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Dragicevic Sesic
 

Dragicevic Sesic

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    Dragicevic Sesic Dragicevic Sesic Presentation Transcript

    • Urban cultural policies and development of creative industries Belgrade creative city perspective Milena Dragicevic Sesic
    • Cultural policy professionalization
      • Rutinization of cultural policies
      • Sectorialization
      • Focusing on institutions
      • traditional approach
      • If succesful:
      • Orientation on quality achievements
    • Cultural policy as part of strategic program
      • Orientation to market demands
      • Seeing a global pictures
      • Following trends
      • Initiating new concepts
    • Evidence based cultural policy – possibility?
      • No tradition for evidence based cultural policy in the region
      • Relying on thoughts, big ideas
      • Despising the facts and “banal data”
      • Respect for the central guidance (in spite of self-governing system in ex-Yu)
      • Authoritarian and egalitarian values
    • Stimulans for city policy making
      • Andre Malraux – top-down approach
      • Jack Lang – contracts with municipalities
      • British stimulans for strategic planning (New inspection regimes: Best Value, Comprehensive Performance Assessment)
    • tasks of the city public policies
      • (re)defining city identity , based on:
      • - collective memories of people, - cultural heritage (built and intangible) and - vision of future
      • gathering consensus among:
      • - main political agents,
      • - public opinion makers (intellectuals, educators, media practitioners…).
    • Cities in decline – cities in motion
      • Politics of oblivion
      • Politics of status quo
      • Politics of waiting
      • Active policies…
      • Secret cities of USSR – motor of military and nuclear development – non-existent in present day debate
      • Future of Akademgorodok?
    • Palanka - cities
      • Substitute for industrialization – small commerc (kioskization)
      • Next step: Small and medium enterprises
      • Next step: Foreign investments
      • Forgotten issues:
      • How to integrate lost memory in future development?
      • How to start endogenous development
    • Policies of new “urbazone”
      • Hundreds of use of the word “urban” /in contemporary media, meaning: fashionable consumeristic oriented individual
      • cosmopolite
      • hedonistic orientation
      • fun, entertainment
      • branding as key issue…
    • Shortcut to Creative Belgrade?
      • Key agents: ad agencies
      • Culture as Design – consumption pattern
      • Shopping
      • Eating
      • Socializing (coffee houses)
      • Beaches… (river and lake…)
      • Movies
      • Festivals…
    • A shortcut to creative Amsterdam
      • Change as a constant (letter of the maire)
      • Five stories:
      • Westergasfabriek – cultural park
      • Jenifer Tee
      • Viktor & Rolf
      • Zuidas
      • Breeding grounds
    • Key words
      • I am sterdam – (un)expected
      • Inspiring storeys
      • Fashion, art, nightlife, design
      • Imagination rules
      • Creative crossroads
      • Creative diplomacy (lloyd hotel)
      • playground
    • Creative industries of socialism period (1985 – 2000)
      • Enterpreneurial initiatives of Ljubisa Ristic: - Avala fest (re-use of Film city)
      • - Sugar factory renewal (LED art intervention against Project X, 1996.)
      • Barutana – renewed Kalemegdan powder storage + lagums of Belgrade as coffee bars
      • Belgrade – Europolis …
      • Sava amphitheater
    •  
    • Belgrade five stories
      • From resistance to creative industries:
      • B92 (Radio-TV-video), REX, Samizdat
      • Center for Cultural Decontamination, Skart…
      • Publikum – FIA
      • Independent publishing houses: CLIO, Geopoetika, Rende…
      • Music production – from rock to Serbia sounds global
    • Non-political initiatives
      • Non commercial
      • - New moment review and art gallery
      • - Grifon prize for graphic design
      • Commercial:
      • - Pink television (City records…) - BK Television + BK sound - Komuna - Fashion week
    • Fashion - Design
    • Creative industries of Belgrade http://www.kliknalink.co.yu http://www.infostud.com www.izlazak.com/ www.krstarica.com www.virtualnigrad.com www.yellowcab.co.yu/dogadjaj .
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Cultural policy – new initiatives
      • Business & Art award: O3one gallery – design & everyday life
      • Beton hala – Superspace gallery
      • Kunsthalle & Museums in old military barracks (City museum)
      • Old Fair – memory park or disco club
    • Old fair – view from 30`
      • Fair – high prestige int. events -30`
      • Concentration camp 40`
      • Art ateliers – since 50` first Waiting for Godot in the Eastern World (59)
      • What to do now?
      • Memorial park?
      • Cultural-art center?
