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German Textile And Apparel Sector

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    • 1. Four C h a p t e r International Trade Theory Global Trade and Investment Environment
    • 2. International Trade Theory
      • What is international trade?
        • Exchange of raw materials and manufactured goods (and services) across national borders
      • Classical trade theories:
        • explain national economy conditions--country advantages--that enable such exchange to happen
      • New trade theories:
        • explain links among natural country advantages, government action, and industry characteristics that enable such exchange to happen
      Slide 4-1
    • 3. Classical Country-Based Theories
      • Mercantilism (pre-16th century)
        • Takes an us-versus-them view of trade; other country’s gain is our country’s loss
        • Neo-mercantilism views persist today
      • Free Trade supporting theories
        • Show that specialization of production and free flow of goods grow all trading partners’ economies
        • Absolute Advantage (Adam Smith, 1776)
        • Comparative Advantage (David Ricardo, 1817)
      • Free Trade refined
        • Factor-proportions (Heckscher-Ohlin, 1919)
        • International product life cycle (Ray Vernon, 1966)
      Slide 4-2
    • 4. The New Trade Theory
      • In many industries, as output expands with specialization, the ability to realize economies of scale increases and unit costs should decrease
      • Because of such scale economies, world demand supports only a few firms in such industries (e.g., commercial aircraft, automobiles)
      • Countries that had an early entrant to such an industry have an advantage in such an industry:
        • Fist-mover advantage
        • Barrier to entry (Airbus overcame through government subsidies?)
      Slide 4-3
    • 5. New Trade Theory
      • Global Strategic Rivalry
        • Firms gain competitive advantage trough: intellectual property, R&D, economies of scale and scope, experience
      • National Competitive Advantage (Porter, 1990)
      Slide 4-4
    • 6. Mercantilism/Neomercantilism
      • Prevailed from 1500 to 1800
        • Export more to “strangers” than we import to amass treasure, expand kingdom
        • Maximize exports and minimize imports: no advantage in increased trade
      • Government intervenes to achieve a surplus in exports
        • King, exporters, domestic producers: happy
        • Subjects: unhappy because domestic goods stay expensive and of limited variety
      • Today neo-mercantilists=protectionists: some segments of society shielded short term
      • Zero-sum vs positive-sum game view of trade
      Slide 4-5
    • 7. Absolute Advantage
      • Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations , 1776
      • Mercantilism weakens a country in the long run and enriches only a few segments
      • A country should specialize in and export products for which it has absolute advantage; import others
      • A country has absolute advantage when it is more productive than another country in producing a particular product
      Slide 4-6 Rice Cocoa G G' K K' G: Ghana K: S. Korea
    • 8. Comparative Advantage
      • David Ricardo: Principals of Political Economy , 1817
      • Country should specialize in the production of those goods in which it is relatively more productive... even if it has absolute advantage in all goods it produces
      • Absolute advantage is really a special case of comparative advantage
      Rice Cocoa G K K' G' G: Ghana -Cocoa K: S. Korea -Rice Slide 4-7
    • 9. Heckscher (1919)-Ohlin (1933) Theory
      • The pattern of international trade depends on differences in factor endowments not on differences in productivity
      • Absolute amounts of factor endowments matter
      • Leontief paradox:
        • US has relatively more abundant capital yet imports goods more capital intensive than those it exports
        • Explanation(?):
          • US has special advantage on producing new products made with innovative technologies
          • These may be less capital intensive till they reach mass-production state
      Slide 4-8
    • 10. Theory of Relative Factor Endowments (Heckscher-Ohlin)
      • Factor endowments vary among countries
      • Products differ according to the types of factors that they need as inputs
      • A country has a comparative advantage in producing products that intensively use factors of production (resources) it has in abundance
      • Factors of production: labor, capital, land, human resources, technology
      Slide 4-9
    • 11. International Product Life-Cycle (Vernon)
      • Most new products initially conceived and produced in the US in 20th century
      • US firms kept production close to the market
          • Aid decisions; minimize risk of new product introductions
          • Demand not based on price yet; low production cost not an issue
      • Limited initial demand in other advanced countries
          • Exports more attractive than production there initially
      • With demand increase in advanced countries
          • Production follows there.
      • With demand expansion elsewhere
          • Product becomes standardized
          • production moves to low production cost areas
          • Product now imported to US and to advanced countries
      Slide 4-10
    • 12. Classic Theory Limitations/Conclusion
      • Fundamentally: Free Trade expands the world “pie” for goods/services
      • Theory Limitations
      • Simple world (two countries, two products)
      • no transportation costs
      • no price differences in resources
      • resources immobile across countries
      • constant returns to scale
      • each country has a fixed stock of resources and no efficiency gains in resource use from trade
      • full employment
      Slide 4-11
    • 13. New Trade Theories
      • Increasing returns of specialization due to economies of scale (unit costs of prod. decrease)
      • First mover advantages (economies of scale such that barrier to entry crated for second or third company)
      • Luck... first mover may be simply lucky.
      • Government intervention: strategic trade policy
      Slide 4-12
    • 14. National Competitive Advantage (Porter, 1990)
      • Factor endowments
          • land, labor, capital, workforce, infrastructure some factors can be created...)
      • Demand conditions
          • large, sophisticated domestic consumer base: offers an innovation friendly environment and a testing ground
      • Related and supporting industries
          • local suppliers cluster around producers and add to innovation
      • Firm strategy, structure, rivalry
          • competition good, national governments can create conditions which facilitate and nurture such conditions
      Slide 4-13
    • 15. Porter’s diamond
      • Success occurs where these attributes exist.
      • More/greater the attribute, the higher chance of success
      • The diamond is mutually reinforcing
      Fig 4.6
    • 16. Determinants of Competitive Advantage in nations Fig 4.8 Government Company Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry Demand Conditions Related and Supporting Industries Factor Conditions Chance Two external factors that influence the four determinants.
    • 17. Porter’s Theory-predictions
      • Porter’s theory should predict the pattern of international trade that we observe in the real world
      • Countries should be exporting products from those industries where all four components of the diamond are favorable, while importing in those areas where the components are not favorable
    • 18. Implications for business
      • Location implications :
        • Disperse production activities to countries where they can be performed most efficiently
      • First-mover implications:
        • Invest substantial financial resources in building a first-mover, or early-mover advantage
      • Policy implications:
        • Promoting free trade is in the best interests of the home-country, not always in the best interests of the firm, even though, many firms promote open markets
    • 19. “ So What” for business?
      • First mover implications
        • invest to be first, particularly in global industries or in markets which can support a few firms
      • Location Implication
        • if countries have comparative advantages MNEs want to locate appropriate activities in those countries…
      • Foreign Investment Decisions (Chapter 6)
      • Government Policy implications
        • companies generate imports and exports. Thus can influence government decisions on trade policy...
        • Infant industry protection
      Slide 4-14

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