Copyright and Fair Use Abigail Bordeaux and Alesia McManus Binghamton University Libraries
Overview of topics <ul><li>Copyright basics </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use and classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>Recent amendmen...
Q. What is the purpose of copyright? <ul><li>A. “…To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limi...
Q. What are the rights in copyright? <ul><li>A. The copyright holder has exclusive right to  </li></ul><ul><li>reproductio...
Q. What can be copyrighted? <ul><li>A.   “… original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now k...
<ul><li>Can Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>literary works </li></ul><ul><li>musical works </li></ul><ul><li>2D and 3D art </l...
Q. Who holds these rights? <ul><li>A.  Usually the creator of the work or someone to whom the creator has assigned the cop...
Q. If copyright is now automatic,  why would you register? <ul><li>A. Registration is necessary in order to file an infrin...
Q. What are the exceptions? <ul><li>A. Exceptions include the doctrine of first sale, fair use, teaching exemptions and li...
Q. What about fair use? <ul><li>A. Fair use allows limited use for “purposes such as” criticism, comment, news reporting, ...
Q. Is classrooom use OK? <ul><li>Generally, yes, in face-to-face teaching.  </li></ul><ul><li>Analog   works may be used i...
Rules for Digital Works in the Classroom <ul><li>Lawful copies </li></ul><ul><li>Accredited non-profit institution </li></...
Recent Amendments to Copyright Law <ul><li>The Teach Act (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>DMCA (1998) </li></ul>
What is the Teach Act (2002)? <ul><li>The TEACH Act addresses the performance or display of copyrighted material in distan...
Teach Act Conditions <ul><li>Not commercial work sold for purpose of distance ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Work must be a lawful ...
Teach Act Conditions <ul><li>Supervision by instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Integral part of class </li></ul><ul><li>Security...
Q. What is the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA)? <ul><li>Amendment that updates copyright law for the digital enviro...
What is a digital copy? <ul><li>Accessing a work and the computer creates a temporary copy (not infringing) </li></ul><ul>...
Q. What digital content is copyrighted? <ul><li>Technically, email messages, discussion list, and blog postings are copyri...
Q. What about course packs? <ul><li>May or may not fall under fair use  </li></ul><ul><li>In general universities seek per...
Q. What does the copyright law say with regards to Course Reserves? <ul><li>There is still a question as to whether or not...
Course Reserves (cont.) <ul><li>BU Libraries practice is to consider as articles “fair use for one academic term”. </li></...
Q. How do I obtain copyright permission? <ul><ul><li>Start with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC)  www.copyright.com </...
Q. What is the difference between copyright and plagiarism? Table adapted from Laurie Sterns, “Copy Wrong: Plagiarism, Pro...
More Help <ul><li>Copyright Resources  Binghamton University Libraries  http://library.lib.binghamton.edu/vrd/copyright.ht...
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  • Copyrightandfairusefinal

    1. 1. Copyright and Fair Use Abigail Bordeaux and Alesia McManus Binghamton University Libraries
    2. 2. Overview of topics <ul><li>Copyright basics </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use and classroom use </li></ul><ul><li>Recent amendments to copyright law (TEACH, DMCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital works </li></ul><ul><li>Campus issues – campus policy, course packs, reserves, copyright permissions, plagiarism </li></ul>
    3. 3. Q. What is the purpose of copyright? <ul><li>A. “…To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Article 1, Section 8, Clause 8 </li></ul><ul><li>of the Constitution </li></ul>
    4. 4. Q. What are the rights in copyright? <ul><li>A. The copyright holder has exclusive right to </li></ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>creation of derivative works </li></ul><ul><li>distribution </li></ul><ul><li>public display & performance </li></ul><ul><li>moral rights for visual art </li></ul>
    5. 5. Q. What can be copyrighted? <ul><li>A. “… original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device.” </li></ul><ul><li>– Section 102 of the US Copyright Law </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Can Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>literary works </li></ul><ul><li>musical works </li></ul><ul><li>2D and 3D art </li></ul><ul><li>audiovisuals </li></ul><ul><li>computer software </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot Copyright </li></ul><ul><li>ideas </li></ul><ul><li>lists </li></ul><ul><li>facts </li></ul><ul><li>titles, slogans, logos (™) </li></ul><ul><li>type styles </li></ul><ul><li>public domain* </li></ul>*What's public domain: expired: published <=1922 never ©: published w/out © < 1989, never registered works of federal government employees
    7. 7. Q. Who holds these rights? <ul><li>A. Usually the creator of the work or someone to whom the creator has assigned the copyright. If work was done for hire, the employer owns the copyright. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Q. If copyright is now automatic, why would you register? <ul><li>A. Registration is necessary in order to file an infringement suit. It also makes the permissions process easier for individuals who want to use a copyrighted work. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Q. What are the exceptions? <ul><li>A. Exceptions include the doctrine of first sale, fair use, teaching exemptions and library exemptions for copying. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Q. What about fair use? <ul><li>A. Fair use allows limited use for “purposes such as” criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship and research, subject to 4 factors: </li></ul><ul><li>purpose of use </li></ul><ul><li>nature of work </li></ul><ul><li>amount of material </li></ul><ul><li>effect on market </li></ul>
