Digital Rights Management


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Digital Rights Management

  1. 1. Digital Rights Management The enabler of information society Leonardo Chiariglione – Bellaterra, ES, 2007/05/16
  2. 2. The business of intermediation <ul><li>In the physical world there are people who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for those things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as matchmakers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisers, Resellers, ... </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Matchmakers are important when they know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What things people want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has the things people want </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matchmakers are less important when </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things are of general use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many offer the same things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The delivery of “solid” things is important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haulers, … </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The old business of content <ul><li>Content is far from “physical”, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It cannot be transmitted “from mind to mind” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it could we would still like to know which mind has something interesting :-( </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content can be distributed by physical carriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a physical object it is no different from other “things” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher can easily replicate it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End user typically requires a special device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content can be distributed by electrical carriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content distribution still requires an infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End user has the means to replicate content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its use typically requires a proper device </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The new business of content <ul><li>Digitally represented content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is abundant and liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value chains are still needed to move content from creator to end user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of delivery decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abundance and liquidity are threats to current value chains players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make digital content as scarce and “solid” as analogue content by acting on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Content (Digital Rights Management) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution (Proprietary networks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have better talk to those who foot the bill… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Wrong music rights/1 <ul><li>“ When the king of England wants to see a show, they bring the show to the castle and he hears it alone in his private theater. If you are a king, why don’t you exercise your kingly privilege and have a show of your own in your own house.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From an ad for the Edison’s phonograph, 1906 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For decades millions of “kings” have exercised their kingly privilege </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy music and play it anywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record music from live broadcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy their music to any device </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Wrong music rights/2 <ul><li>10 years ago “kings” have become “emperors” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find any content they want </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organise/play/copy/share music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some want “emperors” to become “sanculottes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital content costs as much as physical content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play content on dedicated players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new lettres de cachet: break the lock and go to jail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We are not in 1789 and not in Paris but there has been a revolution... </li></ul><ul><li>The future of the record industry hangs on a thread... </li></ul>
  7. 7. The wobbling movie industry/1 <ul><li>The end user as a pawn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to see my movies go to the theatre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The end user as a duke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the movie on show in your castle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The end user as a count </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record the movie but no guarantee that you can share it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The end user as a king </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The movie of you choice in your castle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With pestering mosquitoes (region codes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The end user as an emperor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the movies anytime anywhere on any device </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The wobbling movie industry/2 <ul><li>Some want “emperors” to become “sanculottes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital content costs as much as physical content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can play it only on dedicated players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new lettres de cachet: break the lock and go to jail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trailblazers have a hard time </li></ul><ul><li>Smart followers may avoid the pitfalls... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The people who handle strategy have to get together to talk about this (interoperability), not just the same technical people” (From a speech by Dan Glickman, MPAA President) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Learning from the mistakes of others <ul><li>Golden rule #1: Respect your customer if you want to have your property respected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still a value chain player needs the means to manage his rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beware: the technology must be pervasive and mostly invisible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Golden rule #2: Give your customer what he wants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the nice features of digital content – abundance and liquidity – are still there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal content format and network access </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Talking of standards MPEG for affordable content liquidity More in the pipeline  MPEG-E Multimedia Middleware MPEG-D part 1 <ul><li>Spatial Audio </li></ul>MPEG-B/C part 4 <ul><li>Reconfigurable Video Coding </li></ul>More media coding MPEG-A Multimedia Application Formats MPEG-21 Multimedia Framework MPEG-7 Metadata MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Media coding
  11. 11. MPEG changes the media landscape (only uses > 100 M reported) <ul><li>Video CD players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-1 Systems/Video/Audio Layer 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MP3 players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital TV set top boxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-2 Video/Systems and MPEG-1 Audio Layer 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DVD players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-2 Video/Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photo cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-4 Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile handsets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-4 Visual/AVC, AAC/HE-AAC, File Format) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compressed movie players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MPEG-4 Visual + MP3 </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Digital media is now a maturing market (but very vital…) <ul><li>Today’s MPEG portfolio of standards covers most aspects of digital media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry still needs the “traditional” MPEG products (video and audio compression…) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers (and not just them) crave for interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>But interoperability needs have moved up one level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From single technologies to assemblies of technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG is providing solutions in that space </li></ul>
