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MAKING SENSE OF OUR TIMES:  Tracking the Economic and Demographic Changes Through 26 Years of Houston Surveys STEPHEN L. K...
<ul><li>Supported by foundations, corporations, and individuals,  </li></ul><ul><li>the annual surveys have now interviewe...
FIGURE 1:  POSITIVE RATINGS OF JOB OPPOR-TUNITIES IN THE HOUSTON AREA (1982-2007)
FIGURE 2:  NEGATIVE RATINGS OF JOB OP-PORTUNITIES IN RELATION TO THE OFFI- CIAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATES (1982-2007)
THE RESTRUCTURED ECONOMY <ul><li>The resource-based industrial-era economy has now re- </li></ul><ul><li>  ceded into hist...
FIGURE 3:  CONCERNS ABOUT HEALTH CARE, POVERTY, AND INEQUALITY (1997-2007)
FIGURE 4:  CHANGES IN TWO MEASURES OF THE WORK ETHIC (1982-2007)
<ul><ul><li>Houston's prospects will now increasingly depend on the  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>city’s ability to attract ...
FIGURE 5:  AIR POLLUTION CONCERNS IN THE HOUSTON AREA (1995-2007)
FIGURE 6:  ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AND TRADEOFFS (THE 2007 SURVEY)
FIGURE 7:  “WHAT IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IN THE HOUSTON AREA TODAY?” (1982-2007)
FIGURE 8:  RATINGS OF THE HOUSTON AREA IN GENERAL AS A PLACE TO LIVE (2005, 2007)
FIGURE 9:  ASSESSMENTS OF TRAFFIC IN THE HOUSTON AREA AND OF THREE  POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS (2003, 2005, 2007)
FIGURE 10:  “HOW WORRIED ARE YOU THAT YOU OR A FAMILY MEMBER WILL BECOME THE VICTIM OF A CRIME?” (1995-2007)
FIGURE 11:  SUPPORT FOR ALTERNATIVES TO THE DEATH PENALTY (1999-2007)
FIGURE 12:  THE   IMPORTANCE OF DOWNTOWN   DEVELOPMENT, BY HOME ZIP CODE (1995-2007)
FIGURE 13:  PERCENT OF ANGLOS “VERY IN-TERESTED” IN MOVING FROM SUBURBS TO CITY AND FROM CITY TO SUBURBS (1999-2007)
FIGURE 14:  ASSESSMENTS OF   POPULATION GROWTH AND URBAN PLANNING (2007 SURVEY)
THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION <ul><li>Along with the major immigration capitals of L.A. and N.Y.,  </li></ul><ul><li>closely ...
FIGURE 15 : THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSFOR-MATIONS OF HARRIS COUNTY (1960-2005) Source: U.S. Census ( www.census.gov ); classifi...
INTERACTIONS OF ETHNICITY AND AGE <ul><li>The other demographic revolution: the remarkable “aging,”  </li></ul><ul><li>or ...
FIGURE 16:  THE PROPORTIONS IN FOUR AGE GROUPS WHO ARE ANGLO, BLACK, LATINO, AND ASIAN OR OTHER (2002-2006, COMBINED)
FIGURE 17:  EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN FIVE HOUSTON COMMUNITIES (1994-2006)
FIGURE 18:  POSITIVE RATINGS OVER THE YEARS OF “THE RELATIONS AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE HOUSTON AREA” (1992-2007)
FIGURE 19:  ATTITUDES TOWARD HOUSTON’S INCREASING ETHNIC DIVERSITY (1994–2007)
FIGURE 20:  CHANGING   PERSPECTIVES ON THE NEW IMMIGRATION (1995–2007)
FIGURE 21:  ATTITUDES TOWARD “ILLEGAL” IMMIGRATION (FROM THE 2007 SURVEY)
FIGURE 22:  PERSPECTIVES ON ABORTION RIGHTS (HOUSTON AREA SURVEY, 1990-2007)
FIGURE 23:  PERSPECTIVES ON HOMOSEXU-ALITY (HOUSTON AREA SURVEY, 1991-2007)
FIGURE 24:  ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHER “SOCIAL AGENDA” ISSUES (THE 2007 SURVEY)
FIGURE 25:  PERSPECTIVES ON MENTAL ILLNESS (FROM THE 2004 AND 2007 SURVEYS)
FIGURE 26:  INTERETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN BELIEFS ABOUT EQUALITY OF OPPORTU-NITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY TODAY (2006)
FIGURE 27:  CHANGING PERSPECTIVES ON THE AMERICAN FUTURE (1988-2007)
FIGURE 28:  PARTY PREFERENCES AMONG HARRIS COUNTY RESIDENTS (1988-2007)
<ul><li>On 29 September 2005, thousands of hurricane evacuees  </li></ul><ul><li>began arriving at the Reliant Complex and...
