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Effect of Exposure to Media Images on Perceptual Body Image Distortion and Affective Dissatisfaction Angie French & Blair ...
Research Question <ul><li>How does exposure to these images influence how women feel about themselves and their bodies? </...
  Hypothesis Social Comparison Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Increa...
<ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>49 female students from Hanover College </li></ul><ul><li>Mean age = 19 </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Two weeks prior to Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison questionnaire and persona...
<ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint slide show of 30 fitness, fashion/beauty, or neutral images from popular maga...
Fitness
Fashion/Beauty
Neutral
<ul><li>Adjustable Light Beam Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>(Thompson & Spana, 1988) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures perceive...
<ul><li>Eating Disorders Inventory  </li></ul><ul><li>(Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive for T...
  Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Social Comparison Increased Affecti...
YES Perceptual Distortion   <ul><li>Amount of distortion varied significantly across three conditions,  F  (1,45) = 3.24, ...
  Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Results Increased Affective Body Im...
Results cont. <ul><li>Split Social Comparison  into “Low” and “High” categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant interaction...
Discussion <ul><li>Two media conditions    different effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty images influence perception (di...
Fitness    Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Message behind the fitness images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of achievability </li></u...
 
Beauty    Distortion <ul><li>Beauty images thinner than fitness images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less guilt because only opti...
<ul><li>Non-representative sample  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>48  Caucasian & 1 Pacific Islander </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homemad...
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Effect Of Exposure To Media Images On Perceptual Body Image Distortion And Affective Dissatisfaction

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  • Transcript of "Effect Of Exposure To Media Images On Perceptual Body Image Distortion And Affective Dissatisfaction"

    1. 1. Effect of Exposure to Media Images on Perceptual Body Image Distortion and Affective Dissatisfaction Angie French & Blair Terrell Hanover College
    2. 2. Research Question <ul><li>How does exposure to these images influence how women feel about themselves and their bodies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Comparison – (comparison of self to others) </li></ul></ul>What is the perfect woman? (Nichter & Nichter, 1991) - 5’7”, 100 lbs, - long blonde hair - blue eyes Most fashion models meet weight criteria for anorexia nervosa. (Kalodner, 1997) Media is everywhere!
    3. 3. Hypothesis Social Comparison Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Increased Affective Body Image Dissatisfaction
    4. 4. <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>49 female students from Hanover College </li></ul><ul><li>Mean age = 19 </li></ul><ul><li>48 – Caucasian </li></ul><ul><li>1 – Pacific Islander </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Phase 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Two weeks prior to Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison questionnaire and personal information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of Social Comparison Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Fujita, 1996) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines how prone an individual is to compare herself to others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha = .90 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Anonymity protection—code </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Street name + last 4 digits from SSN </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Phase 2 </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint slide show of 30 fitness, fashion/beauty, or neutral images from popular magazines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection criteria: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--Only one model per image </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--3/4 length body shot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--no overlaid type </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--no product shown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(criteria from Waller, Hamilton, & Shaw, 1992) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Fitness
    8. 8. Fashion/Beauty
    9. 9. Neutral
    10. 10. <ul><li>Adjustable Light Beam Apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>(Thompson & Spana, 1988) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures perceived size of cheeks, waist, and hips </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Eating Disorders Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>(Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive for Thinness scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Dissatisfaction scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha = .9351 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actual body size measure </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual distortion = discrepancy between perceived and actual body size of cheeks, waist, and hips </li></ul><ul><li>(Alpha = .8697) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Social Comparison Increased Affective Body Image Dissatisfaction Results Does media exposure influence perceptual distortion?
    13. 13. YES Perceptual Distortion <ul><li>Amount of distortion varied significantly across three conditions, F (1,45) = 3.24, p < .05 </li></ul><ul><li>The only post hoc comparison that was significant was between beauty and neutral, p < .05. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports previous research  Exposure to beauty images increases distortion </li></ul>
    14. 14. Exposure to Media Images of the Sociocultural Ideal Perceptual Body Image Distortion Results Increased Affective Body Image Dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction does not correlate with distortion Social Comparison Moderating variable comes into the picture Dissatisfaction means do not vary significantly across media conditions
    15. 15. Results cont. <ul><li>Split Social Comparison into “Low” and “High” categories. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant interaction found between social comparison and media condition ( F (5, 42) = 2.77, p = .03). </li></ul><ul><li>The only significant difference between the means was found in fitness condition ( t (15) = 2.4, p = .03). </li></ul>
    16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Two media conditions  different effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty images influence perception (distortion) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fitness images influence emotion (dissatisfaction) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Fitness  Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Message behind the fitness images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea of achievability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But is it really achievable? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exposure  GUILT  Dissatisfaction </li></ul>Thin Thighs, Firm Butt, Flat Abs 5 super moves that tone you everywhere! Firm All Your Trouble Zones Get lean and sculpted, melt inches Fastest Ab and Butt Toners Cardio shortcuts Blast fat in 10, 15, 20 mins.
    18. 19. Beauty  Distortion <ul><li>Beauty images thinner than fitness images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less guilt because only option of attainability is to take drastic, unhealthy measures (e.g., drug use, eating disorder) </li></ul></ul>Average woman beauty fitness Weight
    19. 20. <ul><li>Non-representative sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>48 Caucasian & 1 Pacific Islander </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homemade equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Interrater reliability </li></ul>Limitations
    20. 21. Questions
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