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Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands
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Drinking From A Cup, Removing One’S Own Garments, Washing And Drying Hands

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Transcript

  • 1. Assessment
  • 2. “ Studies suggest that many physical educators fail to assess their students’ motor behavior properly. The major reason for this is lack of training.”
  • 3. Guidelines for Assessment
    • Why do you want to assess your students/patients?
    • What variables do you plan to assess?
    • Which tests purport to assess the variables that you have identified?
    • How will you prepare for collecting the data?
  • 4. Guidelines for Assessment
    • Do you have the statistical skills to interpret the assessment data?
    • Will you be conducting an informal or a formal assessment?
    • How, and with whom, will you share the assessment results?
  • 5. Why Assess?
    • Screening
      • To identify needs
      • To determine if an individual requires further testing, additional programming, or instruction
    • Program content
      • Plan the content of a particular program
  • 6. Why Assess?
    • Student progress
      • Are individuals meeting the course or program objectives?
    • Program evaluation
      • Is the program meeting the objectives for enhanced skill development?
    • Classification
      • Placement of individuals by group
  • 7. What Variables to Assess
    • Instructional units that are tied to specific objectives indicate which variables are assessed
    • Assess variables tied to program objectives
  • 8.
    • Validity
      • Test measures what it claims to measure
        • Content validity ~ the instrument contains tasks that measure specific content of interest
      • A subjective measure
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 9.
    • Reliability
      • Consistency of test scores
        • Individual scores do not vary significantly from day to day, assuming there has been no additional instruction
      • Measured statistically
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 10.
    • Objectivity
      • Interrater reliability
      • Degree of accuracy to which a test is scored
      • Determined statistically
    • Statistical determination is performed by computing a correlation coefficient for two sets of scores
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 11.
    • Correlation coefficient
      • A set of ratings compiled by one scorer is correlated with the scores obtained by a second scorer
        • A correlation coefficient of 0.80 –1.00 is acceptable
    • Caution: norms are population specific
      • Height of American children should not be compared with the norms in height for Japanese children
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 12.
    • Test feasibility
      • Which test can be administered in the least amount of time?
      • Must you administer the test to a single student, or can it be administered to groups?
      • Do you have the training and expertise to administer the test?
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 13.
    • Test feasibility
      • Do you have all of the supplies and equipment needed for test administration?
      • Do you have the training and expertise to interpret the test results?
    Selecting the Ideal Test
  • 14. Preparing Students for Assessment
    • To reduce test anxiety
      • Test environment can be controlled
      • Meet the participant’s physical needs
        • Procedure for restroom breaks
      • Meet the participant’s psychological needs
        • Introduce the test with conversation
        • Reveal what will be done during the test
        • Avoid the word “test”
        • Allow participants to explore the equipment
  • 15. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • Do you have the necessary equipment to administer the assessment?
    • Can you deliver the standardized directions to students taking the assessment?
    • Do you have an appropriate score sheet with extra pencils on hand?
  • 16. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • Are you adequately prepared to administer the assessment without constantly referring to the test manual?
    • If assessment requires observation, do you possess valid observational skills?
      • Are you able to recognize deviations from the norm?
      • From what point will you observe?
  • 17. Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
    • You must think through and even pilot (test run) your assessment procedures prior to administering the test to a target population
  • 18. Interpreting the Assessment Data
    • Need to have an understanding of measures of central tendency and measures of variability
    • Measures of central tendency
      • Mean – arithmetic average
      • Median – 50 th percentile
      • Mode – score that appears most frequently
  • 19. Interpreting the Assessment Data
    • Measures of variability
      • Describes the spread of scores
    • A measure of variability
      • Standard deviation – describes the degree to which the scores vary about the mean of the distribution
      • δ = sigma (standard deviation symbol)
  • 20. Interpreting Assessment Data
  • 21. Formal vs. Informal Assessment
    • When assessment is performed in an informal manner, the student is not generally aware that an observation is being made
    • Playbased assessment
      • Children are involved in free play within an approved area, but in the presence of an adult facilitator
  • 22. Formal vs. Informal Assessment
    • Playbased assessment
      • Facilitator plays along and models the child's play behavior
      • Later, the facilitator will coax the child into exhibiting new movements
      • During this time, an evaluation is being conducted
      • Videotaping is recommended
  • 23. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Norm-referenced
      • Quantitative evaluations designed to compare a person’s skill and abilities with those of others from similar age, gender, and socioeconomic categories
      • Also called psychometric instruments
      • Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, Gesell Developmental Schedules, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Test of Gross Motor Development-2
  • 24. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Norm-referenced
      • Advantages
        • Easy to administer
        • Minimal training required to administer the test
        • Scoring procedures are simple
        • Compare results to others in peer group
      • Disadvantages
        • Provides only “average” results
  • 25. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Criterion-referenced
      • These instruments evaluate the “ quality ” of a person’s performance
      • Can determine placement of an individual along the developmental continuum
      • Compares an individual to him/herself over time
      • Common testing procedures for motor developmentalists
  • 26. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Criterion-referenced
      • Advantages
        • Provides more insight into programming considerations