      • Club Poseydon? Club New Laguna?
    • Urban policy initiatives
      • 60` Skadarlija (+ Kosancicev venac)
      • 70` Payton City - Cubura
      • 80` Knez Mihajlova
      • 90` - without policy initiatives
      • 6. - 13. May 2006 – Week of Architecture.
      • Fontana? Memory of cosmopolitan Belgrade of 60` City Center… Kunsthalle
    • Privatization in culture 10 30 Total 1 2 Other publishing 2 2 Music publishing 0 1 Review & magazins pub. 0 1 newspapers 3 12 Book publishing 1 1 Radio and Television 2 9 cinemas 1 2 Cultural institutions Realized privatizations Legal subjects in privatization process Type of activity
    • Serbian creative industries
      • Film production – 179 comp. (157 active)
      • Music production companies – 46
      • Publishing companies – 517 active
      • Radio & Television – 139 Radio&TV stations (105 still in public ownership)
      • - 543 radio stations - 73 Tv stations
      • Daily newspapers - 21
    • Number of employed - 21 168 21 646 20749 Cultural and similar activities 49412 48267 49119 49366 Communal services 19817 19780 20013 21037 Publishing, printing 483654 525374 566635 619113 Industry 1580140 1611632 1676835 1752226 Total 2004 2003 2002 2001 Type of activity
    • Research: survey of Belgrade CI SAIT team: Slobodan Cvejic, M.Dragicevic Sesic… 100 576 TOTAL 7 41 Photography, computers, new media, mixed media, performance 4 40 Design 13 54 Architecture 9 45 Crafts and grafic arts 17 40 Painting, sculpture 11 51 Modern music (vocal, instrumental) 4 36 Classical music (vocal, instrumental) 4 54 Other profess. related to movie/video 8 52 Other professions related to theatre 8 54 Acting (theatre, movie) 2 44 Dance (traditional, modern), balley 13 56 Poetry, literary/creative writing % in whole CI No. of respondents CI group
    • Basic characteristics
      • 43% women and 57% men.
      • 34 years old in average, ranging from 15 to 77, but with majority concentrated between 20 and 35 (2/3).
      • 62% were born in Belgrade, 6% in other big cities of former Yugoslavia, 30% in middle size cities of nowdays or former Yugoslavia, and 2% were born abroad.
      • 41% completed university education, 29% completed third degree or is at graduate studies now, and 21% has spetialization degree. Only 9% has only secondary education,.
      • 60% of respondents does only CI job for living, 13% is basicaly relied upon CI job, but does something else as well (teaching or expert work outside CI), and 27% does something else for living and has CI as second choice of activity.
    • Economic strength of CI in Belgrade
      • 84% make money out of their creative work.
      • Their market is highly localized: - 82% Belgrade, - 38% in big cities in Serbia, - 27% reach former Yugoslavia states, - 16% has market in Southern-Eastern Europe, - 25% in Europe - 13% globaly.
      • Average annual personal income made in the crafts was 276,000 CSD (4,600 USD).
      • - 10% has no income, - 16% between 40,000 and 100,000 CSD (660 and 1,700 USD), - 19% between 120,000 and 200,000 CSD (2,000 and 3,300 USD), - 19% between 240,000 and 300,000 (4,000 and 5,000 USD), - 17% from 350,000 to 600,000.
      • the household annual income, it is 690,000 CSD (11,500 USD) in average (household economic strategy of artists).
    • Very high 4,400 264,000 Photography, computers, new media, mixed media, performance High 5,200 310,000 Design Very low 5,200 313,000 Architecture Low 3,000 182,000 Crafts and grafic arts High 2,300 138,000 Painting, sculpture Very high 5,000 293,000 Modern music (vocal, instrumental) Standard 3,300 196,000 Classical music (vocal, instrumental) Standard 8,100 487,000 Other profess. related to movie/video Standard 6,700 400,000 Other professions related to theatre Standard 7,000 422,000 Acting (theatre, movie) Very low 4,100 248,000 Dance (traditional, modern), balley High 4,200 252,000 Poetry, literary/creative writing Variation inside the group In USD Annual average in CSD CI group
    • Living conditions
      • 39% of them live at their parents’, relatives’ or friends’.
      • 38% posses an appartment
      • 20% rent for the place they live in.
      • 17% live alone,
      • 26% live in 2 person household,
      • 28% in 3 person household,
      • 22% in 4 person household,
      • 7% in 5 or more person household.
