E Commerce Marketing Concepts


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E Commerce Marketing Concepts

  1. 1. E-commerce Kenneth C. Laudon Carol Guercio Traver business. technology. society. Second Edition
  2. 2. Chapter 7 E-commerce Marketing Concepts
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify the key features of the Internet audience 辨識網路讀者群的主要特徵 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the basic concepts of consumer behavior and purchasing decisions 討論顧客行為與購買決策的基本概念 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how consumers behave online 了解顧客在網路上的行為表現 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the basic marketing concepts need to understand Internet marketing 描述了解網路行銷所需的基本行銷觀念 。 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (Cont.) <ul><li>Identify and describe the main technologies that support online marketing 辨識與描述支援網路行銷的主要技術 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and describe basic e-commerce marketing and branding strategies 辨識與描述基本的電子商務行銷與品牌策略 。 </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how online market research is conducted 解釋如何建構網路市場研究 。 </li></ul>
  5. 5. NetFlix Develops a New Brand <ul><li>Example of pure-play online business that built a nationally recognized successful brand within a relatively short time period </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data mining and collaborative filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. NetFlix Develops a New Brand <ul><li>Page 355 </li></ul>
  7. 7. 7.1 The Internet Audience and Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Around 160 million Americans (56% of total population) have Internet access mid-2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate has slowed to less than 10% a year </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity and scope of use both increasing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Top 10 Most Popular Internet Activities (2002) <ul><li>Table 7.1, Page 359 </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Growing Range of Online Activities: An Average Day in the Life on an Internet User <ul><li>Table 7.2, Page 360 </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Growing Range of Online Activities: An Average Day in the Life on an Internet User <ul><li>Table 7.2 (cont’d), </li></ul><ul><li>Page 361 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Internet Audience and Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Demographics and access (人口統計資料與使用) : some demographic groups have much higher percentages of online usage than other groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics to examine include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income (收入) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age (年齡) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity (種族) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (教育) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender (性別) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Changing Demographic Differences in Internet Access <ul><li>Table 7.3, Page 363 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Type of Internet Connection: Broadband Impacts <ul><li>30 million Americans will have broadband access by end of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Broadband audience quite different from dial-up audience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthier( 豐富的 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More educated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More middle-aged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater intensity and scope of use </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Impact of Broadband on Internet Activities <ul><li>Table 7.4, Page 365 </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Impact of Broadband on Internet Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>Table 7.4, Page 366 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lifestyle Impacts <ul><li>Intense Internet usage may cause a decline in traditional social activities </li></ul><ul><li>Social development of children using Internet intensively instead of engaging in ( 從事於 ) face-to-face interactions or undirected play may also be negatively impacted </li></ul><ul><li>The more time people spend on the Internet, the less time spent using traditional media </li></ul>
  17. 17. Consumer Behavior Models <ul><li>Attempt to predict/explain what consumers purchase and where, when, how much and why they buy. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer behavior models based on background demographic factors and other intervening( 介於中間的 ), more immediate( 立即的 ) variables </li></ul>
  18. 18. A General Model of Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Figure 7.1, Page 368 </li></ul>(中介變數—市場刺激) 。 消費者行為模式企圖預測消費者在交易市集中的決策。
