Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands



Published in Education , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. Assessment
  • 2. “ Studies suggest that many physical educators fail to assess their students’ motor behavior properly. The major reason for this is lack of training.”
  • 3. Guidelines for Assessment
    • Why do you want to assess your students/patients?
    • What variables do you plan to assess?
    • Which tests purport to assess the variables that you have identified?
    • How will you prepare for collecting the data?
  • 4. Guidelines for Assessment
    • Do you have the statistical skills to interpret the assessment data?
    • Will you be conducting an informal or a formal assessment?
    • How, and with whom, will you share the assessment results?
  • 5. Why Assess?
    • Screening
      • To identify needs
      • To determine if an individual requires further testing, additional programming, or instruction
    • Program content
      • Plan the content of a particular program
  • 6. Why Assess?
    • Student progress
      • Are individuals meeting the course or program objectives?
    • Program evaluation
      • Is the program meeting the objectives for enhanced skill development?
    • Classification
      • Placement of individuals by group
  • 7. What Variables to Assess
    • Instructional units that are tied to specific objectives indicate which variables are assessed
    • Assess variables tied to program objectives
  • 8.
    • Validity
      • Test measures what it claims to measure
        • Content validity ~ the instrument contains tasks that measure specific content of interest
      • A subjective measure
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 9.
    • Reliability
      • Consistency of test scores
        • Individual scores do not vary significantly from day to day, assuming there has been no additional instruction
      • Measured statistically
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 10.
    • Objectivity
      • Interrater reliability
      • Degree of accuracy to which a test is scored
      • Determined statistically
    • Statistical determination is performed by computing a correlation coefficient for two sets of scores
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 11.
    • Correlation coefficient
      • A set of ratings compiled by one scorer is correlated with the scores obtained by a second scorer
        • A correlation coefficient of 0.80 –1.00 is acceptable
    • Caution: norms are population specific
      • Height of American children should not be compared with the norms in height for Japanese children
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 12.
    • Test feasibility
      • Which test can be administered in the least amount of time?
      • Must you administer the test to a single student, or can it be administered to groups?
      • Do you have the training and expertise to administer the test?
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 13.
    • Test feasibility
      • Do you have all of the supplies and equipment needed for test administration?
      • Do you have the training and expertise to interpret the test results?
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 14. Preparing Students for Assessment
    • To reduce test anxiety
      • Test environment can be controlled
      • Meet the participant’s physical needs
        • Procedure for restroom breaks
      • Meet the participant’s psychological needs
        • Introduce the test with conversation
        • Reveal what will be done during the test
        • Avoid the word “test”
        • Allow participants to explore the equipment
  • 15. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • Do you have the necessary equipment to administer the assessment?
    • Can you deliver the standardized directions to students taking the assessment?
    • Do you have an appropriate score sheet with extra pencils on hand?
  • 16. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • Are you adequately prepared to administer the assessment without constantly referring to the test manual?
    • If assessment requires observation, do you possess valid observational skills?
      • Are you able to recognize deviations from the norm?
      • From what point will you observe?
  • 17. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • You must think through and even pilot (test run) your assessment procedures prior to administering the test to a target population
  • 18. Interpreting the Assessment Data
    • Need to have an understanding of measures of central tendency and measures of variability
    • Measures of central tendency
      • Mean – arithmetic average
      • Median – 50 th percentile
      • Mode – score that appears most frequently
  • 19. Interpreting the Assessment Data
    • Measures of variability
      • Describes the spread of scores
    • A measure of variability
      • Standard deviation – describes the degree to which the scores vary about the mean of the distribution
      • δ = sigma (standard deviation symbol)
  • 20. Interpreting Assessment Data
  • 21. Formal vs. Informal Assessment
    • When assessment is performed in an informal manner, the student is not generally aware that an observation is being made
    • Playbased assessment
      • Children are involved in free play within an approved area, but in the presence of an adult facilitator
  • 22. Formal vs. Informal Assessment
    • Playbased assessment
      • Facilitator plays along and models the child's play behavior
      • Later, the facilitator will coax the child into exhibiting new movements
      • During this time, an evaluation is being conducted
      • Videotaping is recommended
  • 23. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Norm-referenced
      • Quantitative evaluations designed to compare a person’s skill and abilities with those of others from similar age, gender, and socioeconomic categories
      • Also called psychometric instruments
      • Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, Gesell Developmental Schedules, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Test of Gross Motor Development-2
  • 24. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Norm-referenced
      • Advantages
        • Easy to administer
        • Minimal training required to administer the test
        • Scoring procedures are simple
        • Compare results to others in peer group
      • Disadvantages
        • Provides only “average” results
  • 25. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Criterion-referenced
      • These instruments evaluate the “ quality ” of a person’s performance
      • Can determine placement of an individual along the developmental continuum
      • Compares an individual to him/herself over time
      • Common testing procedures for motor developmentalists
  • 26. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Criterion-referenced
      • Advantages
        • Provides more insight into programming considerations
        • Provides a true developmental assessment
