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Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
Dress And Performance
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Dress And Performance


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    • 1. Dress, Appearance and Performance: Is There a Relationship? Lorynn R. Divita, Assistant Professor Judith Lusk, Professor Department of Family and Consumer Sciences
    • 2. What is Dress?
      • Any body covering, attachment or treatment – our appearance
      • Dress is unique to humans
      • Both a social as well as a personal behavior
      • Dress is a cultural universal
        • Other cultural universals – food, law, language
    • 3. Dress Messages
      • Dress sends messages to every other sighted human being with whom we come into contact.
      • These messages cause others to form an idea about us and to hold certain expectations that can influence our relationship with them.
    • 4. Why do we adorn ourselves
    • 5. Why do we adorn ourselves?
      • We dress in order to copy the cultural ideal, and by doing so:
        • We enhance our sense of self-esteem
        • We increase our sense of belonging to the group
        • We become more confident
        • We improve our self concept
    • 6. Apparel and the self
      • Self-concept: Beliefs, feelings and ideas and individual has about themselves. Conscious and unconscious
      • Apparent Self: What we think others want us to be
      • Phenomenal Self: True identity
      • Ideal Self: The way we’d like to be
      • Clothing can be used to help the apparent self appeal to the group, and bridge a gap between the phenomenal self and the ideal self
    • 7. Fashion and Group Dynamics
      • Fashion is always a group behavior because it means something has become aesthetically pleasing to most of the people in the society or culture
      • Huge changes in taste show a change in the way people feel in the world around them
    • 8.
      • Trivial
      • Transient
      • Extreme
      • Frivolous
      • Fashion change is never entirely arbitrary, but ugly things are sometimes in vogue.
      • — Laver, 1937; Simmel, 1904
      Fashion as... Popular Culture
    • 9. Behavior
      • We usually dress to cloak ourselves in the security of fitting in with a particular situation
      • When dress is appropriate for a situation, individuals tend to feel more confident and competent. The reverse is also true.
    • 10. Communicative Variables
      • Three communicative functions of dress:
        • Communication
        • Roles
        • Status
    • 11. Communication
      • The transmission by symbols of information and ideas.
      • Not a likely function of early dress.
      • For dress to be a language, a shared understanding must exist of its symbols.
        • Unfortunately, communication happens whether or not a shared understanding exists.
    • 12. Communication - First Impressions and Stereotypes
      • First Impressions: Formed within the first few seconds
        • Includes judgments and assessments of the individual, including personality, social roles and status.
      • Stereotypes – Assumes that a group of traits automatically go along with one attribute.
      • People have been found to cooperate with other individuals whose appearance is similar to their own.
    • 13. Communication-First Impressions and Stereotypes
      • Does this look like someone who would establish trends in high fashion?
      • Do we expect a different clothing behavior?
    • 14. Roles
      • Define the individual in society by describing the special tasks or functions he or she has in that society.
      • Roles are learned.
      • The more clearly defined a role is, the more specific the dress.
      • Roles in the U.S. are becoming less defined, so dress is less specific.
    • 15. Dress and Performance
      • Dress can help someone assume a role by helping performance and persuading others he or she belongs in the role.
    • 16. What Is A Fashion?
      • A widely popular expression (in apparel, homes, art, music and so on).
      • How does fashion differ from style?
      • Style = an item’s characteristics: crew or “v” neck sweater; it may be in or out of fashion.
      D-square fall 06
    • 17. Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist )
      • Style Interactions
      • Apparel
      • Cuisine
      • Sports
      • Architecture
      • Interiors
      • Automobiles
      • Toys
      • Avocations
      • Pastimes
      Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
    • 18. Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist )
      • Nystrom’s Framework (1928)
      • Dominating events
      • Dominating ideals
      • Dominating social groups
      • Dominating attitude
      • Dominating technology
      Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
    • 19. What Is A Trend?
      • A trend is the movement of fashion.