  19. 19. Background Demographic Factors <ul><li>Culture (文化) : Shapes basic human values, wants, perceptions( 感知 ) and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Subculture (子文化) : Subset of culture; forms around major social differences such as ethnicity( 種族地位 ), age, lifestyle, geography( 地理分佈 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Direct reference group (直接參考族群) : Include one’s family, profession/occupation( 職業 ), religion( 宗教 ), neighborhood, schools </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect reference group (間接參考族群) : Includes one’s life-cycle state, social class and lifestyle group </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion leaders( 意見領袖 ) or viral influencers (病毒影響者) : Influence the behavior of others through their personality, skills or other factors </li></ul>
  20. 20. Background Demographic Factors (cont’d) <ul><li>Psychological profile (心理側寫資料) : set of needs, drives, motivations, perceptions and learned behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Psychographic profiles (性格分析資料) : divides market into different groups based on demographic and psychological data </li></ul>
  21. 21. Factors That Predict Online Buying Behavior <ul><li>Figure 7.2, Page 370 </li></ul>主動尋找產品資訊每天傳送的電子郵件數和最近是否從型錄訂購產品 , 是預測某人是否將會在線上訂購東西的重要變數 ( 變數從效果最低列到最高)。 ( 效益規模 )
  22. 22. The Purchasing Decision <ul><li>Five stages in the consumer decision process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of need (察覺需求) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for more information (搜尋) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of alternatives (評估各種選擇) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual purchase decision (購買) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-purchase contact with firm (售後服務) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Consumer Decision Process and Supporting Communications <ul><li>Figure 7.3, Page 371 </li></ul>不管非線上或線上傳達工具,都可以用來支援網路消費者的決策過程五個階段。
  24. 24. A Model of Online Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Adds two new factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web site capabilities (網站效能) – the content, design and functionality of a site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer clickstream behavior (點選流向行為) – the transaction log that consumers establish as they move about the Web </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Model of Online Consumer Behavior <ul><li>Figure 7.4, Page 372 </li></ul>網站的設計與功能性,和消費者點選流向行為,也都影響網路消費者行為。
  26. 26. Seven Types of Online Sessions (程序) <ul><li>Table 7.5, Page 374 </li></ul>快手 只要事實 單一任務 又一次 閒逛 請給我資訊 持續瀏覽
  27. 27. Shoppers: Browsers and Buyers <ul><li>2003 UCLA Internet Report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 40% of online users are “buyers” who actually purchase online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 40% of online users research on the Web (“browsers”) and purchase them online. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significance of online browsing for offline purchasing and vice versa ( 反之亦然 ) should not be underestimated </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce and traditional commerce are coupled and should be viewed by merchants and researchers as part of a continuum of consuming behavior </li></ul>
  28. 28. Online Shoppers <ul><li>Figure 7.5, Page 375 </li></ul>有 80% 的網路使用者在線上購物,不管是研究產品或在網路上購買產品。網路使用者實際上在線上購物的比例自 2001 年後開始減少,但他們購物的交易量卻增加了。
  29. 29. What Consumers Shop for and Buy Online <ul><li>Online sales divided roughly into small ticket and big ticket items </li></ul><ul><li>Small ticket items – traditional leaders include apparel( 衣服 ), books, health and beauty aids, office supplies, music, software, videos, toys etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Top small ticket categories have similar characteristics – sold by first movers, small purchase price, physically small, high margin items, broad selection of products available </li></ul><ul><li>Purchases of big ticket items (airline tickets, hotel rooms, computer hardware, consumer electronics) expanding </li></ul>
  30. 30. What Consumers Buy on the Web – Small Ticket Items (December 2002) <ul><li>Figure 7.6, </li></ul><ul><li>Page 377 </li></ul>
  31. 31. What Consumers Buy on the Web – Big Ticket Items (December 2002) (cont’d) <ul><li>Figure 7.6, Page 377 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Intentional Acts: How Shoppers Find Vendors Online <ul><li>Over 85% of shoppers find vendor sites by typing product or store/brand name into search engine or going directly to the site </li></ul><ul><li>Most (55%) online shoppers plan to purchase product within a week, either online or at a store </li></ul><ul><li>Most online shoppers (83%) have a specific item in mind </li></ul>
  33. 33. Shoppers’ Intention to Purchase <ul><li>Figure 7.7, Page 378 </li></ul>大部分的線上購物者打算在一星期內完成購物。
  34. 34. Most Online Shoppers Are Focused Browsers <ul><li>Figure 7.8, Page 378 </li></ul>線上購物者是有高度意圖的。
