Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands


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  • Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands

    1. 1. Assessment
    2. 2. “ Studies suggest that many physical educators fail to assess their students’ motor behavior properly. The major reason for this is lack of training.”
    3. 3. Guidelines for Assessment <ul><li>Why do you want to assess your students/patients? </li></ul><ul><li>What variables do you plan to assess? </li></ul><ul><li>Which tests purport to assess the variables that you have identified? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you prepare for collecting the data? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Guidelines for Assessment <ul><li>Do you have the statistical skills to interpret the assessment data? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you be conducting an informal or a formal assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>How, and with whom, will you share the assessment results? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Assess? <ul><li>Screening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine if an individual requires further testing, additional programming, or instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the content of a particular program </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Why Assess? <ul><li>Student progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are individuals meeting the course or program objectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the program meeting the objectives for enhanced skill development? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placement of individuals by group </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What Variables to Assess <ul><li>Instructional units that are tied to specific objectives indicate which variables are assessed </li></ul><ul><li>Assess variables tied to program objectives </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test measures what it claims to measure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content validity ~ the instrument contains tasks that measure specific content of interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A subjective measure </li></ul></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    9. 9. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency of test scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual scores do not vary significantly from day to day, assuming there has been no additional instruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured statistically </li></ul></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    10. 10. <ul><li>Objectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrater reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of accuracy to which a test is scored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined statistically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical determination is performed by computing a correlation coefficient for two sets of scores </li></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    11. 11. <ul><li>Correlation coefficient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of ratings compiled by one scorer is correlated with the scores obtained by a second scorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A correlation coefficient of 0.80 –1.00 is acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Caution: norms are population specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Height of American children should not be compared with the norms in height for Japanese children </li></ul></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    12. 12. <ul><li>Test feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which test can be administered in the least amount of time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must you administer the test to a single student, or can it be administered to groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the training and expertise to administer the test? </li></ul></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    13. 13. <ul><li>Test feasibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have all of the supplies and equipment needed for test administration? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you have the training and expertise to interpret the test results? </li></ul></ul>Selecting the Ideal Test
    14. 14. Preparing Students for Assessment <ul><li>To reduce test anxiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test environment can be controlled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet the participant’s physical needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure for restroom breaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet the participant’s psychological needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce the test with conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reveal what will be done during the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid the word “test” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow participants to explore the equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection <ul><li>Do you have the necessary equipment to administer the assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you deliver the standardized directions to students taking the assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have an appropriate score sheet with extra pencils on hand? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection <ul><li>Are you adequately prepared to administer the assessment without constantly referring to the test manual? </li></ul><ul><li>If assessment requires observation, do you possess valid observational skills? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you able to recognize deviations from the norm? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From what point will you observe? </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection <ul><li>You must think through and even pilot (test run) your assessment procedures prior to administering the test to a target population </li></ul>
    18. 18. Interpreting the Assessment Data <ul><li>Need to have an understanding of measures of central tendency and measures of variability </li></ul><ul><li>Measures of central tendency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean – arithmetic average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median – 50 th percentile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode – score that appears most frequently </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Interpreting the Assessment Data <ul><li>Measures of variability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes the spread of scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A measure of variability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard deviation – describes the degree to which the scores vary about the mean of the distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>δ = sigma (standard deviation symbol) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Interpreting Assessment Data
    21. 21. Formal vs. Informal Assessment <ul><li>When assessment is performed in an informal manner, the student is not generally aware that an observation is being made </li></ul><ul><li>Playbased assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are involved in free play within an approved area, but in the presence of an adult facilitator </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Formal vs. Informal Assessment <ul><li>Playbased assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator plays along and models the child's play behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later, the facilitator will coax the child into exhibiting new movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this time, an evaluation is being conducted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videotaping is recommended </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Types of Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Norm-referenced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative evaluations designed to compare a person’s skill and abilities with those of others from similar age, gender, and socioeconomic categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called psychometric instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, Gesell Developmental Schedules, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Test of Gross Motor Development-2 </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Types of Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Norm-referenced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to administer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal training required to administer the test </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scoring procedures are simple </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare results to others in peer group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides only “average” results </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Types of Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These instruments evaluate the “ quality ” of a person’s performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can determine placement of an individual along the developmental continuum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares an individual to him/herself over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common testing procedures for motor developmentalists </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Types of Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides more insight into programming considerations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a true developmental assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More complicated to administer than norm-referenced tests </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Types of Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Product-oriented assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The examiner is more interested in performance outcomes than the technique used to perform the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures quantitative outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How far </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass-fail system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Score for each successful completion of a task </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment <ul><li>Process-oriented assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a component approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“the identification of developmental characteristics of body parts within a task” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A comprehensive understanding of developmental steps and a prolonged period of study and practice of the techniques is required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting this type of assessment within a large school population is questionable </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment <ul><li>Component approach assessments not feasible to use with large classes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes too much time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for small classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total body approach assessments more feasible with large classes </li></ul>
    30. 30. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtests to identify deficits in young children (1-42 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social-Emotional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor subtests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large muscle coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor manipulatory skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic praxis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postural imitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereognosis </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test battery of 8 subtests with 46 items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short and long form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a comprehensive index of motor proficiency and individual measures of fine and gross motor skills in children 4.5 to 14.5 years of age </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>Basic Motor Ability Test – Revised </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to assess selected large and small muscle control responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used with children 4 to 12 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some test items: bead stringing, target throwing, back and hamstring stretch, static balance, basketball throw, agility run </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>Denver II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A major revision and restandardization of the original Denver Development Screening Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to screen children between birth and 6 years of age for developmental delays in four areas </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal-social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor adaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross motor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test sheet is unique </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring: pass-fail, refusal, no opportunity to observe grading </li></ul><ul><li>Training aids available </li></ul>DENVER II
    35. 35. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments <ul><li>4 AREAS of child’s development tested in Denver II </li></ul><ul><li>Personal-social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking from a cup, removing one’s own garments, washing and drying hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine motor adaptive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to perform tasks as passing a block from hand to hand, stacking blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to imitate sounds, name body parts, define words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross motor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to sit, walk, jump, throw </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments <ul><li>SIGMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A criterion-referenced tool designed to evaluate motor behavior of normal preschool, elementary, and young mentally retarded school children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 fundamental motor skills in four developmental levels assessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Performance Based Curriculum (PBC) is included with the assessment test </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This analysis is based upon the configuration of the total body during performance of a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three to five stages of behavior are observed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of development is then classified for hopping, skipping, galloping, throwing, catching, punting, striking, kicking, long jumping </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to assess developmental changes over time for fundamental patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walking, running, jumping, throwing overhand, catching, kicking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performer is scored in one of three stages of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial stage, elementary stage, mature stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments <ul><li>Test of Gross Motor Development – 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to identify children between 3.0 and 10.11 years of age who may be significantly behind in gross motor skill development and eligible for special education services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locomotor and object-control skills are evaluated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative data stratified by age, geography, gender, race, residence </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Assessing the Disabled <ul><li>Although individuals with selected special needs perform behind their “normal” peers, both groups follow similar patterns of development </li></ul><ul><li>Most assessment tests are geared to the “normal” population </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons using normative data are inappropriate </li></ul>
    41. 41. Assessing the Disabled <ul><li>Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development (BDIED) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced test with norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses behaviors that are divided into 11 domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can assess development from birth to 6 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to administer and interpret </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Assessing the Disabled <ul><li>General knowledge and comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness skills </li></ul><ul><li>Basic reading skills </li></ul><ul><li>Writing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Math skills </li></ul><ul><li>Preambulatory motor skills and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Gross motor skills and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor skills and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help skills </li></ul><ul><li>Prespeech behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and language skills </li></ul>Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development: Assessment Categories
    43. 43. Assessing the Disabled <ul><li>I CAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal of this assessment is to improve the quality of physical education instruction for all students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target population: “children whose overall developmental growth is slower than the average, as well as . . children with specific learning disabilities, social, or emotional adjustment difficulties, and or economic or language disadvantages” </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Assessing the Disabled <ul><li>I CAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to administer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modules include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preprimary motor and play skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sport, leisure, and recreation skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Aids in Assessing Motor Skills <ul><li>Checklists or reminder sheets that list key descriptive terms for each developmental level to jog the examiner’s memory </li></ul><ul><li>Videotaping individual performance </li></ul>
    46. 46. Assessing Physical Fitness <ul><li>Physical-fitness test batteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President’s Challenge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Youth Physical Fitness Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Children and Youth Fitness Studies I and II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior Fitness Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada Standard Test of Fitness </li></ul></ul>