Does The Textile Commodity “polymer” Need Full Whopes Who Specification

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  • 1. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets – LLIN’s Presentation to LLIN Business Plan Meeting, Sept. 04, Johannesburg Dr. Gerhard Hesse c/o Bayer Environmental Science
  • 2. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – why we need coverage with ITN/LLIN?
    • Preconditions:
    • 100% coverage with plain nets will not dramatically impact Malaria
    • But a coverage with 25% ITN has an impact (P. Guillet)
    • Today total coverage and ITN coverage is below need (Malaria still >>)
    • What to do:
    • Increase coverage with insecticide treated nets
    • How to do:
    • Scale-up capacity for overall net production
    • Provide technologies for in-, and post-process LLIN production
    • with that scale-up capacity for LLIN production
    • with that scale-up distribution and use of LLIN’s
  • 3. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s - Definitions
    • WHO definition: a ready-to-use pre-treated mosquito net, which requires no further
    • re-treatment during its expected lifespan (4-5 years - ?)
    • that depends on the material (Polyethylen > Polyester)
    • that depends on how the net is handled in general
    • WHOPES guidelines: > 20 washes - 80% mortality after 24 hrs (95% KD after 60 min)
    • that depends on the washing procedure, type of detergent,
    • on the washing frequency
    • Example: NetMark country surveys in Senegal, Sudan, Zambia:
    • Approx. 50% of answers show washing in the range of 1x a week to 1x a month !!
    • in rural area more frequent washings than in urban areas
    • so WHO 20 washes: once a week = < half a year
    • once a month = < 2 years
    • Lifespan definition is ????
    • Best definition is increased wash resistance, so why not 20 washes !
  • 4. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – LLIN’s and WHOPES
    • Raises the question on the value of WHOPES evaluation, WHO/FAO spec’s:
    • undoubtedly necessary as quality criteria
    • undoubtedly necessary as product purchasing or selecting criteria
    • but should not be a delay factor for new LLIN technologies (costs, time, requirements)
    • Market needs volumes of nets, the two nets tested have limited capacities
    • WHOPES “fast track” is required and should be adopted by customers
    • Finding a technology which produces good results is not difficult
    • Finding a technology which produces constantly good results is “impossible”
    • Finding a coating polymer which lasts up to 10-15 washes is not difficult
    • But > 21 washes needs a special coating polymer or the insecticide in the fibre
    • Does the textile commodity “polymer” need full WHOPES / WHO specification?
    • BP: asking to refine standards in an open dialogue with WHO, will be done !
    • Q.: Do we enhance the search for the optimum solution – the magic bullet ?
  • 5. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Environment for technology inventions
    • Technology inventions for LLIN’s are a competitive business and are run on various levels (Academia, commercial sector, small enterprises, PP partnerships)
    • Inventions need funds, time and partners which develop it to maturity and in the shortest time to market
    • Therefore the only successful models at the moment are private-private-public partnerships (textile manufacturers-pesticide industry, polymer providers-pesticide industry, master batch companies-pesticide industry-net manufacturers) – funded by the running business
    • The rest might not survive because of no funding from whatever source
    • These technologies are targeted to existing models or spin-offs from existing technologies with shortest time to market
    • Under these conditions we might not find the “magic bullet”
  • 6. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Target 1: Public funding for new technologies
    • Quote the Business Plan:
    • … negotiating the establishment of a technology trust !!
    • The inventing community is very divers, therefore…
    • something like a coordination “trust” is worthwhile to establish,
    • even R&D oriented companies have to sincerely evaluate the ROI into these technologies, e.g. pesticide industry with their marginal participation in the business,
    • Public funds have to be made available to allow academia or specialised small companies to invent
    • The trust should than enhance the transfer of the inventions to a marketer, which develops the “product” to maturity (WHOPES – 5 P’s of marketing)
    • This hopefully avoids the “not invented here” syndrome
    • And the perceived “exclusivity is no good” syndrome
    • Intellectual property rights (patents ??) have to be observed
  • 7. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Comparison of pre-treatment technologies
    • Industrial in process production of pre-treated LLIN’s
    • extrusion technology from master batches is real high tech (Olyset)
    • in process coating needs additional equipment (PermaNet)
    • con’s: high capital investment necessary
    • occupational health risks high
    • excludes most parts of the industry
    • technology transfer not possible
    • pro’s: high LLIN production output
  • 8. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Comparison of pre-treatment technologies
    • Industrial post process production of pre-treated LLIN’s
    • Mechanised treatment:
    • con’s: medium capital investment necessary
    • technology transfer difficult
    • pro’s: lesser occupational health risk
    • mass impregnation
    • Manual treatment :
    • con’s: higher occupational health risk
    • lower output because of extra step in handling
    • pro’s: very small capital investment necessary
    • suitable for smaller sized industry, impregnation centres etc
    • technology transfer is no problem
  • 9. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Other technologies
    • and
    • produce “new” industrially pre-treated LLIN’s
    • What about the existing untreated nets which are already on the market ?