  13. 13. An example of a MAF standard Media Streaming <ul><li>Many applications need streaming of AV content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In many of them the content is governed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MPEG standards have contributed to bring the industry to its current level of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of million devices deployed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So far there was no complete standard for content “governance” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is what the MS MAF standard is about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MS MAF to lead the video broadcasting/streaming industry to its next level of development </li></ul>
  14. 14. An MS MAF reference scheme Media Streaming Player Media Streaming Player Domain Management Device IPMP Tool Provider Device Media Streaming Player License Provider Device Content Provider Device
  15. 15. MS MAF provides what everybody (should) demand A healthy competing market Regulators Unload the cost of devices from account books Service providers A free and buoyant device market Manufacturers Unfettered access to any content item End users Unfettered access to any end user Creators
  16. 16. MS MAF is an example of a DRM standard <ul><li>The NIST definition of Digital Rights Management (DRM): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system of Information Technology components and services along with corresponding law, policies and business models which strive to distribute and control Intellectual Property and its rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With DRM rights holders can manage (and possibly protect) the flow and use of their content by setting appropriate limits </li></ul><ul><li>DRM limits communication, but it is still a communication system </li></ul><ul><li>To be successful DRM needs the same old recipe: standards  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Can we have a DRM standard? Creator End user
  18. 18. A small problem from a big one <ul><li>A DRM standard should enable any Value-Chain User (End-User included) to execute value-chain Functions through Interfaces and using Protocols of open specification obtaining predictable results </li></ul>VCU A VCU B Interface
  19. 19. A DRM standard shall <ul><li>Be value chain agnostic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not know what existing value-chains will become </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We do not know what future value-chains will be </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardise basic technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting existing value chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling new value chains (by adding new technologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If rights holders have total control, total stagnation will result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are not face-lifting analogue value-chains by making them digital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be easy to use to deploy value chains </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Digital Media Project <ul><li>Launched as Digital Media Manifesto in Jul 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Manifesto published in Sep 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Media Project established in Dec 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The basic DMP position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital technologies are an asset of mankind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creators , intermediaries and end-users should all benefit from them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal can be achieved through s tandardisation o f </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Four years later… <ul><li>3 versions of Interoperable DRM Platform specification (IDP-1, IDP-2 and IDP-2.1) released </li></ul><ul><li>IDP-3 (May 2007) being developed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Software (Chillout) as Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping of Traditional Rights and Usages to the digital space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DMP governance being set up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Registration Authority to be appointed </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The IDP Approved Documents (In italic : under development) #9 #8 #7 #6 #5 #4 #3 #2 #1 AD Mapping of TRUs to Digital Space End-to-end Conformance Reference Software Terminology Certificat. & Registrat. Authorities Use Cases and Value Chains Interoperable DRM Platform Architecture Value-Chain Functions & Requirem. Title Infor. Norm. Norm. Infor. Norm. Norm. Norm. Infor. Infor. Type
  23. 23. AD #1 – Value Chain Functions and Requirements/1 <ul><li>Document built with contributions from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Rights Associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association of People with Special Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Management Societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Service Broadcasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheet Music Publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Manufacturers </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. AD #1 – Value Chain Functions and Requirements/2 <ul><li>Contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The list of Value-Chain Users so far identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The list of General Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The full list of Requirements of PFs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Represents 30 months of work </li></ul><ul><li>Is the foundation of other DMP documents </li></ul><ul><li>Is “work in progress” (by definition) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to extend IDP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is open to more contributions from anybody </li></ul>
  25. 25. Example: Represent Use Data Provide a machine-processable record of Uses Benefits <ul><li>Ability to Identify Use Data </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to support protection of Use Data </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to convert Use Data to a human readable form </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to not Identify User or Device associated with Use Data </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Represent a wide range of Content Uses e.g. time of Use, combinations of Content Items, Domains, Super-distribution Uses </li></ul>Requir-ements To enable processing of Use Data in a predictable fashion Objective The syntax of the information used to describe the elements making up one or more instance of Use of Content, Device or User so that it can be Processed by a Device Definition Detailed description of Requirements
  26. 26. Walkthrough in the value chain/1 <ul><li>The Creation Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Work is made by a Creator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the form of a Manifestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That becomes an Instance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digitally Represented as a Resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources are combined with Metadata in a structured way as a single entity (Content) </li></ul><ul><li>Content that is digitally Represented is called DMP Content Information (DCI) </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions to Use a DCI are expressed with a License digitally Represented with a Rights Expressions Language for Use on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices, Users, sets of Devices and Users (Domains) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Walkthrough in the value chain/2 <ul><li>Resources can be in clear-text or protected (i.e. Encrypted) form </li></ul><ul><li>A DCI can convey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keys and related DRM information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks of executable code (called DRM Tools) to Process various types of Governed Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In general a DCI is Packaged for Delivery between Users, i.e. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrapped in a file as DMP Content Format (DCF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamed according to DMP Content Stream (DCS) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The DMP Models <ul><li>Creation Model </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Model </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Model </li></ul><ul><li>DRM Tool Model </li></ul><ul><li>Device Model </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Model </li></ul><ul><li>Import/Export Model </li></ul><ul><li>Data Model </li></ul>
