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Egyptian Culture

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Egyptian Culture
    • 2. Morning Work
      • Define the following:
        • Obelisks
        • Mummification
        • Hieroglyphics
        • Papyrus
        • Rosetta Stone
      • Write the vocabulary word and the definition.
      • Morning work
      • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
      • Activity: Create an Egyptian temple
      • Projected test date: September 18 (Thursday)
    • 3. Morning Work
      • Write the questions!
      • Who was the Egyptian sun god?
      • What god became the judge of the dead?
      • Who was the goddess of nature and renewal?
      • Why did Egyptians build temples?
      • Why did the priests perform these religious rituals?
      • ______ are tall and thin pillars with pyramid shaped tops.
      • Morning Work
      • Finish temple design
      • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
      • Handout: Graphic Organizer
      • Test: September 18
    • 4. Morning Work
      • Write questions!
      • What is the ka?
      • What is mummification?
      • Why did Egyptians practice mummification?
      • Why did Egyptians bury possessions with their dead?
      • Lists the 3 main steps of mummification.
      • Morning Work
      • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
      • Activity: Graphic organizer
      • Study Guide
      • Test: September 17
      • Review: September 16
    • 5. Morning Work
      • Write Questions!
      • Describe the Egyptian social hierarchy.
      • Egyptian peasants made up ____ of the population.
      • What was the primary duty of a woman?
      • What rights did Egyptian women have?
      • What was the main Egyptian writing?
      • What is papyrus and what did Egyptians use it for?
      • Morning Work
      • Lecture: Egyptian Culture
      • Lecture: Nubian Kingdoms
      • Review
      • Test: September 17
    • 6. Egyptian Religion
      • Polytheistic
      • Controlled all natural events.
      • The Egyptians had few gods that were central to their religion.
        • The sun god was almost always a key figure in Egyptian religion.
          • This god was called Re.
          • Later became linked to the sky god called Amon and was known as Amon- Re, the King of the gods.
    • 7. Egyptian gods
      • Anubis, the protector of the dead, was also widely worshipped in Egypt.
        • He weighed the souls of the dead to decide their fate.
      • The trio of Osiris, Isis, and Horus.
        • The god Osiris introduced civilization into Egypt.
    • 8. Egyptian gods
        • Osiris became the new judge of the dead.
        • Isis became known as the goddess of nature and renewal.
        • Horus became Egypt’s first King.
    • 9. Egyptian gods
      • Hathor the cow headed goddess of love
      • Thoth the god of wisdom
      • Egyptians also worshipped local gods who had power over small areas or single households.
    • 10. Temples and Religious Practices
      • The Egyptian built temples to honor their gods and to provide homes for them.
      • Many temples included obelisks, tall, thin pillars with pyramid shapes tops.
    • 11. Temples
      • Priests performed rituals to fulfill the gods’ needs.
      • Egyptians believed these rituals refreshed the gods and kept them alive.
      • In return the gods would grant the pharaohs immorality and bring prosperity to Egypt.
    • 12. Religious Practices
      • Caring for the gods was the responsibility of the priests.
      • Common people had no part in these religious rituals.
      • Ordinary Egyptians never even entered the temples.
      • Did worship the gods during annual festivals.
        • People sang hymns and songs, danced, and paraded statues of the gods through the streets.
    • 13. Mummification and Burial
      • Central to Egyptian religion was the belief of life after death.
      • After a person died his or her soul would go to live in a land of the dead.
    • 14. The Afterlife
      • When the physical body died a force called the ka escaped.
      • The ka was the individual’s personality separated from the body.
      • It is the ka , not the body, that would journey on to the land of the dead.
    • 15. The ka
      • The ka had no physical presence but the Egyptians believed it needed food and drink to survive.
      • They also believed the ka might shrink and vanish if the body decomposed.
    • 16. Mummification
      • The process that the Egyptians developed to prevent the breakdown of a dead body was mummification, or the making of mummies.
      • Remove its internal organs
        • Most of the organs were taken out through an incision in the body’s side.
    • 17. Mummification
      • Body was packed with various materials to help keep its shape.
      • Artists then painted the dead persons features on the outside of the mummy itself or on a mask to ensure that the ka would be able to recognize its body.
