Egyptian Culture


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  • Egyptian Culture

    1. 1. Egyptian Culture
    2. 2. Morning Work <ul><li>Define the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obelisks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mummification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Papyrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rosetta Stone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write the vocabulary word and the definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Morning work </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture: Egyptian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: Create an Egyptian temple </li></ul><ul><li>Projected test date: September 18 (Thursday) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Morning Work <ul><li>Write the questions! </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the Egyptian sun god? </li></ul><ul><li>What god became the judge of the dead? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was the goddess of nature and renewal? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Egyptians build temples? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the priests perform these religious rituals? </li></ul><ul><li>______ are tall and thin pillars with pyramid shaped tops. </li></ul><ul><li>Morning Work </li></ul><ul><li>Finish temple design </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture: Egyptian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Handout: Graphic Organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Test: September 18 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Morning Work <ul><li>Write questions! </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ka? </li></ul><ul><li>What is mummification? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Egyptians practice mummification? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Egyptians bury possessions with their dead? </li></ul><ul><li>Lists the 3 main steps of mummification. </li></ul><ul><li>Morning Work </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture: Egyptian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: Graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Study Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Test: September 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Review: September 16 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Morning Work <ul><li>Write Questions! </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the Egyptian social hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian peasants made up ____ of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>What was the primary duty of a woman? </li></ul><ul><li>What rights did Egyptian women have? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the main Egyptian writing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is papyrus and what did Egyptians use it for? </li></ul><ul><li>Morning Work </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture: Egyptian Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture: Nubian Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Test: September 17 </li></ul>
    6. 6. Egyptian Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled all natural events. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians had few gods that were central to their religion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sun god was almost always a key figure in Egyptian religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This god was called Re. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later became linked to the sky god called Amon and was known as Amon- Re, the King of the gods. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Egyptian gods <ul><li>Anubis, the protector of the dead, was also widely worshipped in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He weighed the souls of the dead to decide their fate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The trio of Osiris, Isis, and Horus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The god Osiris introduced civilization into Egypt. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Egyptian gods <ul><ul><li>Osiris became the new judge of the dead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isis became known as the goddess of nature and renewal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horus became Egypt’s first King. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Egyptian gods <ul><li>Hathor the cow headed goddess of love </li></ul><ul><li>Thoth the god of wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians also worshipped local gods who had power over small areas or single households. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Temples and Religious Practices <ul><li>The Egyptian built temples to honor their gods and to provide homes for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Many temples included obelisks, tall, thin pillars with pyramid shapes tops. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Temples <ul><li>Priests performed rituals to fulfill the gods’ needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed these rituals refreshed the gods and kept them alive. </li></ul><ul><li>In return the gods would grant the pharaohs immorality and bring prosperity to Egypt. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Religious Practices <ul><li>Caring for the gods was the responsibility of the priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Common people had no part in these religious rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Egyptians never even entered the temples. </li></ul><ul><li>Did worship the gods during annual festivals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People sang hymns and songs, danced, and paraded statues of the gods through the streets. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Mummification and Burial <ul><li>Central to Egyptian religion was the belief of life after death. </li></ul><ul><li>After a person died his or her soul would go to live in a land of the dead. </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Afterlife <ul><li>When the physical body died a force called the ka escaped. </li></ul><ul><li>The ka was the individual’s personality separated from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ka , not the body, that would journey on to the land of the dead. </li></ul>
