Has 3260 Motivation


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Has 3260 Motivation

  1. 1. HAS 3260 Motivation Dr. Burton
  2. 2. Chapter 14 Motivation and Rewards <ul><li>Planning Ahead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is motivation important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the different types of individual needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the insights of process theories of motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What role does reinforcement play in motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the trends in motivation and compensation? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Motivational Process Employee Identifies Need Employee searches for ways to satisfy these needs. Employee Selects Goal-directed Behaviors Employee Performs Employee Receives Either Rewards or Punishments Employee Reassess Need Deficiencies
  4. 4. Importance of Motivation <ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>work outcome of positive value to the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivational work settings are rich in rewards for productive workers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of Motivation <ul><li>Motivation and Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>value outcomes given by someone to another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bonuses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>promotions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>special assignments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>awards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Importance of Motivation <ul><li>Motivation and Rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic Rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-administered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occur as part of the job itself </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>examples include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feelings of competency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Importance of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards and Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respect diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clearly understand what people want from work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allocate rewards to satisfy the interests of both individuals and organization </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Content Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower order and higher order needs affect behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deficit principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>progression principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>need at one level does not become activated until the next lower need is satisfied </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Self- Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological
  10. 10. Maslow <ul><li>Did not believe any given behavior is motivated by a single need. </li></ul><ul><li>Described another set of needs, (COGNITIVE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to construct a personal theory </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Content Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>ERG Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s three needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>existence - physiological and material well-being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relatedness - satisfying interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth - continued psychological growth and development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any/all needs can influence behavior at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frustration-regression principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>already satisfied need can influence behavior when a higher need cannot be satisfied </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ERG Model Growth needs Relatedness needs Existence needs
  13. 13. <ul><li>Content Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Two-Factor Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>satisfier factors (job content) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>things related to the nature of the job itself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>source of job satisfaction and motivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hygiene factors (job context) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>things related more to the work setting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>source of job dissatisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Results of Herzberg’s Original Study on Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><li>That Caused </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><li>That Caused </li></ul><ul><li>Job </li></ul><ul><li>Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Company Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ways to use motivators on the job <ul><li>Delegate more authority to workers </li></ul><ul><li>When you have an important project to complete or are facing difficult problems, call your workers in and get their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-train your employees so that they become more broadly experienced. </li></ul><ul><li>Compliment and recognize employees for good work. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign workers to special projects </li></ul><ul><li>Ask the more experienced workers to assist in training new employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Send employees to training courses for skill upgrading. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>McClelland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Achievement (nAch) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desire to do something better, solve problems, master complex tasks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Power (nPower) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desire to control, influence or be responsible for others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation (nAff) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desire to establish and maintain friendly relations with others </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People develop these needs over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each need is associated with a distinct set of work preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>managers are encouraged to recognize the strength of each need in themselves and others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create work environments responsive to the strength of each need </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Presidents’ needs for Power, Achievement, and Affiliation <ul><li> NEEDS </li></ul><ul><li>President Power Achievement Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton, B. Moderate High High </li></ul><ul><li>Bush, G. Moderate Moderate Low </li></ul><ul><li>Reagan, R. High Moderate Low </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy, J. High Low High </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt,F. High Low Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln, A. Moderate Low Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, G. Low Low Moderate </li></ul>
  19. 19. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers high in (nAch) prefer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual responsibility for results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achievable but challenging goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feedback on performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers high in (nPower) prefer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>control over other people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have an impact on people and events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>brings public recognition and attention </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Content Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Acquired Needs Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>manipulation for personal gratification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>directed towards group or organizational objectives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Equity Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perceived inequity is a motivating state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people are motivated to restore equity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>work inputs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rewards received </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>comparison points </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>situation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Equity Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay is common source of equity controversy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gender equity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>women earn an average of 75% of what men earn </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>comparable worth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>jobs of similar value based on required education, training, skills should receive similar pay </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Equity Model I 1 O 1 I 2 O 2 Inputs Age Attendance Interpersonal skills Communication skills Job effort (long hours) Past experience Performance Personal appearance Seniority Social status Technical skills Training Outcomes Challenging job assignments Fringe benefits Job perquisites (parking space or office location) Job security Monotony Promotion Recognition Responsibility Salary Seniority benefits Status symbols Working conditions
