Egyptian Culture
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  • 1. Egyptian Culture
  • 2. Morning Work
    • Define the following:
      • Obelisks
      • Mummification
      • Hieroglyphics
      • Papyrus
      • Rosetta Stone
    • Write the vocabulary word and the definition.
    • Morning work
    • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
    • Activity: Create an Egyptian temple
    • Projected test date: September 18 (Thursday)
  • 3. Morning Work
    • Write the questions!
    • Who was the Egyptian sun god?
    • What god became the judge of the dead?
    • Who was the goddess of nature and renewal?
    • Why did Egyptians build temples?
    • Why did the priests perform these religious rituals?
    • ______ are tall and thin pillars with pyramid shaped tops.
    • Morning Work
    • Finish temple design
    • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
    • Handout: Graphic Organizer
    • Test: September 18
  • 4. Morning Work
    • Write questions!
    • What is the ka?
    • What is mummification?
    • Why did Egyptians practice mummification?
    • Why did Egyptians bury possessions with their dead?
    • Lists the 3 main steps of mummification.
    • Morning Work
    • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
    • Activity: Graphic organizer
    • Study Guide
    • Test: September 17
    • Review: September 16
  • 5. Morning Work
    • Write Questions!
    • Describe the Egyptian social hierarchy.
    • Egyptian peasants made up ____ of the population.
    • What was the primary duty of a woman?
    • What rights did Egyptian women have?
    • What was the main Egyptian writing?
    • What is papyrus and what did Egyptians use it for?
    • Morning Work
    • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
    • Lecture: Nubian Kingdoms
    • Review
    • Test: September 17
  • 6. Egyptian Religion
    • Polytheistic
    • Controlled all natural events.
    • The Egyptians had few gods that were central to their religion.
      • The sun god was almost always a key figure in Egyptian religion.
        • This god was called Re.
        • Later became linked to the sky god called Amon and was known as Amon- Re, the King of the gods.
  • 7. Egyptian gods
    • Anubis, the protector of the dead, was also widely worshipped in Egypt.
      • He weighed the souls of the dead to decide their fate.
    • The trio of Osiris, Isis, and Horus.
      • The god Osiris introduced civilization into Egypt.
  • 8. Egyptian gods
      • Osiris became the new judge of the dead.
      • Isis became known as the goddess of nature and renewal.
      • Horus became Egypt’s first King.
  • 9. Egyptian gods
    • Hathor the cow headed goddess of love
    • Thoth the god of wisdom
    • Egyptians also worshipped local gods who had power over small areas or single households.
  • 10. Temples and Religious Practices
    • The Egyptian built temples to honor their gods and to provide homes for them.
    • Many temples included obelisks, tall, thin pillars with pyramid shapes tops.
  • 11. Temples
    • Priests performed rituals to fulfill the gods’ needs.
    • Egyptians believed these rituals refreshed the gods and kept them alive.
    • In return the gods would grant the pharaohs immorality and bring prosperity to Egypt.
  • 12. Religious Practices
    • Caring for the gods was the responsibility of the priests.
    • Common people had no part in these religious rituals.
    • Ordinary Egyptians never even entered the temples.
    • Did worship the gods during annual festivals.
      • People sang hymns and songs, danced, and paraded statues of the gods through the streets.
  • 13. Mummification and Burial
    • Central to Egyptian religion was the belief of life after death.
    • After a person died his or her soul would go to live in a land of the dead.
  • 14. The Afterlife
    • When the physical body died a force called the ka escaped.
    • The ka was the individual’s personality separated from the body.
    • It is the ka , not the body, that would journey on to the land of the dead.
  • 15. The ka
    • The ka had no physical presence but the Egyptians believed it needed food and drink to survive.
    • They also believed the ka might shrink and vanish if the body decomposed.
  • 16. Mummification
    • The process that the Egyptians developed to prevent the breakdown of a dead body was mummification, or the making of mummies.
    • Remove its internal organs
      • Most of the organs were taken out through an incision in the body’s side.
  • 17. Mummification
    • Body was packed with various materials to help keep its shape.
    • Artists then painted the dead persons features on the outside of the mummy itself or on a mask to ensure that the ka would be able to recognize its body.