  35. 35. Why More People Don’t Shop Online <ul><li>There are a number of actions e-commerce vendors could take to increase the likelihood that shoppers and non-shoppers would purchase online more frequently, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making comparison shopping easier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making it easier to return merchandise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing better security for credit card and/or personal information </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Factors That Would Encourage More Online Purchasing <ul><li>Table 7.6, Page 380 </li></ul>更好的售價、容易比價、容易退貨和更加的安全性,是促成更多線上購買的前幾個因素。
  37. 37. Trust, Utility, and Opportunism in Online Markets <ul><li>Trust and utility among the most important factors shaping decision to purchase online </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers are looking for utility (better prices, convenience) </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetry of information can lead to opportunistic behavior by sellers </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers also need to trust merchants before willing to purchase </li></ul><ul><li>Sellers can develop trust by building strong reputations for honesty, fairness, delivery </li></ul>
  38. 38. 7.2 Basic Marketing Concepts <ul><li>Marketing (行銷) : The strategies and actions firms take to establish a relationship with a consumer and encourage purchases of products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Internet marketing (網路行銷) : Using the Web, as well as traditional channels, to develop a positive, long-term relationship with customers, thereby creating competitive advantage for the firm by allowing it to charge a higher price for products or services than its competitors can charge </li></ul>
  39. 39. Basic Marketing Concepts (cont’d) <ul><li>Firms within an industry compete with one another on four dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing seeks to create unique, highly differentiated products or services that are produced or supplied by one trusted firm (“little monopolies”) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Feature Sets (特性集合) <ul><li>Defines as the bundle of capabilities and services offered by the product or service </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core product (核心產品) – the core benefit the customer receives from the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual product (實際產品) – the set of characteristics designed to deliver the product’s core benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmented product (附加產品) – a product with additional benefits to customers beyond the core benefits embodied in the actual product </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Feature Set <ul><li>Figure 7.9, Page 382 </li></ul>特性集合中每個元素都可突顯某產品在市場中和其它產品的區別。
  42. 42. Products, Brands and the Branding Process <ul><li>Brand (品牌) : A set of expectations that consumers have when consuming, or thinking about consuming, a product or service from a specific company </li></ul><ul><li>Branding (品牌化) : The process of brand creation </li></ul><ul><li>Closed loop marketing (封閉循環行銷) : When marketers are able to directly influence the design of the core product based on market research and feedback. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-commerce enhances the ability to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brand strategy (品牌策略) : Set of plans for differentiating a product from its competitor, and communicating these differences to the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Brand equity (品牌效益) : estimated value of the premium customers are willing to pay for a branded product versus unbranded competitor </li></ul>
  43. 43. Marketing Activities: From Products to Brands <ul><li>Figure 7.10, Page 383 </li></ul>信賴 喜愛 忠誠度 名聲 行銷者企圖以消費者認知到的信賴、喜愛、忠誠度和名聲,創造產品的「品牌識別」。
  44. 44. Are Brands Rational? <ul><li>For consumers, a qualified yes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands introduce market efficiency by reducing search and decision-making costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For business firms, a definite yes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands lower customer acquisition costs – the overall costs of converting a prospect into a consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brands increase customer retention – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful brand constitutes a long-lasting (although not necessarily permanent) unfair competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Can Brands Survive the Internet? Brands and Price Dispersion <ul><li>Researchers initially postulated that Web would result in “Law of One Price” – with complete transparency in a perfect marketplace, there would be one world price for every product </li></ul><ul><li>Did not occur, and e-commerce firms continue to rely heavily on brands to attract customers and charge premium prices </li></ul><ul><li>Price dispersion (價格分散度) – the difference between the highest and lowest prices in a market </li></ul><ul><li>Research evidence indicates that brands are alive and well on the Internet, and that consumers are willing to pay premium prices for products and services they view as differentiated </li></ul>
