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Dress, Appearance and Performance: Is There a Relationship? Lorynn R. Divita, Assistant Professor Judith Lusk, Professor D...
What is Dress? <ul><li>Any body covering, attachment or treatment – our appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Dress is unique to hu...
Dress Messages <ul><li>Dress sends messages to every other sighted human being with whom we come into contact. </li></ul><...
Why do we adorn ourselves
Why do we adorn ourselves? <ul><li>We dress in order to copy the cultural ideal, and by doing so: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We...
Apparel and the self <ul><li>Self-concept: Beliefs, feelings and ideas and individual has about themselves. Conscious and ...
Fashion and Group Dynamics <ul><li>Fashion is always a group behavior because it means something has become aesthetically ...
<ul><li>Trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Transient </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Frivolous </li></ul><ul><li>Fashio...
Behavior <ul><li>We usually dress to cloak ourselves in the security of fitting in with a particular situation </li></ul><...
Communicative Variables <ul><li>Three communicative functions of dress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul...
Communication <ul><li>The transmission by symbols of information and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a likely function of ear...
Communication - First Impressions and Stereotypes <ul><li>First Impressions: Formed within the first few seconds </li></ul...
Communication-First Impressions and Stereotypes <ul><li>Does this look like someone who would establish trends in high fas...
Roles <ul><li>Define the individual in society by describing the special tasks or functions he or she has in that society....
Dress and Performance <ul><li>Dress can help someone assume a role by helping performance and persuading others he or she ...
What Is A Fashion?  <ul><li>A widely popular expression (in apparel, homes, art, music and so on).  </li></ul><ul><li>How ...
Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist ) <ul><li>Style Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel </li></ul><ul><li>Cuisine </li></ul>...
Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist ) <ul><li>Nystrom’s Framework (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating events </li></ul><ul><li>...
What Is A Trend? <ul><li>A trend is the movement of fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance  – consumers must buy and wear a...
Fashion Trends <ul><li>“ New”… because it has been missing or scarce in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>But also </li></...
Fashion Cycles NUMBER OF ADOPTERS CASUAL UNSTRUCTURED SUITS TUNICS OVER LEGGINGS Multiple Trends as Part of Long Wave Change
Fashion Lifecycle Phases <ul><li>Innovation – Fashion leaders pay high prices for new looks. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise – More...
Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers 1962) LAGGARD Time Number of Adopters INNOVATOR EARLY ADOPTER or OPINION LEADER or FASHION...
Differences Within the  Fashion Cycle <ul><li>Classics  – Never become completely obsolete, but remain accepted for an ext...
Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Fashion innovators  – earliest communicators of a new style or look to other fashion...
Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Fashion Opinion Leaders  – Legitimize a style for fashion followers. </li></ul><ul><...
Diffusion of Innovation LAGGARDS LATE MAJORITY EARLY MAJORITY EARLY ADOPTER INNOVATORS S-CURVE Form
Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Innovative communicators  – People who are both innovators and opinion leaders </li>...
High Fashion vs. Mass Fashion <ul><li>High fashion looks are created by designers and exclusive stores.  </li></ul><ul><ul...
Fashion, Fads, Classics NUMBER OF ADOPTERS TIME FAD CLASSIC FASHION
Fads and Classics  <ul><li>A classic is a fashion look that has been around longer than expected. Retailers sell classics ...
Theories of Fashion Acceptance <ul><li>These theories explain how fashions move from one socioeconomic level of society to...
Transforming Basics  into Fashion  <ul><li>Marketers change customers’ attitudes  by transforming rational buying motives ...
What Influences Fashion Changes? <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Conditi...
Business Begins and Ends  with the Consumer <ul><li>The apparel supply chain  </li></ul><ul><li>has one purpose </li></ul>...
The Fashion Industry <ul><li>Today fashion is an integral part of our economy and our culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It is har...
For some help with fashion issues <ul><li>Consult  WWW.fashion.about.com </li></ul><ul><li>There are videos on how to solv...
