Dress And Performance
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Dress And Performance






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Dress And Performance Dress And Performance Presentation Transcript

  • Dress, Appearance and Performance: Is There a Relationship? Lorynn R. Divita, Assistant Professor Judith Lusk, Professor Department of Family and Consumer Sciences
  • What is Dress?
    • Any body covering, attachment or treatment – our appearance
    • Dress is unique to humans
    • Both a social as well as a personal behavior
    • Dress is a cultural universal
      • Other cultural universals – food, law, language
  • Dress Messages
    • Dress sends messages to every other sighted human being with whom we come into contact.
    • These messages cause others to form an idea about us and to hold certain expectations that can influence our relationship with them.
  • Why do we adorn ourselves
  • Why do we adorn ourselves?
    • We dress in order to copy the cultural ideal, and by doing so:
      • We enhance our sense of self-esteem
      • We increase our sense of belonging to the group
      • We become more confident
      • We improve our self concept
  • Apparel and the self
    • Self-concept: Beliefs, feelings and ideas and individual has about themselves. Conscious and unconscious
    • Apparent Self: What we think others want us to be
    • Phenomenal Self: True identity
    • Ideal Self: The way we’d like to be
    • Clothing can be used to help the apparent self appeal to the group, and bridge a gap between the phenomenal self and the ideal self
  • Fashion and Group Dynamics
    • Fashion is always a group behavior because it means something has become aesthetically pleasing to most of the people in the society or culture
    • Huge changes in taste show a change in the way people feel in the world around them
    • Trivial
    • Transient
    • Extreme
    • Frivolous
    • Fashion change is never entirely arbitrary, but ugly things are sometimes in vogue.
    • — Laver, 1937; Simmel, 1904
    Fashion as... Popular Culture
  • Behavior
    • We usually dress to cloak ourselves in the security of fitting in with a particular situation
    • When dress is appropriate for a situation, individuals tend to feel more confident and competent. The reverse is also true.
  • Communicative Variables
    • Three communicative functions of dress:
      • Communication
      • Roles
      • Status
  • Communication
    • The transmission by symbols of information and ideas.
    • Not a likely function of early dress.
    • For dress to be a language, a shared understanding must exist of its symbols.
      • Unfortunately, communication happens whether or not a shared understanding exists.
  • Communication - First Impressions and Stereotypes
    • First Impressions: Formed within the first few seconds
      • Includes judgments and assessments of the individual, including personality, social roles and status.
    • Stereotypes – Assumes that a group of traits automatically go along with one attribute.
    • People have been found to cooperate with other individuals whose appearance is similar to their own.
  • Communication-First Impressions and Stereotypes
    • Does this look like someone who would establish trends in high fashion?
    • Do we expect a different clothing behavior?
  • Roles
    • Define the individual in society by describing the special tasks or functions he or she has in that society.
    • Roles are learned.
    • The more clearly defined a role is, the more specific the dress.
    • Roles in the U.S. are becoming less defined, so dress is less specific.
  • Dress and Performance
    • Dress can help someone assume a role by helping performance and persuading others he or she belongs in the role.
  • What Is A Fashion?
    • A widely popular expression (in apparel, homes, art, music and so on).
    • How does fashion differ from style?
    • Style = an item’s characteristics: crew or “v” neck sweater; it may be in or out of fashion.
    D-square fall 06
  • Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist )
    • Style Interactions
    • Apparel
    • Cuisine
    • Sports
    • Architecture
    • Interiors
    • Automobiles
    • Toys
    • Avocations
    • Pastimes
    Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
  • Spirit of the Times (Zeitgeist )
    • Nystrom’s Framework (1928)
    • Dominating events
    • Dominating ideals
    • Dominating social groups
    • Dominating attitude
    • Dominating technology
    Fashion is a reflection of the times in which they are created and worn.
  • What Is A Trend?
    • A trend is the movement of fashion.