    • 18. Burial
      • After the body was prepared, its still had to be buried.
      • Egyptians would be buried with all the possessions people thought they would need for the afterlife.
      • Dead pharaohs also needed people to serve them.
    • 19. Tombs
      • The walls of the Egyptian tombs were often painted with colorful scenes from the person’s life or stories about the gods.
        • Egyptians believed the figures from the paintings would come to life to serve the ka and maximize its happiness's in the afterlife.
    • 20.  
    • 21.  
    • 22. Daily Life
      • Egyptian society was highly stratified or layered.
      • At the top was the pharaoh and the royal family.
      • Also prominent and influential in Egypt were the key government officials, priests, priestess, scribes, military leaders, landowners, and doctors.
    • 23. Daily Life
      • The next level included artisans, craftspeople, and merchants.
      • The largest part of Egyptian society, about 90% of the population, was made up of peasant farmers.
      • The Egyptians kept slaves, but slaves never made up a large part of the kingdom’s population.
    • 24. Home and Family Life
      • Egyptian family life varied from class to class.
        • Ex. Marriage practices varied from one class to another.
      • Most Egyptians lived in family units.
        • The father served as the head to the household, which included children and unmarried relatives.
    • 25. Women and Children
      • Primary duty of an Egyptian woman was to take care of the home and children.
        • Women could be priestess, own and inherit property, create wills, and divorce their husbands.
        • Women often worked outside the home.
          • Worked as hairdressers, wigmakers, singers, and other similar jobs.
    • 26. Children
      • Few children received any kind of education, and most who were educated were boys learning trades.
      • Girls learned from their mothers how to raise children and run a household.
    • 27. Appearance and Custom
      • Most Egyptians paid close attention to their appearance.
      • People in the upper class shaved their heads and wore wigs, both for fashion and to protect themselves from the sun.
      • Both men and women wore perfume and makeup, including dark eyeliner.
    • 28. Appearance and Custom
      • Egyptian clothing was made out of wool and linen.
      • Peasant men wore short loincloths wrapped around their waist, while wealthy men wore longer skirts and robes.
    • 29. Appearance and Custom
      • Women of all social classes wore long dresses that reached down to the floor.
      • Wealthy men and women wore jewelry
      • Children, regardless of gender or social class, generally wore no clothes until they reached adolescence.
    • 30. Free Time
      • Egyptians enjoyed sports such as wrestling, javelin throwing, dancing, boating, and hunting.
      • They also swam, fished, and hunted.
    • 31. Egyptian Writing
      • The main system of writing was hieroglyphics.
        • Used picture symbols to represent objects, sounds, ideas.
        • Used for formal writings
    • 32. Egyptian Writing
      • Writings were made on wood, leather, and papyrus sheets.
      • Papyrus is a reedy plant that grew along the Nile.
        • Used to make paper like sheets.
    • 33. Egyptian Writing
      • For text that needed to be written more quickly, the Egyptians had two other writing systems.
          • Hieratic- used mostly for religious texts.
          • Demotic- used for legal and literary writings after 500 BC.
    • 34. Hieroglyphics
    • 35. Egyptian Writing
      • In 1799 a French soldier discovered a granite slab near the Nile Delta village of Rosetta.
      • On this Rosetta Stone were long passages of ancient writing.
        • The writing turned out to be the same text written in three different scripts: hieroglyphics, demotic, and ancient Greek.
    • 36. Math and Science
      • The Egyptians knew basic arithmetic.
      • Also understood the basic principles of geometry.
      • Building pyramids also required a firm grasp of engineering.
      • Engineers and architects had to understand how well buildings would stand and how much weight a column or wall could support.
    • 37. Math and Science
      • Egyptians were masters in human anatomy.
      • These doctors set broken bones, treated wounds, and performed simple surgical procedures.
      • To cure simpler illnesses, they used medicines made from plants and animals.
    • 38. Creating A Temple
      • You are architects in Ancient Egypt, and have been put in charge of designing a temple.
      • Select one of the Egyptian gods (pg. 73) and draw “blue prints” and pictures of what the interior and exterior temple would look like.
      • Create designs for murals, statues, and other art that will be used in the temple.
    • 39. Graphic Organizer

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