      • Acceptance – consumers must buy and wear a style to make it a fashion
      • “ There’s no fashion if nobody buys it”
      • - Karl Lagerfeld
      • Timeliness – Change; what is in fashion one year (or season) will be out the next makes fashion exciting
    • 20. Fashion Trends
      • “ New”… because it has been missing or scarce in the marketplace
      • But also
      • A logical evolution from a precursor
      • Building on a successful trial balloon
      • A response to social change
      • An expression of cultural drift
    • 21. Fashion Cycles NUMBER OF ADOPTERS CASUAL UNSTRUCTURED SUITS TUNICS OVER LEGGINGS Multiple Trends as Part of Long Wave Change
    • 22. Fashion Lifecycle Phases
      • Innovation – Fashion leaders pay high prices for new looks.
      • Rise – More people start to adopt looks
      • Acceleration– Many knockoffs; looks adopted by fashion followers.
      • General Acceptance – Look maximizes its sales potential, can find anywhere.
      • Decline – Sales diminish; retailers lower prices, replace the look for a newer trend.
      • Obsolescence – “Out”
    • 23. Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers 1962) LAGGARD Time Number of Adopters INNOVATOR EARLY ADOPTER or OPINION LEADER or FASHION LEADER MAJORITY LATE ADOPTER Change Agents Fashion Followers 2.5% 13.5%
    • 24. Differences Within the Fashion Cycle
      • Classics – Never become completely obsolete, but remain accepted for an extended period
      • Fads – Short lived fashions, come and go, lack the character to hold consumer attention for very long
      • Cycles within cycles – Design elements (color, texture, silhouette) change as the style stays popular
    • 25. Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
      • Fashion innovators – earliest communicators of a new style or look to other fashion consumers.
        • May or may not be influential in making other people like the style, but create awareness
        • Provide visual display and initial exposure of the style
        • These people feel more socially secure and are more interested in fashion than other people
    • 26. Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
      • Fashion Opinion Leaders – Legitimize a style for fashion followers.
      • Influence people in their social world
      • Stay within the social norms of their groups
      • May adopt slightly modified or toned-down versions of a style or a look after innovators have received attention from others
    • 28. Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
      • Innovative communicators – People who are both innovators and opinion leaders
      • Appearance-conscious, spend a lot of money on clothes, know a lot about brands
      • Fashion followers – Look to others for behavior guidelines rather than follow their values system or marketers
    • 29. High Fashion vs. Mass Fashion
      • High fashion looks are created by designers and exclusive stores.
        • Fashion leaders buy these looks during the introduction and growth stages.
        • The goods are expensive but exclusivity is what fashion leaders crave.
      • Mass fashion is made by manufacturers and retailers at many prices.
        • Fashion followers (most people interested in fashion) wear mass fashion.
        • Fashion laggards want good value;they buy late.
    • 31. Fads and Classics
      • A classic is a fashion look that has been around longer than expected. Retailers sell classics season after season.
      • A fad has a short life cycle. Savvy retailers capitalize on fads.
    • 32. Theories of Fashion Acceptance
      • These theories explain how fashions move from one socioeconomic level of society to another.
          • Trickle down. Fashions move from higher social levels to lower. How?
          • Trickle across (horizontal, diffusion). Fashion looks are similar at Saks and Target. Why?
          • Trickle up (upward flow). Fashions originate on the street and move up. When?
    • 33. Transforming Basics into Fashion
      • Marketers change customers’ attitudes by transforming rational buying motives reasons into emotional ones.
      • They offer new features and benefits such as color and texture, styling, and details.
    • 34. What Influences Fashion Changes?
      • Technology
      • Economic Conditions
      • Social Conditions
      • Celebrities
      • Hollywood
      • Globalization
    • 35. Business Begins and Ends with the Consumer
      • The apparel supply chain
      • has one purpose
      • To provide an appealing
      • and desirable product
      • To satisfy customer
      • needs, wants, or aspirations
    • 36. The Fashion Industry
      • Today fashion is an integral part of our economy and our culture.
      • It is hard to find a product that does not contain some element of fashion!
      • Retailers promote fashion through advertising, sales promotion, product presentation and direct selling.
      • Fashion drives sales but makes the retailer’s job more complex.
    • 37. For some help with fashion issues
      • Consult
      • There are videos on how to solve fashion issues in your life.