Marketing Mixes All other stimuli Psychological variables Motivation Perception Learning Attitude Personality/lifestyle Social Influences Family Social class Reference groups Culture Purchase Selection Purchase reason Time Surroundings Problem-solving process Person does or does not purchase (response) Person making decision A Model of Buyer Behavior
Choices made on the spur of the moment, often without prior problem recognition.
Choices consumers make which act against their own better judgment and engage in behavior they would normally reject.
III. Influence of the Social Environment Exhibit 4-3 Flows of influence with in the social structure Individual consumers Organizations Reference colors Family Media Culture Subculture Social class
Characteristics and Relative Size of Different Social Class Groups in the United States Relative size Group Some (abbreviated) characteristics Upper-class Upper-middle class Lower-middle class* Upper-lower (“working”) class* Lower-lower class 1.5% 12.5% 32% 38% 16% People from old wealthy families and socially prominent new rich... Small business people, teachers, office workers, technicians--the typical white collar workers... The blue collar workers--factory workers, skilled laborers, and service people…most earn good incomes... Unskilled laborers and people in very low status occupations * America’s “mass market”
Characteristics and Attitudes of Middle and Lower Classes
Consumers buy products with anticipated uses in mind.
VI. Consumer Behavior Outcomes 1. Consumer Learning happens when changes occur in knowledge or behavior patterns. 2. Consumer satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaint Behavior 3. Cognitive Dissonance
Consumer Learning Consumer Learning happens when changes occur in knowledge or behavior patterns. Marketers influence consumers by imparting knowledge through advertising, product labels, and personal selling. Marketers hope consumers will attend to, comprehend, and then remember these messages
Drive Cues Response Reinforcement The Learning Process
Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaint Behavior
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction describe the positive, neutral, or negative feelings that may occur after purchase.
Consumer complaints are overt expressions of dissatisfaction.
Firms adopting a customer value perspective must employ marketing communications that convey realistic expectations.
A Model of Consumer Satisfaction Exhibit 4-8 A model of consumer satisfaction Customer satisfaction: car fixed Customer Dissatisfaction: car still broken Actual service performance: poor repair job Customer expectations: repair work Disconfirmation Negative Positive
A form of postpurchase doubt about the appropriateness of a decision.
Cognitive Dissonance occurs when:
Decisions are major
The purchase is important
Perceived risk is high
The purchase is visible
The decision involves a long-term commitment
VII. Ethical and Social Issues in Consumer Behavior Unethical consumer behaviors include shoplifting and abuse of return policies Consumers are increasingly incorporating social concerns into their buying decisions
Ethical and Social Issues in Business Behavior Standards of Business Behavior Evaluation Corporate Social Responsibility Business Ethics
Psychological variables Motivation Perception Learning Attitude Personality/lifestyle Social influences Family Social class Reference groups Culture Purchase situation Purchase reason Time Surroundings Marketing Mixes All other stimuli Response Need-want awareness Routinized response Search for information Set criteria and evaluate alternative solutions Decide on solution Purchase product Postpone decision Postpurchase evaluation Feedback of information as attitudes Person making decisions An Expanded Model of the Consumer Problem-Solving Process