    11. 11. Q. Is classrooom use OK? <ul><li>Generally, yes, in face-to-face teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Analog works may be used in the classroom as long as the copy used is a lawful one. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital works are subject to a few more restrictions. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Rules for Digital Works in the Classroom <ul><li>Lawful copies </li></ul><ul><li>Accredited non-profit institution </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated instructional activity integral to course </li></ul><ul><li>Available only to enrolled students </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright policies in place </li></ul><ul><li>Notify students that works are protected </li></ul>
    13. 13. Recent Amendments to Copyright Law <ul><li>The Teach Act (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>DMCA (1998) </li></ul>
    14. 14. What is the Teach Act (2002)? <ul><li>The TEACH Act addresses the performance or display of copyrighted material in distance education. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use still applies </li></ul><ul><li>NCSU Libraries has created a TEACT Act tool kit </li></ul>
    15. 15. Teach Act Conditions <ul><li>Not commercial work sold for purpose of distance ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Work must be a lawful copy to begin with </li></ul><ul><li>Amount and duration similar to face-to-face use (e.g., not entire textbook) </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated instructional activity </li></ul>
    16. 16. Teach Act Conditions <ul><li>Supervision by instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Integral part of class </li></ul><ul><li>Security controls to limit use to students in class </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright notice </li></ul>
    17. 17. Q. What is the Digital Millenium Copyright Act (DMCA)? <ul><li>Amendment that updates copyright law for the digital environment </li></ul><ul><li>Gives copyright holders the right to control or deny access to digital works protected by copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Makes circumvention of technology used to protect copyrighted materials a civil and criminal offense </li></ul>
    18. 18. What is a digital copy? <ul><li>Accessing a work and the computer creates a temporary copy (not infringing) </li></ul><ul><li>Making a hard copy of a digital work </li></ul><ul><li>Storing a digital copy on a disk or hard drive </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitting a copy in digital form to another person </li></ul>
    19. 19. Q. What digital content is copyrighted? <ul><li>Technically, email messages, discussion list, and blog postings are copyrighted. </li></ul><ul><li>Web images </li></ul><ul><li>Linking to web sites is ok. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Q. What about course packs? <ul><li>May or may not fall under fair use </li></ul><ul><li>In general universities seek permission for materials included in course packs </li></ul><ul><li>Some may opt to consider each item separately to determine whether fair use applies </li></ul><ul><li>Always place copyright notices are each item in the course pack </li></ul>
    21. 21. Q. What does the copyright law say with regards to Course Reserves? <ul><li>There is still a question as to whether or not reserve use is fair use. </li></ul><ul><li>Making multiple copies for classroom use is sanctioned in section 107 </li></ul><ul><li>Fair use more likely if library/instructor owns the work; assumption that library purchases copies for many users. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 108: allows one copy for article or portion of larger work for private study, research, etc. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Course Reserves (cont.) <ul><li>BU Libraries practice is to consider as articles “fair use for one academic term”. </li></ul><ul><li>We request permission and pay fees for all subsequent uses of the same material. </li></ul><ul><li>A textbook can be included on reserves if it is also available for the students to purchase. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Q. How do I obtain copyright permission? <ul><ul><li>Start with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) www.copyright.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the copyright holder. The U.S. Copyright Office can conduct a search for a fee but it takes a long time. If the work is anonymous, try contacting the publisher. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put the agreement in writing using a permission form or letter. The permission letter should include information about how the work will be used. Keep copies of any written correspondence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can also obtain permission via telephone or e-mail. Follow up with a letter for documentation purposes. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Q. What is the difference between copyright and plagiarism? Table adapted from Laurie Sterns, “Copy Wrong: Plagiarism, Process, Property, and the Law,” in Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999). Copyright law does not protect facts or ideas One can plagiarize ideas and even facts (if presented in similar fashion) Copying an entire work in the public domain does not violate copyright One can plagiarize any work that has ever been written Amount copied is substantial Using any part of the work requires attribution Copyright Plagiarism
    25. 25. More Help <ul><li>Copyright Resources Binghamton University Libraries http://library.lib.binghamton.edu/vrd/copyright.html </li></ul><ul><li>Contact either Abigail Bordeaux (7-3217) or Alesia McManus (7-4122) </li></ul>
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