  46. 46. www.nash-equilibrium.com <ul><li>Page 387 </li></ul>
  47. 47. 7.3 Internet Marketing Technologies <ul><li>Web transaction logs (網站交易記錄) </li></ul><ul><li>Cookies and Web bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Databases, data warehouses, and data mining </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising networks (廣告聯播網路) </li></ul><ul><li>Customer relationship management (CRM) systems </li></ul>
  48. 48. Revolution (革命) in Internet Marketing Technologies <ul><li>Three broad impacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet has broadened the scope of marketing communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet has increased the richness of marketing communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet has greatly expanded the information intensity of the marketplace </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Impact of Unique Features of E-commerce Technology on Marketing <ul><li>Table 7.7, Page 389 </li></ul>普及性 全球可及 全球標準化 豐富性 互動性 資訊密集 個人化 / 客製化
  50. 50. Web Transaction Logs (網站交易記錄) <ul><li>Built into Web server software </li></ul><ul><li>Records user activity at a Web site </li></ul><ul><li>WebTrends a leading log analysis tool </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide treasure trove of marketing information, particularly when combined with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration forms (註冊表單) – used to gather personal data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping cart database (購物車資料庫) – captures all item selection, purchase and payment data </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Four Seconds from the Web Transaction Log of Azimuth-Interactive.com <ul><li>Figure 7.11, Page 391 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Marketing Uses of Data from Web Transaction Logs <ul><li>Table 7.8, Page 392 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Cookies <ul><li>Cookies : small text file that Web sites place on a visitor’s client computer every time they visit, and during the visit as specific pages are accessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Cookies provide Web marketers with a very quick means of identifying the customer and understanding his or her prior behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Location of cookie files on computer depends on browser version </li></ul>
  54. 54. A Typical Netscape Cookie File <ul><li>Figure 7.12, </li></ul><ul><li>Page 393 </li></ul>
  55. 55. Web Bugs <ul><li>Tiny (1 pixel) graphic files embedded in e-mail messages and on Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Used to automatically transmit information about the user and the page being viewed to a monitoring server </li></ul>
  56. 56. Insight on Society: Should Web Bugs Be Regulated? <ul><li>Marketers claim Web bugs are innocuous; privacy advocates say, if so, why are they hidden </li></ul><ul><li>Different types include clear GIF, executable bugs and script-based executable bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy Foundation guidelines for Web bug usage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be visible and labeled to indicate function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should identify name of company that placed it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should display disclosure statement if clicked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able to opt-out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network Advertising Initiative (NAI) calls them Web beacons, and have issued their own guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, no government regulation </li></ul>
  57. 57. Databases and Data Warehouses <ul><li>Database : Software that stores records and attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Database management system (DBMS): Software used to create, maintain and access databases </li></ul><ul><li>SQL (Structured Query Language): Industry-standard database query and manipulation language used in a relational databases </li></ul><ul><li>Relational database : Represents data as two-dimensional tables with records organized in rows and attributes in columns; data within different tables can be flexibly related as long as the tables share a common data element </li></ul><ul><li>Data warehouse : Database that collects a firm’s transactional and customer data in a single location for offline analysis by marketers and site managers </li></ul>
  58. 58. A Relational Database View of E-commerce Customers <ul><li>Figure 7.13, Page 398 </li></ul>