    • Acceptance – consumers must buy and wear a style to make it a fashion
    • “ There’s no fashion if nobody buys it”
    • - Karl Lagerfeld
    • Timeliness – Change; what is in fashion one year (or season) will be out the next makes fashion exciting
  • Fashion Trends
    • “ New”… because it has been missing or scarce in the marketplace
    • But also
    • A logical evolution from a precursor
    • Building on a successful trial balloon
    • A response to social change
    • An expression of cultural drift
  • Fashion Lifecycle Phases
    • Innovation – Fashion leaders pay high prices for new looks.
    • Rise – More people start to adopt looks
    • Acceleration– Many knockoffs; looks adopted by fashion followers.
    • General Acceptance – Look maximizes its sales potential, can find anywhere.
    • Decline – Sales diminish; retailers lower prices, replace the look for a newer trend.
    • Obsolescence – “Out”
  • Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers 1962) LAGGARD Time Number of Adopters INNOVATOR EARLY ADOPTER or OPINION LEADER or FASHION LEADER MAJORITY LATE ADOPTER Change Agents Fashion Followers 2.5% 13.5%
  • Differences Within the Fashion Cycle
    • Classics – Never become completely obsolete, but remain accepted for an extended period
    • Fads – Short lived fashions, come and go, lack the character to hold consumer attention for very long
    • Cycles within cycles – Design elements (color, texture, silhouette) change as the style stays popular
  • Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
    • Fashion innovators – earliest communicators of a new style or look to other fashion consumers.
      • May or may not be influential in making other people like the style, but create awareness
      • Provide visual display and initial exposure of the style
      • These people feel more socially secure and are more interested in fashion than other people
  • Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
    • Fashion Opinion Leaders – Legitimize a style for fashion followers.
    • Influence people in their social world
    • Stay within the social norms of their groups
    • May adopt slightly modified or toned-down versions of a style or a look after innovators have received attention from others
  • Who Leads or Follows Fashion?
    • Innovative communicators – People who are both innovators and opinion leaders
    • Appearance-conscious, spend a lot of money on clothes, know a lot about brands
    • Fashion followers – Look to others for behavior guidelines rather than follow their values system or marketers
  • High Fashion vs. Mass Fashion
    • High fashion looks are created by designers and exclusive stores.
      • Fashion leaders buy these looks during the introduction and growth stages.
      • The goods are expensive but exclusivity is what fashion leaders crave.
    • Mass fashion is made by manufacturers and retailers at many prices.
      • Fashion followers (most people interested in fashion) wear mass fashion.
      • Fashion laggards want good value;they buy late.
  • Fads and Classics
    • A classic is a fashion look that has been around longer than expected. Retailers sell classics season after season.
    • A fad has a short life cycle. Savvy retailers capitalize on fads.
  • Theories of Fashion Acceptance
    • These theories explain how fashions move from one socioeconomic level of society to another.
        • Trickle down. Fashions move from higher social levels to lower. How?
        • Trickle across (horizontal, diffusion). Fashion looks are similar at Saks and Target. Why?
        • Trickle up (upward flow). Fashions originate on the street and move up. When?
  • Transforming Basics into Fashion
    • Marketers change customers’ attitudes by transforming rational buying motives reasons into emotional ones.
    • They offer new features and benefits such as color and texture, styling, and details.
  • What Influences Fashion Changes?
    • Technology
    • Economic Conditions
    • Social Conditions
    • Celebrities
    • Hollywood
    • Globalization
  • Business Begins and Ends with the Consumer
    • The apparel supply chain
    • has one purpose
    • To provide an appealing
    • and desirable product
    • To satisfy customer
    • needs, wants, or aspirations
  • The Fashion Industry
    • Today fashion is an integral part of our economy and our culture.
    • It is hard to find a product that does not contain some element of fashion!
    • Retailers promote fashion through advertising, sales promotion, product presentation and direct selling.
    • Fashion drives sales but makes the retailer’s job more complex.
  • For some help with fashion issues
    • Consult WWW.fashion.about.com
    • There are videos on how to solve fashion issues in your life.