        • Provides a true developmental assessment
      • Disadvantages
        • More complicated to administer than norm-referenced tests
  • 27. Types of Assessment Instruments
    • Product-oriented assessment
      • The examiner is more interested in performance outcomes than the technique used to perform the task
      • Measures quantitative outcomes
        • How far
        • How many
      • Pass-fail system
      • Score for each successful completion of a task
  • 28. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
    • Process-oriented assessment
      • Requires a component approach
        • “the identification of developmental characteristics of body parts within a task”
      • Disadvantages
        • A comprehensive understanding of developmental steps and a prolonged period of study and practice of the techniques is required
      • Conducting this type of assessment within a large school population is questionable
  • 29. Product- vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
    • Component approach assessments not feasible to use with large classes
      • Takes too much time
      • Appropriate for small classes
    • Total body approach assessments more feasible with large classes
  • 30. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (2005)
      • Subtests to identify deficits in young children (1-42 months)
        • Cognitive
        • Motor
        • Language
        • Social-Emotional
        • Adaptive Behavior
    • Motor subtests
      • Body control
      • Large muscle coordination
      • Fine motor manipulatory skills
      • Dynamic movement
      • Dynamic praxis
      • Postural imitation
      • Stereognosis
  • 31. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP)
      • Test battery of 8 subtests with 46 items
      • Short and long form
      • Provides a comprehensive index of motor proficiency and individual measures of fine and gross motor skills in children 4.5 to 14.5 years of age
  • 32. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Basic Motor Ability Test – Revised
      • Designed to assess selected large and small muscle control responses
      • Can be used with children 4 to 12 years of age
      • Some test items: bead stringing, target throwing, back and hamstring stretch, static balance, basketball throw, agility run
  • 33. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Denver II
      • A major revision and restandardization of the original Denver Development Screening Test
      • Designed to screen children between birth and 6 years of age for developmental delays in four areas
  • 34. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • Areas
      • Personal-social
      • Fine motor adaptive
      • Language
      • Gross motor
    • Test sheet is unique
    • Scoring: pass-fail, refusal, no opportunity to observe grading
    • Training aids available
    DENVER II
  • 35. Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
    • 4 AREAS of child’s development tested in Denver II
    • Personal-social
      • Drinking from a cup, removing one’s own garments, washing and drying hands
    • Fine motor adaptive
      • Ability to perform tasks as passing a block from hand to hand, stacking blocks
    • Language
      • Ability to imitate sounds, name body parts, define words
    • Gross motor
      • Ability to sit, walk, jump, throw
  • 36. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • SIGMA
      • The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment
      • A criterion-referenced tool designed to evaluate motor behavior of normal preschool, elementary, and young mentally retarded school children
      • 11 fundamental motor skills in four developmental levels assessed
      • A Performance Based Curriculum (PBC) is included with the assessment test
  • 37. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventory
      • This analysis is based upon the configuration of the total body during performance of a task
      • Three to five stages of behavior are observed
      • Level of development is then classified for hopping, skipping, galloping, throwing, catching, punting, striking, kicking, long jumping
  • 38. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrument
      • Used to assess developmental changes over time for fundamental patterns
        • Walking, running, jumping, throwing overhand, catching, kicking
      • Performer is scored in one of three stages of development
        • Initial stage, elementary stage, mature stage
  • 39. Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
    • Test of Gross Motor Development – 2
      • Used to identify children between 3.0 and 10.11 years of age who may be significantly behind in gross motor skill development and eligible for special education services
      • Locomotor and object-control skills are evaluated
      • Normative data stratified by age, geography, gender, race, residence
  • 40. Assessing the Disabled
    • Although individuals with selected special needs perform behind their “normal” peers, both groups follow similar patterns of development
    • Most assessment tests are geared to the “normal” population
    • Comparisons using normative data are inappropriate
  • 41. Assessing the Disabled
    • Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development (BDIED)
      • Criterion-referenced test with norms
      • Assesses behaviors that are divided into 11 domains
      • Can assess development from birth to 6 years of age
      • Easy to administer and interpret
  • 42. Assessing the Disabled
    • General knowledge and comprehension
    • Readiness skills
    • Basic reading skills
    • Writing skills
    • Math skills
    • Preambulatory motor skills and behaviors
    • Gross motor skills and behaviors
    • Fine motor skills and behaviors
    • Self-help skills
    • Prespeech behaviors
    • Speech and language skills
    Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development: Assessment Categories
  • 43. Assessing the Disabled
    • I CAN
      • The goal of this assessment is to improve the quality of physical education instruction for all students
      • Target population: “children whose overall developmental growth is slower than the average, as well as . . children with specific learning disabilities, social, or emotional adjustment difficulties, and or economic or language disadvantages”
  • 44. Assessing the Disabled
    • I CAN
      • Criterion-referenced
      • Easy to administer
      • Modules include
        • Preprimary motor and play skills
        • Primary skills
        • Sport, leisure, and recreation skills
  • 45. Aids in Assessing Motor Skills
    • Checklists or reminder sheets that list key descriptive terms for each developmental level to jog the examiner’s memory
    • Videotaping individual performance
  • 46. Assessing Physical Fitness
    • Physical-fitness test batteries
      • FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM
      • President’s Challenge
      • National Youth Physical Fitness Program
      • National Children and Youth Fitness Studies I and II
      • Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years
      • Senior Fitness Test
      • Canada Standard Test of Fitness