  59. 59. Data Mining <ul><li>Set of analytical techniques that look for patterns in data of a database or data warehouse, or seek to model the behavior of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Query-driven – based on specific queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model-driven – involves use of a model that analyzes key variables of interest to decision makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule-based – examines demographic and transactional data of groups and individuals at a Web site and attempts to derive general rules of behavior for visitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative filtering (合作式過濾)– behavioral approach; site visitors classify themselves into affinity groups (關聯群體) based on common interests; products are then recommended based on what other people in the group have recently purchased </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Data Mining and Personalization <ul><li>Figure 7.14, </li></ul><ul><li>Page 399 </li></ul>評估客戶的回應 個人化資訊的傳送及呈現 比對 建立客戶側寫資料 收集客戶資料 個人化內容及行銷是根據資料探勘的方式而來,可以產生出可信賴的個人消費者行為之規則。
  61. 61. Insight on Technology: Enhancing the Intelligence of Collaborative Filtering Systems <ul><li>Collaborative filtering automates the process of collecting and distributing recommendations from other users </li></ul><ul><li>Early efforts suffered from defects (start-up effect, popularity effect, misplaced-consumer effect) </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions include adding human editors, asking consumers to establish own profiles </li></ul>
  62. 62. Advertising Networks <ul><li>Best known for ability to present users with banner advertisements based on a database of user behavioral data </li></ul><ul><li>DoubleClick best-known example </li></ul><ul><li>Ad server selects appropriate banner ad based on cookies, Web bugs, backend user profile databases </li></ul>
  63. 63. How an Advertising Network such as DoubleClick Works <ul><li>Figure 7.15, Page 404 </li></ul>廣告聯播網路因為可以透過網路追蹤個人消費者的能力而在隱私權保護者中引起了爭議。
  64. 64. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems <ul><li>Repository of customer information that records all of the contacts that a customer has with a firm and generates a customer profile available to everyone in the firm with an need to “know the customer” </li></ul><ul><li>Customer profiles can contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Map of the customer’s relationship with the firm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product and usage summary data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic and psychographic data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing and sales information </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. A Customer Relationship Management System <ul><li>Figure 7.16, Page 406 </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>圖 7.16 是金融機構的 CRM 系統。 </li></ul><ul><li>這個系統從所有的客戶「接觸」點和其它資料來源收集客戶資料,把資料組合,並整合進單一的客戶資料儲存庫或資料倉儲中,如此可用來提供更好的服務,或依行銷用途建立客戶側寫資料。 </li></ul><ul><li>線上分析處理 (OLAP) 讓主管可動態分析客戶活動,以找出客戶的趨向或議題。 </li></ul><ul><li>其它分析軟體程式分析總合客戶行為,以辨別可獲利和無法獲利的客戶與客戶活動。 </li></ul>
  67. 67. 7.4 Market Entry Strategies <ul><li>For new firms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure clicks/first mover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed “clicks and bricks”/alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For existing firms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure clicks/fast follower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed “clicks and bricks”/brand extensions </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Generic Market Entry Strategies <ul><li>Figure 7.17, Page 408 </li></ul>搶先者 合作夥伴 快速追隨者 品牌延伸者 新公司與傳統公司在進入電子商務交易市集時,都面臨一項基本選擇 -- 「虛擬」或「虛擬實體合一」
  69. 69. Establishing the Customer Relationship <ul><li>Permission marketing (許可行銷) : Marketing strategy in which companies obtain permission from consumers before sending them information or promotional messages (example: opt-in ( 加入 ) e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliate marketing (合作行銷) : Marketing strategy that relies on referrals; Web site agrees to pay another Web site a commission for new business opportunities it refers to the site </li></ul><ul><li>Viral marketing (病毒行銷) : Process of getting customers to pass along a company’s marketing message to friends, family, and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Brand leveraging (品牌運用) : Process of using power of an existing brand to acquire new customers for a new product or service </li></ul>
  70. 70. Customer Retention (顧客維持) <ul><li>Mass market-personalization continuum ranges from mass marketing to direct marketing to micromarketing (個體行銷) to personalized, one-to-one marketing </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one marketing (一對一行銷) : Involves segmenting the market on a precise and timely understanding of an individual’s needs, targeting specific marketing messages to these individuals and then positioning the product vis-à-vis competitors to be truly unique </li></ul>
  71. 71. The Mass Market-Personalization Continuum <ul><li>Figure 7.18, Page 414 </li></ul>( 簡單 ) ( 分級 ) ( 複雜 ) ( 高度複雜 ) ( 大眾行銷 ) ( 直接行銷 ) ( 個體行銷 ) ( 個人化一對一行銷 ) 個人化一對一行銷屬於行銷策略發展的一部分。選擇何種策略要看產品的性質以及促成各種策略的技術。