      • 6% of the sample lives in studio space, 12% in no bedroom appartment,
      • 36% in one bedroom apprtment,
      • 29% in 2 bedroom appartment.
      • 33% up to 50 sqm,
      • 34% in 51-70 sqm,
      • 25% in 71-100 sqm
      • 8% in more than 100 sqm.
    • 9 40 High speed data lines 3 24 Additional storage 1 3 Sprung floors 5 27 High ceilings * 7 Oversized doors * 1 Wheelchair access 16 38 Soundproofing 6 26 Special ventilation * 4 Special plumbing 7 28 Special electrical wiring 1 8 High-load bearing floors 46 66 Natural light Selected as the most important Selected in 3 NEEDS: SPECIAL FACILITY
    • 11 26 Printmaking facilities 2 15 Satelite link * 4 Sprung dance floor 10 17 Paint room 4 15 Retail space 7 26 Gallery space 2 20 Movie and video projection room 13 37 Recording room 3 9 Foundry area 1 3 Dark room 12 29 Rehearsal space 7 19 Copying machine and other office equipment 2 8 Conference hall 8 19 Ootdoor work area 1 5 Classroms 18 30 Theatre/performance space The most Important Selected in 3 COMMON FACILITY
    • 5 10 17 73 Institutional and social support to free lancers 32 50 23 27 Transport/delivery 8 47 33 20 Technical or artistic training 14 36 25 39 Grants, help in application writing 16 38 22 40 Business loans 7 21 31 48 Marketing and sales 15 49 32 19 Accounting and legal support 9 34 35 31 Training, planning and business developm. 14 38 23 39 Insurance of art pieces 19 54 24 21 Insurance of space and equipment 9 38 25 37 Representatives and agents 11 43 34 23 Space for exhibition/performance 4 41 35 24 Tools, material, equipment, instrum. 2 44 23 33 Attelier or working space 1 51 19 30 Housing Not applicable Not urgent Urgent Very urgent NEED FOR
    • CI organizations survey analysis 100% 53 Total 11 6 Advertising 11 6 Music productions 9 5 Book stores 11 6 Publishing houses 13 7 Galleries 13 7 Artists associations 6 3 Private film companies 13 7 Alternative theatres 11 6 Design companies % No. of units Field of activity
    • Legal status of CI organizations
      • 64% of organizations/companies privately owned,
      • 31% were NGOs
      • 6% were state-owned companies.
      • number of employees:
      • 54% has 0-3 permanently employed people
      • average for the sample is 11
    • 19 19 26 56 Institutional and social support 40 63 22 16 Transport/delivery 43 53 40 7 Technical or artistic training in the field of interest 42 61 26 13 Grants and help in application writing 28 45 29 26 Business loans 11 32 26 43 Marketing and sales 26 51 39 10 Accounting and legal support 38 36 46 18 Training, planning and business developm. 43 40 30 30 Insurance of art pieces 30 49 30 22 Insurance of space and equipment 40 56 9 34 Representatives and agents 32 42 31 29 Space for exhibition/performance 28 34 40 26 Tools, material, equipment 40 25 19 56 Working space (rehearsal, painting, etc 19 28 28 44 Business space Not applicabl Not urgent Urgent Very urgent NEED FOR
    • Working space
      • 8 % don’t have separate working space
      • 57% rent their space
      • 13% of cases a member of the organization/company owns the space,
      • 15% of cases organization uses public space with minimal rent,
      • 8% of cases they have another solution.
      • The costs related to the space vary from 0 to 4,800,000 dinars (0 to 80,000 USD) per month. Average is cca 165,000 CSD (cca 2,700 USD)
      • The largest number of respondents is concentrated between 40,000 and 60,000 CSD (650-1,000 USD).
      • Average size of the space used is 160 sqm, (two modal intervals):
      • between 30 and 50 sqm (20%)
      • between 70 and 110 sqm (25%).
      • In average, satisfaction with the working space, measured on the scale 1-10, is at the middle (6).
      • 72% believe that their organization/company needs more space than they have now (of them).
    • Conclusions
      • Small private firms (bookstores, galleries, etc.) and NGOs are oriented towards cultural/artistic market,
      • they want governmental assistance in approaching customers, resources and other organizations.
      • They need more information, training in skills needed in transition from protectionist to open market system
      • As for work space, their perception of their own position is not realistic: they want more space at lower rates by subsidized loans or rents.
      • This means that in reconstructing an old industrial site or constructing a new building for CI, huge assistance would be needed from local institutions and banks. To make the whole project sustainable, CI people should be incited to widen their market and trained to operate under more competitive conditions .