being a helpful person, or perhaps at least one who honors reasonable requests,
Failure to respond will produce a state of dissonance which the potential respondent seeks to reduce by becoming s survey respondent. For some people, the decision process involves a series of decisions, delaying the ultimate decision may be a way to avoid completing the questionnaire without having to reject the request outright and, thus, experience dissonance. Delaying a decision, therefore, may in itself be a dissonance-reducing response.
Persons infer attitudes and knowledge of themselves through interpretations made about the causes of their behavior. Interpretations are made on the basis of self-observation. To the extent that a person’s behavior is attributed to internal causes and is not perceived as due to circumstantial pressures, a positive attitude toward the behavior develops. These attitudes (i.e., self-perception) then affect subsequent behavior.
In applying the self-perception paradigm to mail survey response we use the concepts of Salience (behaviors one has attended to), Favorability (the affect or feeling generated by a given behavioral experience), Availability (information in memory) In addition, we use labeling: Labeling involves classifying people on the basis of their behavior such that they will later act in a manner consistent with the characterization. (Helpful) Self-perception would predict that labeling one’s behavior would cause that person to view himself or herself as the kind of person who engages in such behavior; therefore, the likelihood of later label-consistent behavior is increased.
Including the ranges of allegiance an individual may be said to have for any system of which he or she is a member. Commitment involves Consistent Behavior that: (1) persists over some period of time, (2) leads to pursuit of at least one common goal, and (3) rejects other acts of behavior. The major elements of commitment are viewed as including the following:
1. The individual is in a position in which his or her decision regarding particular behavior has consequences for other interests and activities not necessarily related to it.
2. The person is in that position by his or her own prior behavior (Personal Choice).
The committed person must recognize the interest created by one’s prior action, and realize it as being necessary.
Ellen needs your help with a survey Professor Ellen Garbarino is looking for help with an online survey. The survey concerns on- and off-line retail shopping. Everyone's opinion is welcome, even those with no or limited online buying experience. The questionnaire will take approximately 20 minutes. 2 people will receive $100 AMAZON gift certificates and 15 people will receive $20 AMAZON gift certificates. If you are interested in helping Ellen out go to the website listed below: http:// connection.cwru.edu /survey If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Professor Ellen Garbarino at mailto:Ecg4@po.cwru.edu or (216)-368-2061.
Sending Your Survey By Mail INITIAL REQUEST FOR ANSWERING QUESTIONS (MAILING OF QUESTIONNAIRE) REMINDER Letter or postcard Telephone call E-mail FOLLOW-UP CONTACT(S)/REQUESTS Questionnaire sent PRELIMINARY NOTIFICATION Letter or postcard Telephone call E-mail NONRESPONSE VALIDATION Telephone call Personal interview E-mail
Comparative Methodologies Criteria Telephone CATI In-Home Interviews Mall-Intercept Interviews CAPI Mail Surveys Mail Panels Internet/ Web Flexibility of data collection Moderate to high High High Moderate to high Low Low Moderate to high Diversity of questions Low High High High Moderate Moderate Moderate to high Physical Stimuli Use Low Moderate to high High High Moderate Moderate Moderate Sample Control Moderate to high Potentially high Moderate Moderate Low Moderate to high Low to moderate Control of data collection environment Moderate Moderate to high High High Low Low Low Control of field force Moderate Low Moderate Moderate High High High Quantity of data Low High Moderate Moderate Moderate High Moderate Response rate Moderate High High High Low Moderate Very low Perceived anonymity o9f respondent Moderate Low Low Low High High High Social desirability Moderate High High Moderate to high Low Low Low Obtaining sensitive information High Low Low Low to moderate High Moderate to high High Potential for interviewer bias Moderate High High Low None None None Speed High Moderate Moderate to high Moderate to high Low Low to moderate Very high Cost Moderate High Moderate to high Moderate to high Low Low to moderate Low