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  • Transcript of "Dress And Performance"

    1. 1. Dress, Appearance and Performance: Is There a Relationship? Lorynn R. Divita, Assistant Professor Judith Lusk, Professor Department of Family and Consumer Sciences
    2. 2. What is Dress? <ul><li>Any body covering, attachment or treatment – our appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Dress is unique to humans </li></ul><ul><li>Both a social as well as a personal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Dress is a cultural universal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other cultural universals – food, law, language </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Dress Messages <ul><li>Dress sends messages to every other sighted human being with whom we come into contact. </li></ul><ul><li>These messages cause others to form an idea about us and to hold certain expectations that can influence our relationship with them. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why do we adorn ourselves
    5. 5. Why do we adorn ourselves? <ul><li>We dress in order to copy the cultural ideal, and by doing so: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We enhance our sense of self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We increase our sense of belonging to the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We become more confident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We improve our self concept </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Apparel and the self <ul><li>Self-concept: Beliefs, feelings and ideas and individual has about themselves. Conscious and unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent Self: What we think others want us to be </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenal Self: True identity </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal Self: The way we’d like to be </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing can be used to help the apparent self appeal to the group, and bridge a gap between the phenomenal self and the ideal self </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fashion and Group Dynamics <ul><li>Fashion is always a group behavior because it means something has become aesthetically pleasing to most of the people in the society or culture </li></ul><ul><li>Huge changes in taste show a change in the way people feel in the world around them </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Transient </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme </li></ul><ul><li>Frivolous </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion change is never entirely arbitrary, but ugly things are sometimes in vogue. </li></ul><ul><li>— Laver, 1937; Simmel, 1904 </li></ul>Fashion as... Popular Culture
    9. 9. Behavior <ul><li>We usually dress to cloak ourselves in the security of fitting in with a particular situation </li></ul><ul><li>When dress is appropriate for a situation, individuals tend to feel more confident and competent. The reverse is also true. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Communicative Variables <ul><li>Three communicative functions of dress: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Communication <ul><li>The transmission by symbols of information and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a likely function of early dress. </li></ul><ul><li>For dress to be a language, a shared understanding must exist of its symbols. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, communication happens whether or not a shared understanding exists. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Communication - First Impressions and Stereotypes <ul><li>First Impressions: Formed within the first few seconds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes judgments and assessments of the individual, including personality, social roles and status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes – Assumes that a group of traits automatically go along with one attribute. </li></ul><ul><li>People have been found to cooperate with other individuals whose appearance is similar to their own. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Communication-First Impressions and Stereotypes <ul><li>Does this look like someone who would establish trends in high fashion? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we expect a different clothing behavior? </li></ul>
    14. 14. Roles <ul><li>Define the individual in society by describing the special tasks or functions he or she has in that society. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles are learned. </li></ul><ul><li>The more clearly defined a role is, the more specific the dress. </li></ul><ul><li>Roles in the U.S. are becoming less defined, so dress is less specific. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Dress and Performance <ul><li>Dress can help someone assume a role by helping performance and persuading others he or she belongs in the role. </li></ul>
    16. 16. What Is A Fashion? <ul><li>A widely popular expression (in apparel, homes, art, music and so on). </li></ul><ul><li>How does fashion differ from style? </li></ul><ul><li>Style = an item’s characteristics: crew or “v” neck sweater; it may be in or out of fashion. </li></ul>D-square fall 06
    17. 17. Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist ) <ul><li>Style Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel </li></ul><ul><li>Cuisine </li></ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Interiors </li></ul><ul><li>Automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Avocations </li></ul><ul><li>Pastimes </li></ul>Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
    18. 18. Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist ) <ul><li>Nystrom’s Framework (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating events </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating social groups </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Dominating technology </li></ul>Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
    19. 19. What Is A Trend? <ul><li>A trend is the movement of fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance – consumers must buy and wear a style to make it a fashion </li></ul><ul><li>“ There’s no fashion if nobody buys it” </li></ul><ul><li>- Karl Lagerfeld </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness – Change; what is in fashion one year (or season) will be out the next makes fashion exciting </li></ul>
