Brand loyalty is the biased (i.e. non-random) behavioral response (i.e. purchase), expressed over time by some decision-making unit, with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands, and is a function of psychological (decision-making, evaluative) processes.
(Jacob Jacoby, emeritus professor, Purdue University)
Customer loyalty to products and stores and the three customer roles
. Appeals to shopper Try new stores or new products/brands . Shopper role dominates when price sensitive . . . . . User Indifference . May seek variety in product/use . Emotion about brand Available Alternatives Brand Parity Competitive Promotions Variety Seeking Product Involvement Price Sensitivity . . Routinized purchase behavior/history Attribute / benefit evaluation Requests purchase User Attribute/benefit evaluation User conditioning to products / sources B. L. Determinants Brand Performance Social/Emotional Habits/History Sales Pattern Loyalty . . Preference / Knowledge . Preferences Brand Loyalty Concept Behavioral Attitudinal Shopper Influencer User Concept
The Three Customer Roles Minimize cognitive effort Seeks economic value Influenced by shopping experience May request if with shopper Seeks new items Unplanned and Impulse Purchases Browsing/Shopping In-Store Promotions Atmospherics Knowledge of store layout Time Pressure Purchase companion Time/Convenience Budget Value May put pressure on shopper . . Specification of brand Store Choice Distance/convenience Price Merchandise Shopper willing to pay more for superior value . . Knowledgeable about product, may specify May specify preferred brand . Most relevant to user User value vs. economic value Users have assurance of quality/value Brand Equity Performance Social Image / Value Trustworthiness Shopper Influencer User Concept
The Three Customer Roles Seek these benefits in a store. These create an enjoyable shopping experience and minimize the effort involved. May focus here when user is also the shopper, especially for hard to solve problems Store Purchase Process Ease of shopping experience In-store assistance Convenience Problem resolution Personalization Shoppers maximize these factors while minimizing cost. These create value in the shopping experience. Little input for nationally branded or commodity/ generic products. May influence store selection for specialty goods Users want quality and value Store Loyalty Merchandise Quality Assortment Price value Store Brands Service Quality Store Image Shopper Influencer User Concept