    15. 15. The ka <ul><li>The ka had no physical presence but the Egyptians believed it needed food and drink to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed the ka might shrink and vanish if the body decomposed. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Mummification <ul><li>The process that the Egyptians developed to prevent the breakdown of a dead body was mummification, or the making of mummies. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove its internal organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the organs were taken out through an incision in the body’s side. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Mummification <ul><li>Body was packed with various materials to help keep its shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists then painted the dead persons features on the outside of the mummy itself or on a mask to ensure that the ka would be able to recognize its body. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Burial <ul><li>After the body was prepared, its still had to be buried. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians would be buried with all the possessions people thought they would need for the afterlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Dead pharaohs also needed people to serve them. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Tombs <ul><li>The walls of the Egyptian tombs were often painted with colorful scenes from the person’s life or stories about the gods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians believed the figures from the paintings would come to life to serve the ka and maximize its happiness's in the afterlife. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Daily Life <ul><li>Egyptian society was highly stratified or layered. </li></ul><ul><li>At the top was the pharaoh and the royal family. </li></ul><ul><li>Also prominent and influential in Egypt were the key government officials, priests, priestess, scribes, military leaders, landowners, and doctors. </li></ul>
    21. 23. Daily Life <ul><li>The next level included artisans, craftspeople, and merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest part of Egyptian society, about 90% of the population, was made up of peasant farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Egyptians kept slaves, but slaves never made up a large part of the kingdom’s population. </li></ul>
    22. 24. Home and Family Life <ul><li>Egyptian family life varied from class to class. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Marriage practices varied from one class to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Egyptians lived in family units. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The father served as the head to the household, which included children and unmarried relatives. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 25. Women and Children <ul><li>Primary duty of an Egyptian woman was to take care of the home and children. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women could be priestess, own and inherit property, create wills, and divorce their husbands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women often worked outside the home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worked as hairdressers, wigmakers, singers, and other similar jobs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 26. Children <ul><li>Few children received any kind of education, and most who were educated were boys learning trades. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls learned from their mothers how to raise children and run a household. </li></ul>
    25. 27. Appearance and Custom <ul><li>Most Egyptians paid close attention to their appearance. </li></ul><ul><li>People in the upper class shaved their heads and wore wigs, both for fashion and to protect themselves from the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Both men and women wore perfume and makeup, including dark eyeliner. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Appearance and Custom <ul><li>Egyptian clothing was made out of wool and linen. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant men wore short loincloths wrapped around their waist, while wealthy men wore longer skirts and robes. </li></ul>
    27. 29. Appearance and Custom <ul><li>Women of all social classes wore long dresses that reached down to the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy men and women wore jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Children, regardless of gender or social class, generally wore no clothes until they reached adolescence. </li></ul>
    28. 30. Free Time <ul><li>Egyptians enjoyed sports such as wrestling, javelin throwing, dancing, boating, and hunting. </li></ul><ul><li>They also swam, fished, and hunted. </li></ul>
    29. 31. Egyptian Writing <ul><li>The main system of writing was hieroglyphics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used picture symbols to represent objects, sounds, ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for formal writings </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Egyptian Writing <ul><li>Writings were made on wood, leather, and papyrus sheets. </li></ul><ul><li>Papyrus is a reedy plant that grew along the Nile. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to make paper like sheets. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 33. Egyptian Writing <ul><li>For text that needed to be written more quickly, the Egyptians had two other writing systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hieratic- used mostly for religious texts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demotic- used for legal and literary writings after 500 BC. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Hieroglyphics
    33. 35. Egyptian Writing <ul><li>In 1799 a French soldier discovered a granite slab near the Nile Delta village of Rosetta. </li></ul><ul><li>On this Rosetta Stone were long passages of ancient writing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The writing turned out to be the same text written in three different scripts: hieroglyphics, demotic, and ancient Greek. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 36. Math and Science <ul><li>The Egyptians knew basic arithmetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Also understood the basic principles of geometry. </li></ul><ul><li>Building pyramids also required a firm grasp of engineering. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers and architects had to understand how well buildings would stand and how much weight a column or wall could support. </li></ul>
    35. 37. Math and Science <ul><li>Egyptians were masters in human anatomy. </li></ul><ul><li>These doctors set broken bones, treated wounds, and performed simple surgical procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>To cure simpler illnesses, they used medicines made from plants and animals. </li></ul>
    36. 38. Creating A Temple <ul><li>You are architects in Ancient Egypt, and have been put in charge of designing a temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Select one of the Egyptian gods (pg. 73) and draw “blue prints” and pictures of what the interior and exterior temple would look like. </li></ul><ul><li>Create designs for murals, statues, and other art that will be used in the temple. </li></ul>
    37. 39. Graphic Organizer