    20. 20. Fashion Trends <ul><li>“ New”… because it has been missing or scarce in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>But also </li></ul><ul><li>A logical evolution from a precursor </li></ul><ul><li>Building on a successful trial balloon </li></ul><ul><li>A response to social change </li></ul><ul><li>An expression of cultural drift </li></ul>
    21. 21. Fashion Cycles NUMBER OF ADOPTERS CASUAL UNSTRUCTURED SUITS TUNICS OVER LEGGINGS Multiple Trends as Part of Long Wave Change
    22. 22. Fashion Lifecycle Phases <ul><li>Innovation – Fashion leaders pay high prices for new looks. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise – More people start to adopt looks </li></ul><ul><li>Acceleration– Many knockoffs; looks adopted by fashion followers. </li></ul><ul><li>General Acceptance – Look maximizes its sales potential, can find anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Decline – Sales diminish; retailers lower prices, replace the look for a newer trend. </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolescence – “Out” </li></ul>
    23. 23. Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers 1962) LAGGARD Time Number of Adopters INNOVATOR EARLY ADOPTER or OPINION LEADER or FASHION LEADER MAJORITY LATE ADOPTER Change Agents Fashion Followers 2.5% 13.5%
    24. 24. Differences Within the Fashion Cycle <ul><li>Classics – Never become completely obsolete, but remain accepted for an extended period </li></ul><ul><li>Fads – Short lived fashions, come and go, lack the character to hold consumer attention for very long </li></ul><ul><li>Cycles within cycles – Design elements (color, texture, silhouette) change as the style stays popular </li></ul>
    25. 25. Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Fashion innovators – earliest communicators of a new style or look to other fashion consumers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be influential in making other people like the style, but create awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide visual display and initial exposure of the style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These people feel more socially secure and are more interested in fashion than other people </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Fashion Opinion Leaders – Legitimize a style for fashion followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence people in their social world </li></ul><ul><li>Stay within the social norms of their groups </li></ul><ul><li>May adopt slightly modified or toned-down versions of a style or a look after innovators have received attention from others </li></ul>
    27. 27. Diffusion of Innovation LAGGARDS LATE MAJORITY EARLY MAJORITY EARLY ADOPTER INNOVATORS S-CURVE Form
    28. 28. Who Leads or Follows Fashion? <ul><li>Innovative communicators – People who are both innovators and opinion leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance-conscious, spend a lot of money on clothes, know a lot about brands </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion followers – Look to others for behavior guidelines rather than follow their values system or marketers </li></ul>
    29. 29. High Fashion vs. Mass Fashion <ul><li>High fashion looks are created by designers and exclusive stores. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion leaders buy these looks during the introduction and growth stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goods are expensive but exclusivity is what fashion leaders crave. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass fashion is made by manufacturers and retailers at many prices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion followers (most people interested in fashion) wear mass fashion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fashion laggards want good value;they buy late. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Fashion, Fads, Classics NUMBER OF ADOPTERS TIME FAD CLASSIC FASHION
    31. 31. Fads and Classics <ul><li>A classic is a fashion look that has been around longer than expected. Retailers sell classics season after season. </li></ul><ul><li>A fad has a short life cycle. Savvy retailers capitalize on fads. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Theories of Fashion Acceptance <ul><li>These theories explain how fashions move from one socioeconomic level of society to another. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trickle down. Fashions move from higher social levels to lower. How? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trickle across (horizontal, diffusion). Fashion looks are similar at Saks and Target. Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trickle up (upward flow). Fashions originate on the street and move up. When? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Transforming Basics into Fashion <ul><li>Marketers change customers’ attitudes by transforming rational buying motives reasons into emotional ones. </li></ul><ul><li>They offer new features and benefits such as color and texture, styling, and details. </li></ul>
    34. 34. What Influences Fashion Changes? <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Social Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization </li></ul>
    35. 35. Business Begins and Ends with the Consumer <ul><li>The apparel supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>has one purpose </li></ul><ul><li>To provide an appealing </li></ul><ul><li>and desirable product </li></ul><ul><li>To satisfy customer </li></ul><ul><li>needs, wants, or aspirations </li></ul>
    36. 36. The Fashion Industry <ul><li>Today fashion is an integral part of our economy and our culture. </li></ul><ul><li>It is hard to find a product that does not contain some element of fashion! </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers promote fashion through advertising, sales promotion, product presentation and direct selling. </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion drives sales but makes the retailer’s job more complex. </li></ul>
    37. 37. For some help with fashion issues <ul><li>Consult WWW.fashion.about.com </li></ul><ul><li>There are videos on how to solve fashion issues in your life. </li></ul>
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