FIGURE 29:  PERCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTS ON HOUSTON OF THE EVACUEES (HAS, 2006)
FIGURE 30:  SUMMARY ASSESSMENTS OF THE KATRINA EXPERIENCE (2006-2007)
CAN THE CIVIC ENERGY MOBILIZED BY KATRINA BE RECAPTURED TO MEET HOUSTON’S CENTRAL CHALLENGES? <ul><li>This city and nation...
Professor Stephen L. Klineberg Department of Sociology, MS-28 Rice University, P. O. Box 1892 Houston, Texas 77251-1892 Te...
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Houston Area Survey

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Transcript of "Houston Area Survey"

  1. 1. MAKING SENSE OF OUR TIMES: Tracking the Economic and Demographic Changes Through 26 Years of Houston Surveys STEPHEN L. KLINEBERG The Latest Findings from the Houston Area Survey March 2007
  2. 2. <ul><li>Supported by foundations, corporations, and individuals, </li></ul><ul><li>the annual surveys have now interviewed 26 scientifically </li></ul><ul><li>selected representative samples of Harris County residents. </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1982, just two months after the first Houston survey </li></ul><ul><li>was completed, the 80-year oil boom suddenly collapsed. </li></ul><ul><li>The region recovered from deep and prolonged recession </li></ul><ul><li>in the mid 1980s to find itself squarely in the midst of . . . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a restructured economy and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a demographic revolution. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These are the same transformations that have refashioned </li></ul><ul><li>American society itself in recent years. For more than a </li></ul><ul><li>quarter-century, the Houston Area Survey has tracked the </li></ul><ul><li>public’s changing perspectives on these remarkable trends. </li></ul>THE HOUSTON AREA SURVEY (1982-2007)
  3. 3. FIGURE 1: POSITIVE RATINGS OF JOB OPPOR-TUNITIES IN THE HOUSTON AREA (1982-2007)
  4. 4. FIGURE 2: NEGATIVE RATINGS OF JOB OP-PORTUNITIES IN RELATION TO THE OFFI- CIAL UNEMPLOYMENT RATES (1982-2007)
  5. 5. THE RESTRUCTURED ECONOMY <ul><li>The resource-based industrial-era economy has now re- </li></ul><ul><li> ceded into history. It has been replaced by an increasingly </li></ul><ul><li>high-tech, worldwide, knowledge-based economic system. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional “blue collar path” to financial security has </li></ul><ul><li>largely disappeared. Most good-paying jobs today require </li></ul><ul><li>high levels of technical skills and educational credentials. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 2006 survey, 77% disagreed that “a high school </li></ul><ul><li>education is enough to get a good job.” In 2007, 61% of </li></ul><ul><li>area residents agreed that “there are very few good jobs in </li></ul><ul><li>today’s economy for people without a college education.” </li></ul><ul><li>In the new, increasingly unequal, knowledge-based econ- </li></ul><ul><li>omy, “What you earn depends on what you have learned.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. FIGURE 3: CONCERNS ABOUT HEALTH CARE, POVERTY, AND INEQUALITY (1997-2007)
  7. 7. FIGURE 4: CHANGES IN TWO MEASURES OF THE WORK ETHIC (1982-2007)
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Houston's prospects will now increasingly depend on the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>city’s ability to attract and retain the nation’s most skilled and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creative “knowledge workers” and high-tech companies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will require significant and sustained improvements in . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the region’s mobility and traffic congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the revitalization and preservation of downtown areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the variety of its venues for sports, arts, and culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the enhancement of its parks, trees, and bayous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the richness of its hiking, boating, and birding areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the quality of its air and water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGE <ul><li>The public’s support for new initiatives along these lines has </li></ul><ul><li>grown continuously and significantly across the years. </li></ul>
  9. 9. FIGURE 5: AIR POLLUTION CONCERNS IN THE HOUSTON AREA (1995-2007)
  10. 10. FIGURE 6: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS AND TRADEOFFS (THE 2007 SURVEY)
  11. 11. FIGURE 7: “WHAT IS THE BIGGEST PROBLEM IN THE HOUSTON AREA TODAY?” (1982-2007)
  12. 12. FIGURE 8: RATINGS OF THE HOUSTON AREA IN GENERAL AS A PLACE TO LIVE (2005, 2007)
  13. 13. FIGURE 9: ASSESSMENTS OF TRAFFIC IN THE HOUSTON AREA AND OF THREE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS (2003, 2005, 2007)
  14. 14. FIGURE 10: “HOW WORRIED ARE YOU THAT YOU OR A FAMILY MEMBER WILL BECOME THE VICTIM OF A CRIME?” (1995-2007)
  15. 15. FIGURE 11: SUPPORT FOR ALTERNATIVES TO THE DEATH PENALTY (1999-2007)
  16. 16. FIGURE 12: THE IMPORTANCE OF DOWNTOWN DEVELOPMENT, BY HOME ZIP CODE (1995-2007)
  17. 17. FIGURE 13: PERCENT OF ANGLOS “VERY IN-TERESTED” IN MOVING FROM SUBURBS TO CITY AND FROM CITY TO SUBURBS (1999-2007)
  18. 18. FIGURE 14: ASSESSMENTS OF POPULATION GROWTH AND URBAN PLANNING (2007 SURVEY)
  19. 19. THE DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION <ul><li>Along with the major immigration capitals of L.A. and N.Y., </li></ul><ul><li>closely following upon Miami, San Francisco, and Chicago, </li></ul><ul><li>Houston is at the forefront of the new ethnic diversity that is </li></ul><ul><li>refashioning the socio-political landscape of urban America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout all of its history . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>this was essentially a bi-racial Southern city, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dominated and controlled, in an automatic, taken- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for-granted way, by white men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Houston is one of the most culturally diverse metro-politan areas in the country, and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all of its ethnic communities are now “minorities.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. FIGURE 15 : THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSFOR-MATIONS OF HARRIS COUNTY (1960-2005) Source: U.S. Census ( www.census.gov ); classifications based on Texas State Data Center conventions; total populations are given in parentheses; *from the 2005 American Community Study, households only.
  21. 21. INTERACTIONS OF ETHNICITY AND AGE <ul><li>The other demographic revolution: the remarkable “aging,” </li></ul><ul><li>or “graying,” of the American population. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s seniors are primarily Anglos, as are the 76 million </li></ul><ul><li>Americans born between 1946 and 1964, now aged 42 to 60. </li></ul><ul><li>In the next 30 years , the numbers over age 65 will double. </li></ul><ul><li>The younger populations who will replace the “baby boom” </li></ul><ul><li>are disproportionately non-Anglo and far less privileged. </li></ul><ul><li>The “aging of America” is thus almost as much a division </li></ul><ul><li>along economic and ethnic lines as along generational lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Nowhere is this ongoing transformation more clearly seen </li></ul><ul><li>than in the age distributions of the Harris County population. </li></ul>
