Financing Of Research And Innovation In Europe’S Universities
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Financing Of Research And Innovation In Europe’S Universities

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    Financing Of Research And Innovation In Europe’S Universities Financing Of Research And Innovation In Europe’S Universities Presentation Transcript

    • Financing of Research and Innovation in Europe’s Universities An EUA study funded by the European Commission, DG Research Principal researchers: Bernadette Conraths and Hanne Smidt Sodergard EUA workshop Research Management, Barcelona, 18-19 June 2004
    • Aims of the study
      • Provide an overview on main trends and developments in the financing of research and innovation in European universities, key players in the creation of a European Research Area (ERA)
      • Focus on institutional issues and concerns which have been less researched up to now
      • Present key findings to the EU Conference in Liège:
      • « The Europe of Knowledge 2020: A vision for university-based research and innovation »
      • (25-28 April 2004)
    • Our methodology
      • Four steps:
      • Stocktaking
      • Questionnaires to National Rectors Conferences (enlarged EU + CH, N, Iceland) on national context
      • Survey of research oriented universities
      • 42 sent, 39 returned, from 23 countries
      • Areas covered: governance, strategy, funding and sources, allocation and expenditure, innovation, policies, priorities, management, staff, expectations;
      • Follow-up interviews with 19 universities with focus on governance, management, innovation and culture change
    • The Good News...
      • The high response,in a tight time frame, indicates
      • the high importance of the subject to the institutions
      • their great readiness to collaborate
      • and to contribute to the European level debate
      • Common denominators: state of flux and change !
    • Major Challenges (in guise of bad news...)
      • Diversity
      • A vast variety of systems, differing from country to country, region to region, institution to institution
      • Data
      • lack, incompatibility, fragmentation and major variances
      • Terminology
      • Language and definitions
      • i.e. Funding sources, funding types, basic vs. applied research, innovation...
    • Main (interrelated) change drivers
      • More competitive grant funding
      • (due to stagnating or shrinking government/public funds)
      • The gradual granting of more autonomy to HE institutions accompanied by the pressure to diversify funding sources
      • The steering of public research agendas through specific programmes
    • Financial issues, cont.
      • Relatively little overall change on average in the total income from main sources (public/ government, business, international, 1995-2001)
      • Relatively stable government income, higher income from of other sources, but also high volatility
      • Significant increases in institutional R&I expenditure
      • Factors of highest impact in the next five years:
      • Levels of external funding, change of sources, interinstitutional collaboration
    • Financial issues
      • International funding
      • rather low (average 7%, max 29%)
      • but high expectations for additional funding and collaborative opportunities (especially in CEE)
      • scepticism towards “Brussels” bureaucracy and “one-size-fits-all”
    • Key Findings cont. Business funding
      • Low, with high variances (0 to 46 % - average 4%)
      • Projects with industry ranked highest for strategies and instruments to support innovation (triple helix model of Sweden and Finland)
      • collaborative research with industry ranked rather low when prioritising strategies for supporting research
    • Institutional issues
      • Governance
      • Policies and strategies
      • Funding and costing
      • Innovation
      • Management
      • Staff / Human Resources Development
    • Governance: a bottom-up-top-down development
      • Structure change :
      • More autonomy
      • = accountability
      • Equally high ranking for decentralised vs. centrally defined policy
      • Centres of excellence
      • More steering through Vice-Rectors for research, Councils, Committees
      • Balancing institutional team work and individual researcher freedom
      • Culture change:
      • Collegial towards entrepreneurial
      • Review of relations
      • New negotiation ground
      • Acceptance of more competition
      • More risk and responsibility
    • Policies and strategies: building critical mass and networks
      • The race for critical scientific mass
      • Research strong universities receive the bulk of funding
      • Less strong universities need extended networks to build complementarity
      • Internal funding to
        • balance external funds (“solidarity effect”)
        • Interdisciplinary projects
        • Doctoral programmes / recruitment of scientific staff
      • The issue of overhead charges
      • Research Offices
    • Funding and costing
      • Funding
      • Third party funding substantially increased
      • More dynamics and proactive acquisition culture
      • Dangers for long term sustainability
      • Volatility
      • Dependency
      • Career development
      • Skills issues
      • Costing
      • Unsatisfactory situation:
      • Revenues don’t cover costs
      • No cost transparency
      • Review of research costs as part of an overhaul of the institutional accounting systems (EURAB)
      • UK universities to charge 100% cost
    • Innovation: High activity-low funding-no culture
      • Many activities underway, many still in an early trial and error fashion (UK very advanced)
      • Technical Universities have a special status
      • Issue of “value chain” in-house or external
      • Low funding, mostly university+public (regional, local)
      • Innovation culture has a niche life in comprehensive universities
      • Lack of concepts and strategy
      • Little quality or performance evaluation
    • Management: high need for professionalisation
      • Skill development
      • General urgent need for better support to research activities
      • New funding reality needs different skills
      • Communication, marketing, negotiation, project management ...
      • Waste of scientific capacity??
      • Research Offices
      • Paradox: great need, low priority for training&development
      • Quality and performance
      • Vast majority of institutions uses the traditional quality and performance indicators,
      • i.e.publications, citations, previous funding, Phd graduates ,
      • Little evidence of impact evaluation or process quality control
    • Staff Issues: Growing scientific capacity in adverse conditions
      • Attraction and development of Phd Students
      • Aging academic community, doctoral programmes (CEE)
      • Problems of retention and career development
      • contracts, salaries, work conditions
      • Lack of professional staff
        • attraction and development
    • Recommendations
      • Data collection (national and European level)
      • Inter-institutional cooperation in networks
      • European funding sources (possibly through ERC)
      • Reliable funding resources
      • Improve management of research (skills, financial transparency, flexibility)
    • Questions in guise of conclusion
      • How much commonality of HE data and indicators do we need on a European level ?
      • Which form of European cooperation can best enhance (and challenge) European HE autonomy and excellence in research ?
      • Can and should a common ground for financing and costing be achieved ? How ?
      • How to improve the management of research ?
      • How to secure a European research career structure ?
    • Questions in guise of conclusions, cont.
      • How to introduce an institutional research strategy which encompasses both the individual researcher’s freedom and the institutional strategy
      • How to obtain reliable funding streams from different levels while increasing competitive bidding
      • How to improve/introduce the triple helix
      • How to create an innovation culture throughout the universities (is innovation by definition related to the hard sciences?)