  72. 72. Other Customer Retention Marketing Techniques <ul><li>Customization (客製化) : Changing the product (not just the marketing message) according to user preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Customer co-production (客戶共同生產) : Allows the customer to interactively create the product </li></ul><ul><li>Transactive content : Results from the combination of traditional content with dynamic information tailored to each user’s profile </li></ul>
  73. 73. Other Customer Retention Marketing Techniques (cont’d) <ul><li>Customer service tools include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently asked questions (FAQs) – text-based listing of common questions and answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time customer service chat systems – company’s service representatives interactively exchange text messages with one or more customers on a real-time basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent agent technology – bots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated response systems – send e-mail confirmations and acknowledgments </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Net Pricing Strategies <ul><li>Pricing (putting a value on goods and services) an integral part of marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, prices based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed cost (costs of building production facility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable costs (costs involved in running production facility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market’s demand curve (quantity of goods that can be sold at various prices) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Price discrimination (價格區別) : Selling products to different people and groups based on their willingness to pay </li></ul>
  75. 75. A Demand Curve <ul><li>Figure 7.19, Page 419 </li></ul>需求曲線顯示各種售價 (P) 可售出的產品數量 (Q)
  76. 76. Net Pricing Strategies (cont’d) <ul><li>Free products/services : Can be used to build market awareness (知名度) </li></ul><ul><li>Versioning (提供版本) : Creating multiple versions of a good and selling essentially the same product to different market segments at different prices </li></ul><ul><li>Bundling (配套) : Offers consumers two or more goods for one price </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic pricing : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auctions (拍賣) – establish an instant market price for goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield management (收益控制) – Managers set prices in different markets, appealing to different segments in order to sell excess capacity </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. The Demand for Bundles of 1-20 Goods <ul><li>Figure 7.20, Page 422 </li></ul>套裝產品中組合的商品數量愈多,消費者就願意付愈多的每產品價格。 ( 配套數量佔總人口數的百分比 )
  78. 78. Channel Management Strategies <ul><li>Channel (管道) : Refers to different methods by which goods can be distributed and sold </li></ul><ul><li>Channel conflict (管道衝突) : Occurs when a new venue for selling products or services threatens or destroys existing venues for selling goods </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: online airline/travel services and traditional offline travel agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Some manufacturers are using partnership model to avoid channel conflict </li></ul>
  79. 79. 7.5 Online Market Research <ul><li>Market research (市場研究) : Involves gathering information that will help a firm identify potential products and customers </li></ul><ul><li>Two general types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary research (主要研究) – involves gathering first-hand information using techniques such as surveys, personal interviews and focus groups (焦點小組) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary research (間接研究) – relies on existing, published information as basis for analyzing market </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Types of Survey Questions <ul><li>Table 7.9, Page 425 </li></ul>
  81. 81. Insight on Business: Zoomerang <ul><li>Zoomerang.com: One of the first online survey tools launched </li></ul><ul><li>Enables users to choose from pre-built survey templates, create and distribute online surveys, and collect and analyze survey responses </li></ul><ul><li>Competitors include SurveyMonkey and others </li></ul>
  82. 82. Some Popular Secondary Research Tools <ul><li>Table 7.10, Page 428 </li></ul>
  83. 83. 7.6 Case Study: Liquidation.com: B2B Marketing Basics on a Budget <ul><li>Liquidation.com: B2B auction business model, focusing on liquidated goods </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and branding tactics include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust building through alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web transaction log analysis, customer registration forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search engine marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guerilla marketing public relations campaign and limited advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail marketing </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Liquidation.com: B2B Marketing Basics on a Budget <ul><li>Page 430 </li></ul>