    • their conversion produces “old” re-treated LLIN’s
  • 10. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – “ demand versus capacity” scenario
    • Business Plan: 521 Mio people with 120 Mio in vulnerable groups,
    • 2 persons per net, lifespan of the net approx. 4 years
    • We need 40-50 Mio nets / p.a. (or 20 Mio ITN’s )
    • to meet the Abuja “targets” within 5 years
    • BP: 2003 capacity is somewhere between 30-35 Mio nets / p.a. (4.5 Mio LLIN’s)
    • we have a gap between demand and supply of nets,
    • and a huge gap for LLIN’s (Fig 10 in BP)
    • Taking the lifespan of a net with 4 years,
      • we accumulate in 2002 - 2005 approx. 80 – 100 Mio “new” nets
      • (152 Mio BP 02-06)
      • from these approx. 18 Mio might be LLIN’s (Olyset, PermaNet)
    • Even doubling the capacity for the two is far away from feeding the demand
    • but we talk about 100 – 150 Mio existing nets which can be turned into LLIN’s
  • 11. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Target 2 : increase capacity of net manufacturers
    • Q.: “Sleeping” capacity which can be increased rather quick ??
    • to wake it up it needs:
      • certainty and commitment from the donors
      • sustainability versus short term institutional market
      • commitment by the “implementors” (like NGO’s)
    • To keep it awake it needs:
      • planning and forecasting tools
      • to make investment into up-scaled net production
      • … investment into up-scaled LLIN production
      • … investment into new technologies for impregnation
  • 12. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Target 3: public funds for industrial scale-up
    • Use donor money to support net manufacturers in the decision to go for scale-up in the production of LLIN’s
    • No discrimination conc. the technology level or the location
    • Public sector has to create the trust in the market
    • Public sector has to create a business environment that allows private sector to make investments, e.g. MMSS, reputational purchasing agencies, guaranteed purchase, transparency etc
      • Wake up sleeping capacities
      • Get rid of only sporadic full capacity
      • Support all level entrepreneur ship
  • 13. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – do we wait for the industrial up-scale ??
    • Scenario: in 2005 we may have the capacity of > 5 Mio LLIN’s / p.a.
    • time investment in new high tech plants: 1 year before production
    • money investment: 2.5 Mio $ for an additional 1 Mio LLIN / p.a.
    • to meet the 40 Mio need we investments approx. 100 Mio $
    • If the request is coverage with pre-treated LLIN’s
      • this is an unrealistic target in the Abuja timeframe
      • there is already competition for the “few” pre-treated LLIN’s
    • but still public sector attention is focussed here
    • If the request is capacity increase of pre-treated nets
      • this is not a short to medium term target !!
      • who pays for the investments ??
      • risk: if you built a new plant it has a certain output
      • who guarantees the long term and sustainable market ??
    • Answer to the question in the headline: NO
  • 14. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – Target 4: turn existing untreated nets into LLIN’s
    • If the request is coverage with LLIN’s - this is the biggest target
    • Public Sector has no special focus for that (driven by industry and NGO’s)
    • To convert those nets into LLIN’s, we need:
      • a low tech effective and safe approach, which is available
      • effective “one time” re-treatment campaigns (!!)
      • NGO’s, NetMark, multi approach projects, impregnation centres
      • centres are cheaper / more effective because scale-up is done accord. to need
      • Opportunistic free treatment of existing nets with distribution of new LLIN
      • Overcomes the non perceived added value discussion of pre-treated LLIN’s
    • Economical benefit, with the currently offered technology nearly double as much field
    • re-treated LLIN’s can be generated than industrially pre-treated LLIN’s
    • Also here the public sector should enhance the business environment, because this
    • segment by nature might be only short term
    • NB: we might need this solution after reaching 21 washes !!!
  • 15. Long lasting insecticide impregnated nets LLIN’s – to reach the coverage with ITN/LLIN
    • Abuja targets for 2005 are not SMART
    • (specific/simple, manageable, achievable, realistic and timely)
    • Scaling up the production of nets and LLIN’s has to be enhanced
    • Investment scenarios for this have to be created by the public sector
    • There is no excuse in not reaching the coverage because the necessary quantities of industrial pre-treated LLIN’s are not available
    • Appeal to donors: do not waste time waiting for the magic bullet, if there are no pre-treated LLIN’s do not loose interest in field converted LLIN’s or even conventional re-treatment
    • Technologies on all levels are available or will be short term available
    • Investment scenarios in optimised technologies have to be created by the public sector
    • Public sector should take into consideration the implementation skills of the NGO and private sector community