  25. 25. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expectancy - working hard will result in desired level of performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>instrumentality - successful performance will be followed by rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>valence - value of rewards and other work related outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Expectancy Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation (M), expectancy (E), instrumentality (I) and valence (V) are related to another in a multiplicative fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M = E x I x V </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If either E, I or V is low, motivation will be low! </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Expectancy Theory Worker Expectancies Rewards Effective Performance A Good Effort “Basic Premise is that employees are rational people”
  28. 28. Five key variables of the expectancy model <ul><li>First level outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results of doing the job itself, e.g. performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second level outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards + / - produced by 1st level outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectancy: Belief that a level of effort will be followed by a level of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality: Relationship between 1st and 2d level outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Valence: Preference for 2d level outcomes. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>task goals can be motivating if </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>properly set </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>well managed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>goals clarify role expectations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Process Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management by Objectives (MBO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>joint goal setting by managers and employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>participation option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>how to achieve goals instead of what the goals are </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Matching Content Models Self-Actualization Growth <ul><li>Hygienes </li></ul><ul><li>job security </li></ul><ul><li>salary </li></ul><ul><li>working conditions </li></ul>Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Relatedness Existence <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>advancement </li></ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul>Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Needs Hierarchy ERG Theory Motivator-Hygiene Model Achievement Motivation Model Needs Models
  32. 32. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Reinforcement Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applying law of effect to control behavior by manipulating its consequences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Reinforcement Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>negative reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinction </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase the frequency of desirable behavior by making a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement (con’t) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful implementations is based on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>law of contingent reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reward delivered only if desired behavior is exhibited </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>law of immediate reinforcement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more immediate the delivery of a reward, the more reinforcement value it has </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases the frequency of desirable behavior by making the avoidance of unpleasant consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: nagging until a task is completed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminating undesired behavior by administering an unpleasant consequence upon the occurrence of that behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: docking pay for being late </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases the frequency of an undesirable behavior by making the removal of a pleasant consequence contingent on its occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>example: stop giving social approval when someone is disruptive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Ethical Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticisms of reinforcement theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ignores individuality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restricts freedom of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ignores the possibility of other types of motivation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Reinforcement Theory of Motivation <ul><li>Ethical Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocates state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improved safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decreased absenteeism and tardiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>behavior control is necessary part of management </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Pay for Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>awards pay increase in proportion to individual performance contributions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>consistent with equity, expectancy, reinforcement theories </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Incentive Compensation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lump-sum payments based on the accomplishment of specific performance targets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one-time payment based on extraordinary contribution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Incentive Compensation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit-sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>employees receive a proportion of net profits earned by the organization during a stated performance period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain Sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groups of employees to share in any savings realized through their efforts to reduce costs and increase productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Incentive Compensation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee stock ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>employees own stock in company that employ them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>often used as way to save jobs and prevent business closings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Incentive Compensation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right to buy shares at a future date at a fixed price </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when price has risen one can exercise the option to buy the stock at a discount and realize financial gain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most common at senior executive level </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Motivation and Compensation <ul><li>Incentive Compensation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay for knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skills-based pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pay based on number of job-relevant skills mastered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>entrepreneurial pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>workers put part of their compensation at risk in return for opportunity to pursue ideas and participate in any resulting profits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Case Study 5: Lessons Where you Find Them Page 763
  48. 48. <ul><li>Fact 1: As each bird flaps its wings, it creates an uplift draft for the bird following, By flying in a “V” formation, the whole flock adds a greater flying range than if one bird flew alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 1: People who share a common direction and sense of community can get where they’re going quicker and more easily because they are traveling on the strength of one another. </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Fact 2: Whenever a goose falls out of formation, it suddenly feels the drag and resistance of trying to fly alone and quickly gets back into formation to take advantage of the lifting power of the bird immediately in front. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2: If we have as much sense as geese, we will stay in formation and be willing to accept help when we need it and give help when it is needed. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Fact 3: When the lead goose gets tired, it rotates back into the formation, and another goose flies in the point position. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 3: Geese instinctively share the task of leadership and do not resent the leader. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Fact 4: The geese in formation honk from behind to encourage those up front to keep up their speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 4: We need to make sure our honking from behind is encouraging and not something else. </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Fact 5: When a goose is sick, is wounded or is shot down, two geese drop out of formation and follow it down to earth to help and protect it. They stay with their disabled companion until it is able to fly again or dies. They then launch out on their own or with another formation and catch up with the flock. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson 5: If we have as much sense as geese, we, too, will stand by one another in difficult times and help the one who has dropped out to regain his place in the formation. </li></ul>