  29. 29. The DMP Content Information (example) Represent Content DCI Represent DRM Information Represent License Represent Key Body Represent DRM Tool Represent Key Represent Key Body Represent DRM Tool Body Represent Device Information Represent Resource Represent Domain Context for Content Represent Metadata Represent Identifier Represent Identifier Represent Metadata
  30. 30. Some Devices in a Value Chain Content Creation Device End-User Device (SAV) End-User Device (SAV) PAV eXternal Device Content Identific. Device Content Provider Device License Provider Device Domain Mgmt Device DRM Tool Provider Device Device Identific. Device License Identific. Device DRM Tool Identific. Device Domain Identific. Device End-User Device (PAV) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Non-DMP device 17
  31. 31. AD #3 – Interoperable DRM Platform <ul><li>The collection of specifications of all Tools making up the Interoperable DRM Platform (IDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Four main components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDP Schema </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. AD #4 – Use Cases and Value Chains <ul><li>Defines 12 Use Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Describes Use Cases by means of walk-throughs (some Use Case may have > 1 walk-throughs) </li></ul><ul><li>For each use Case and walk-through all IDP Tools required to implement it are listed </li></ul><ul><li>Normative AD </li></ul>
  33. 33. AD #5 – Certification and Registration Authorities <ul><li>Value-Chains rely on the guaranteed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity of Entities e.g. Device and DRM Tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity of Entities e.g. Content, Device, Domain, DRM Tool and User </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AD #5 collects roles, qualification requirements, appointment procedures and operation rules of Certification and Registration Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DMP selects and appoint Authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authorities appoint Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies Certify or Identify Entities as appropriate </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Authorities and Agencies Authority Agency 2 Agency k Agency 1 Entity 1,1 Entity 1,2 Entity 1,l Entity k,1 Entity k,2 Entity K,n Entity 2,1 Entity 2,m
  35. 35. AD #6 – Terminology <ul><li>160 terms defined and used in all ADs </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformance: The status of a Content or Device that has been judged to positively meet the requirements of a Technical Specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Interoperability: The capability of a Content Item to be Used by a Device in the way expected by the Device(s) from which the Content has originated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Interoperability : The capability of a device to exchange data with other devices across standard interfaces, using standard protocols, and to be processed by the devices exchanging the data in a predictable fashion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being extended to support DMP ontology </li></ul>
  36. 36. AD #7 – Reference software Chillout® <ul><li>A set of Java libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Exposed as web services </li></ul><ul><li>Organised as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core library: implements the IDP specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auxiliary library: encapsulates a number of functionalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: a set of sample applications (devices, …) </li></ul></ul>Java platform Applications Core library Auxiliary library
  37. 37. Currently developed Devices <ul><li>Device Identification Device (DID) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Creation Device (CCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Identification Device (CID) </li></ul><ul><li>License Provider Device (LPD) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Provider Device (CPD) </li></ul><ul><li>DRM Tool Provider Device (TPD) </li></ul><ul><li>PAV eXternal Device (PXD) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Consumption Device (PAV) </li></ul><ul><li>Content Consumption Device (SAV) </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Management Device (DMD) </li></ul>
  38. 38. AD #8 – End-to-End Conformance <ul><li>Questions requiring an answer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has an Entity been correctly implemented according to the Technical Specifications? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can an Entity be safely admitted to the Value-Chain? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose of AD #8 is to provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to test an Entity for Conformance to ADs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test suites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software (where possible) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General information to be used by Certification Authorities/Agencies </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. AD #9 – Mapping of TRUs to the digital space <ul><li>Why do we need to support TRUs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users could desert IDP-based offers because the IDP experience may be poor compared with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The analogue experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The current digital experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repackaging the TRU experience with IDP technologies may lead to some new Digital Media Business Models (DMBM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many TRUs can be supported and DMBMs implementing using the IDP toolkit </li></ul>
  40. 40. What is offered by AD #9 <ul><li>For a selection of TRUs identified by DMP the following is provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rationale for the TRU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of more than one solution enabling support of the selected TRU, each with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A walkthrough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The IDP technologies required to support the walkthrough </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Recommended Actions that may be required to make the TRU support by IDP possible </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Some TRUs supported <ul><li>#1 – Quote </li></ul><ul><li>#2 – Personal Copy </li></ul><ul><li>#3 – Space shift </li></ul><ul><li>#4 – Time shift </li></ul><ul><li>#5 – Private communication </li></ul><ul><li>#6 – Personal Annotation </li></ul><ul><li>#7 – Personal Edit </li></ul><ul><li>#8 – Rating Content </li></ul><ul><li>#9 – Continued Access </li></ul><ul><li>#10 – Paternity </li></ul><ul><li>#11 – Integrity </li></ul>
  42. 42. Relationships with MPEG <ul><li>Most of the IDP technologies are derived from MPEG-21 and other MPEG standards </li></ul><ul><li>Two DMP use cases are being developed as MAFs by MPEG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 5 months there will be ISO standards for two important application areas </li></ul>
  43. 43. Conclusions <ul><li>In the “analogue” society people have always managed “rights” </li></ul><ul><li>In a “digital” society people still manage “rights” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large corporations as well individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DRM is the technology that can achieve the goal </li></ul><ul><li>To be acceptable and succeed DRM must be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible -> Toolkit (MPEG-21 standards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperable -> A well-defined specification (DMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open -> Open Source Software (Chillout ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future proof -> Designed to include innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is time to stop talking and make it happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Join the community at http:// / </li></ul></ul>