      • Disadvantages
        • More complicated to administer than norm-referenced tests
  • 27. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Product-oriented assessment
      • The examiner is more interested in performance outcomes than the technique used to perform the task
      • Measures quantitative outcomes
        • How far
        • How many
      • Pass-fail system
      • Score for each successful completion of a task
  • 28. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
    • Process-oriented assessment
      • Requires a component approach
        • “the identification of developmental characteristics of body parts within a task”
      • Disadvantages
        • A comprehensive understanding of developmental steps and a prolonged period of study and practice of the techniques is required
      • Conducting this type of assessment within a large school population is questionable
  • 29. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
    • Component approach assessments not feasible to use with large classes
      • Takes too much time
      • Appropriate for small classes
    • Total body approach assessments more feasible with large classes
  • 30. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (2005)
      • Subtests to identify deficits in young children (1-42 months)
        • Cognitive
        • Motor
        • Language
        • Social-Emotional
        • Adaptive Behavior
    • Motor subtests
      • Body control
      • Large muscle coordination
      • Fine motor manipulatory skills
      • Dynamic movement
      • Dynamic praxis
      • Postural imitation
      • Stereognosis
  • 31. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP)
      • Test battery of 8 subtests with 46 items
      • Short and long form
      • Provides a comprehensive index of motor proficiency and individual measures of fine and gross motor skills in children 4.5 to 14.5 years of age
  • 32. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Basic Motor Ability Test – Revised
      • Designed to assess selected large and small muscle control responses
      • Can be used with children 4 to 12 years of age
      • Some test items: bead stringing, target throwing, back and hamstring stretch, static balance, basketball throw, agility run
  • 33. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Denver II
      • A major revision and restandardization of the original Denver Development Screening Test
      • Designed to screen children between birth and 6 years of age for developmental delays in four areas
  • 34. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Areas
      • Personal-social
      • Fine motor adaptive
      • Language
      • Gross motor
    • Test sheet is unique
    • Scoring: pass-fail, refusal, no opportunity to observe grading
    • Training aids available
  • 35. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • 4 AREAS of child’s development tested in Denver II
    • Personal-social
      • Drinking from a cup, removing one’s own garments, washing and drying hands
    • Fine motor adaptive
      • Ability to perform tasks as passing a block from hand to hand, stacking blocks
    • Language
      • Ability to imitate sounds, name body parts, define words
    • Gross motor
      • Ability to sit, walk, jump, throw
  • 36. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • SIGMA
      • The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment
      • A criterion-referenced tool designed to evaluate motor behavior of normal preschool, elementary, and young mentally retarded school children
      • 11 fundamental motor skills in four developmental levels assessed
      • A Performance Based Curriculum (PBC) is included with the assessment test
  • 37. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventory
      • This analysis is based upon the configuration of the total body during performance of a task
      • Three to five stages of behavior are observed
      • Level of development is then classified for hopping, skipping, galloping, throwing, catching, punting, striking, kicking, long jumping
  • 38. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrument
      • Used to assess developmental changes over time for fundamental patterns
        • Walking, running, jumping, throwing overhand, catching, kicking
      • Performer is scored in one of three stages of development
        • Initial stage, elementary stage, mature stage
  • 39. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Test of Gross Motor Development – 2
      • Used to identify children between 3.0 and 10.11 years of age who may be significantly behind in gross motor skill development and eligible for special education services
      • Locomotor and object-control skills are evaluated
      • Normative data stratified by age, geography, gender, race, residence
  • 40. Assessing the Disabled
    • Although individuals with selected special needs perform behind their “normal” peers, both groups follow similar patterns of development
    • Most assessment tests are geared to the “normal” population
    • Comparisons using normative data are inappropriate
  • 41. Assessing the Disabled
    • Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development (BDIED)
      • Criterion-referenced test with norms
      • Assesses behaviors that are divided into 11 domains
      • Can assess development from birth to 6 years of age
      • Easy to administer and interpret
  • 42. Assessing the Disabled
    • General knowledge and comprehension
    • Readiness skills
    • Basic reading skills
    • Writing skills
    • Math skills
    • Preambulatory motor skills and behaviors
    • Gross motor skills and behaviors
    • Fine motor skills and behaviors
    • Self-help skills
    • Prespeech behaviors
    • Speech and language skills
    Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development: Assessment Categories
  • 43. Assessing the Disabled
    • I CAN
      • The goal of this assessment is to improve the quality of physical education instruction for all students
      • Target population: “children whose overall developmental growth is slower than the average, as well as . . children with specific learning disabilities, social, or emotional adjustment difficulties, and or economic or language disadvantages”
  • 44. Assessing the Disabled
    • I CAN
      • Criterion-referenced
      • Easy to administer
      • Modules include
        • Preprimary motor and play skills
        • Primary skills
        • Sport, leisure, and recreation skills
  • 45. Aids in Assessing Motor Skills
    • Checklists or reminder sheets that list key descriptive terms for each developmental level to jog the examiner’s memory
    • Videotaping individual performance
  • 46. Assessing Physical Fitness
    • Physical-fitness test batteries
      • President’s Challenge
      • National Youth Physical Fitness Program
      • National Children and Youth Fitness Studies I and II
      • Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years
      • Senior Fitness Test
      • Canada Standard Test of Fitness