  • 18. Burial
    • After the body was prepared, its still had to be buried.
    • Egyptians would be buried with all the possessions people thought they would need for the afterlife.
    • Dead pharaohs also needed people to serve them.
  • 19. Tombs
    • The walls of the Egyptian tombs were often painted with colorful scenes from the person’s life or stories about the gods.
      • Egyptians believed the figures from the paintings would come to life to serve the ka and maximize its happiness's in the afterlife.
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. Daily Life
    • Egyptian society was highly stratified or layered.
    • At the top was the pharaoh and the royal family.
    • Also prominent and influential in Egypt were the key government officials, priests, priestess, scribes, military leaders, landowners, and doctors.
  • 23. Daily Life
    • The next level included artisans, craftspeople, and merchants.
    • The largest part of Egyptian society, about 90% of the population, was made up of peasant farmers.
    • The Egyptians kept slaves, but slaves never made up a large part of the kingdom’s population.
  • 24. Home and Family Life
    • Egyptian family life varied from class to class.
      • Ex. Marriage practices varied from one class to another.
    • Most Egyptians lived in family units.
      • The father served as the head to the household, which included children and unmarried relatives.
  • 25. Women and Children
    • Primary duty of an Egyptian woman was to take care of the home and children.
      • Women could be priestess, own and inherit property, create wills, and divorce their husbands.
      • Women often worked outside the home.
        • Worked as hairdressers, wigmakers, singers, and other similar jobs.
  • 26. Children
    • Few children received any kind of education, and most who were educated were boys learning trades.
    • Girls learned from their mothers how to raise children and run a household.
  • 27. Appearance and Custom
    • Most Egyptians paid close attention to their appearance.
    • People in the upper class shaved their heads and wore wigs, both for fashion and to protect themselves from the sun.
    • Both men and women wore perfume and makeup, including dark eyeliner.
  • 28. Appearance and Custom
    • Egyptian clothing was made out of wool and linen.
    • Peasant men wore short loincloths wrapped around their waist, while wealthy men wore longer skirts and robes.
  • 29. Appearance and Custom
    • Women of all social classes wore long dresses that reached down to the floor.
    • Wealthy men and women wore jewelry
    • Children, regardless of gender or social class, generally wore no clothes until they reached adolescence.
  • 30. Free Time
    • Egyptians enjoyed sports such as wrestling, javelin throwing, dancing, boating, and hunting.
    • They also swam, fished, and hunted.
  • 31. Egyptian Writing
    • The main system of writing was hieroglyphics.
      • Used picture symbols to represent objects, sounds, ideas.
      • Used for formal writings
  • 32. Egyptian Writing
    • Writings were made on wood, leather, and papyrus sheets.
    • Papyrus is a reedy plant that grew along the Nile.
      • Used to make paper like sheets.
  • 33. Egyptian Writing
    • For text that needed to be written more quickly, the Egyptians had two other writing systems.
        • Hieratic- used mostly for religious texts.
        • Demotic- used for legal and literary writings after 500 BC.
  • 34. Hieroglyphics
  • 35. Egyptian Writing
    • In 1799 a French soldier discovered a granite slab near the Nile Delta village of Rosetta.
    • On this Rosetta Stone were long passages of ancient writing.
      • The writing turned out to be the same text written in three different scripts: hieroglyphics, demotic, and ancient Greek.
  • 36. Math and Science
    • The Egyptians knew basic arithmetic.
    • Also understood the basic principles of geometry.
    • Building pyramids also required a firm grasp of engineering.
    • Engineers and architects had to understand how well buildings would stand and how much weight a column or wall could support.
  • 37. Math and Science
    • Egyptians were masters in human anatomy.
    • These doctors set broken bones, treated wounds, and performed simple surgical procedures.
    • To cure simpler illnesses, they used medicines made from plants and animals.
  • 38. Creating A Temple
    • You are architects in Ancient Egypt, and have been put in charge of designing a temple.
    • Select one of the Egyptian gods (pg. 73) and draw “blue prints” and pictures of what the interior and exterior temple would look like.
    • Create designs for murals, statues, and other art that will be used in the temple.
  • 39. Graphic Organizer