  22. 22. FIGURE 16: THE PROPORTIONS IN FOUR AGE GROUPS WHO ARE ANGLO, BLACK, LATINO, AND ASIAN OR OTHER (2002-2006, COMBINED)
  23. 23. FIGURE 17: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN FIVE HOUSTON COMMUNITIES (1994-2006)
  24. 24. FIGURE 18: POSITIVE RATINGS OVER THE YEARS OF “THE RELATIONS AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE HOUSTON AREA” (1992-2007)
  25. 25. FIGURE 19: ATTITUDES TOWARD HOUSTON’S INCREASING ETHNIC DIVERSITY (1994–2007)
  26. 26. FIGURE 20: CHANGING PERSPECTIVES ON THE NEW IMMIGRATION (1995–2007)
  27. 27. FIGURE 21: ATTITUDES TOWARD “ILLEGAL” IMMIGRATION (FROM THE 2007 SURVEY)
  28. 28. FIGURE 22: PERSPECTIVES ON ABORTION RIGHTS (HOUSTON AREA SURVEY, 1990-2007)
  29. 29. FIGURE 23: PERSPECTIVES ON HOMOSEXU-ALITY (HOUSTON AREA SURVEY, 1991-2007)
  30. 30. FIGURE 24: ATTITUDES TOWARD OTHER “SOCIAL AGENDA” ISSUES (THE 2007 SURVEY)
  31. 31. FIGURE 25: PERSPECTIVES ON MENTAL ILLNESS (FROM THE 2004 AND 2007 SURVEYS)
  32. 32. FIGURE 26: INTERETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN BELIEFS ABOUT EQUALITY OF OPPORTU-NITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY TODAY (2006)
  33. 33. FIGURE 27: CHANGING PERSPECTIVES ON THE AMERICAN FUTURE (1988-2007)
  34. 34. FIGURE 28: PARTY PREFERENCES AMONG HARRIS COUNTY RESIDENTS (1988-2007)
  35. 35. <ul><li>On 29 September 2005, thousands of hurricane evacuees </li></ul><ul><li>began arriving at the Reliant Complex and the GRB. Some </li></ul><ul><li>60,000 Houstonians came out to help, providing unexpected </li></ul><ul><li>evidence of civic engagement in a city where measures of </li></ul><ul><li>community connectedness (“social capital”) are generally low. </li></ul><ul><li>There were unusually favorable stories in the national media; </li></ul><ul><li>and in January 2006, The Dallas Morning News , despite time- </li></ul><ul><li>honored rivalries, named Houston as the “Texan of the Year.” </li></ul><ul><li>But by mid October, concerns were already rapidly mounting, </li></ul><ul><li>primarily with regard to the strain on public services (on area </li></ul><ul><li>schools, hospitals, and the criminal justice system); and most </li></ul><ul><li>of the newcomers were showing little interest in going home. </li></ul>KATRINA IN TWO PHASES: FROM CIVIC PRIDE TO “COMPASSION FATIGUE”?
  36. 36. FIGURE 29: PERCEPTIONS OF THE EFFECTS ON HOUSTON OF THE EVACUEES (HAS, 2006)
  37. 37. FIGURE 30: SUMMARY ASSESSMENTS OF THE KATRINA EXPERIENCE (2006-2007)
  38. 38. CAN THE CIVIC ENERGY MOBILIZED BY KATRINA BE RECAPTURED TO MEET HOUSTON’S CENTRAL CHALLENGES? <ul><li>This city and nation will need to nurture a far more educated </li></ul><ul><li>workforce, and fashion policies that can reduce the growing </li></ul><ul><li>inequalities and prevent the rise of a new urban underclass. </li></ul><ul><li>To attract the most innovative companies and talented indi- </li></ul><ul><li>viduals, Houston will need to become a more environmen- </li></ul><ul><li>tally appealing urban destination, and develop the research </li></ul><ul><li>centers that will fuel the new engines of economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>If the region is to flourish in the 21st century, it will need to </li></ul><ul><li>grow into a more inclusive multiethnic society, one with true </li></ul><ul><li>equality of opportunity, where all communities are invited to </li></ul><ul><li>participate as full partners in shaping the Houston future. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Professor Stephen L. Klineberg Department of Sociology, MS-28 Rice University, P. O. Box 1892 Houston, Texas 77251-1892 Telephone: 713-348-3484 or 713-665-2010 email address: [email_address] Web: www.houstonareasurvey.org For additional copies of the 2005 report, call Rice University at: 713-348-4225. CONTACT INFORMATION
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