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Competitive Advantage
 

Competitive Advantage

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Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage Presentation Transcript

  • BA530 Class 4 Competitive Advantage & Medical Cases John A. Hengeveld
  • Agenda for Today
    • Finish Dell
    • Grant 7-9
    • Sunrise Medical
    • Dana Farber
  • Next week..
    • Grant 10-12,
    • Winning Through Innovation Ch 1,2,3,7
    • The SIMS Online Case
  • The Emergence of Competitive Advantage How does competitive advantage emerge?
    • External sources of
    • change e.g.:
    • Changing customer demand
    • Changing prices
    • Technological change
    Internal sources of change Resource heterogeneity among firms means differential impact Some firms faster and more effective in exploiting change Some firms have greater creative and innovative capability
  • Competitive Advantage from Internally-Generated Change: Strategic Innovation
    • Characteristics of innovation strategies:
      • Associated with new entrants to an industry (e.g. Nucor in steel, IKEA in furniture, Enron in e nergy , Home Depot in DIY , Dell in PCs )
      • Reconcile conflicting performance goals (e.g. Toyota’s lean production system combines low cost, high quality, and flexibility. Richardson Sheffield i n kitchen knives is low cost, innovative and customer responsive.)
      • Reconfiguring the value chain e.g.---
        • Nike’s system for manufacturing and distributing shoes totally different from traditional shoe manufacturer
        • Southwest Airlines simplification of the normal airline value chain
        • Zara’s system of design, manafacture, and distribution
  • Competitive Advantage in Different Industry Settings: Trading Markets and Production Markets TRADING MARKETS
    • None (efficient markets)
    • Imperfect information availability
    • Transactions costs
    • Systematic behavioral trends
    • Overshooting
    None Insider trading Cost minimization Superior diagnosis (e.g.... chart analysis) Contrarianism PRODUCTION MARKETS
    • Barriers to imitation
    • Barriers to innovation
    Identify barriers to imitation (e.g. deterrence, preemption, causal ambiguity, resource immobility,barriers to resource replication) & base strategy upon them. Difficult to influence or exploit. MARKET TYPE SOURCE OF IMPERFECTION OF COMPETITION OPPORTUNITY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
  • Sources of Competitive Advantage COST ADVANTAGE DIFFERENTIATION ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Similar product at lower cost Price premium from unique product
  • Features of Cost Leadership and Differentiation Strategies
    • Generic strategy Key strategy elements Resource & organizational
    • requirements
    • COST Scale-efficient plants. Access to capital. Process
    • LEADERSHIP Design for manufacture. engineering skills. Frequent
    • Control of overheads & reports. Tight cost control.
    • R&D. Avoidance of Specialization of jobs and
    • marginal customer functions. Incentives for
    • accounts. quantitative targets.
    • DIFFERENTIATION Emphasis on branding Marketing. Product
    • and brand advertising, engineering. Creativity.
    • design, service, and Product R&D
    • quality. Qualitative measurement and incentives. Strong cross-functional coordination.
  • The Experience Curve The “Law of Experience” The unit cost value added to a standard product declines by a constant % (typically 20-30%) each time cumulative output doubles. Cost per unit of output (in real $) Cumulative Output 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 199 8 199 9 2000
  • Examples of Experience Curves 100K 200K 500K 1,000K 5 10 50 Accumulated unit production Accumulated unit s (millions) (millions) 1960 Yen 15K 20K 30K Price Index 50 100 200 300 70% slope 75% Japanese clocks & watches, 1962-72 UK refrigerators, 1957-71
  • The Importance of Market Share If all firms in an industry have the same experience curve, then: relative costs = f (relative market share) This supported by PIMS data: BUT : - Association does not imply causation - Costs of acquiring market share tend to offset the returns to market share ROS (%) -2 0 5 10 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 over 40 Market Share (%)
  • Drivers of Cost Advantage PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES PRODUCT DESIGN INPUT COSTS CAPACITY UTILIZATION MANAGERIAL/ ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY ECONOMIES OF LEARNING ECONOMIES OF SCALE
    • Organizational slack
    • Ratio of fixed to variable costs
    • Costs of installing and closing capacity
    • Location advantages
    • Ownership of low-cost inputs
    • Bargaining power
    • Supplier cooperation
    • Design for automation
    • Designs to economize on materials
    • Mechanization and automation
    • Efficient utilization of materials
    • Increased precision
    • Increased dexterity
    • Improved coordination/ organization
    • Indivisibli ies
    • Specialization and division of labor
  • Economies of Scale: The Long-Run Cost Curve for a Plant Units of output per period Minimum Efficient Plant Size Cost per unit of output Sources of scale economies: - technical input/output relationships - indivisibilities - specialization
  • Scale Economies in Advertising: U.S. Soft Drinks Despite the massive advertising b udgets of brand leaders Co ke and Pepsi, smaller brands which incur the highest advertising costs per unit of sales 10 20 50 100 200 500 1,000 Annual sales volume (millions of cases) Advertising Expenditure ($ per case) 0.02 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 Coke Pepsi Seven up Dr. Pepper Sprite Diet Pepsi Tab Fresca Diet Rite Diet 7-Up Schweppes SF Dr. Pepper
  • Cost Advantage in Short-Haul Passenger Air Transport Costs per Available Seat-Mile (1993) Southwest Airlines United Airlines (cents) (cents) Wages and benefits 2.4 3.5 Fuel and oil 1.1 1.1 Aircraft ownership 0.7 0.8 Aircraft maintenance 0.6 0.3 Commisions on ticket sales 0.5 1.0 Advertising 0.2 0.2 Food and beverage 0.0 0.5 Other 1.7 3.1 Total 7.2 10.5
  • Key Stages in Applying the Value Chain to Cost Analysis: The Case of Automobile Manufacture STAGE 1. IDENTIFY THE PRINCIPLE ACTIVITIES STAGE 2. ALLOCATE TOTAL COSTS PURCH- ASING PARTS INVEN- TORIES R&D DESIGN ENGNRNG COMPONENT MFR ASSEMBLY TESTING, QUALITY CONTROL GOODS INVEN- TORIES SALES & MKITG DISTRI- BUTION DEALER & CUSTOMER SUPPORT
  • Applying the Value Chain to Cost Analysis (continued) PURCH- ASING PARTS INVEN- TORIES R&D DESIGN ENGNRNG COMPONENT MFR ASSEMBLY TESTING, QUALITY CONTROL GOODS INVEN- TORIES SALES & MKITG DISTRI- BUTION DEALER & CUSTOMER SUPPORT --Plant scale for each -- Level of quality targets -- No. of dealers component -- Frequency of defects -- Sales / dealer -- Process technology -- Level of dealer -- Plant location support -- Run length -- Frequency of defects -- Capaciity utilization under warrenty Prices paid --Size of commitment -- Plant scale --Cyclicality & depend on: --Productivity of -- Flexibility of production predictability of sales -- Order size R&D/design - - No. of models per plant --Customers’ -- Putchases per --No. & frequency of new -- Degree of automation willingness to wait supplier models -- Sales / model -- Bargaining power -- Wage levels -- Supplier location -- Capacity utilization STAGE 3. IDENTIFY COST DRIVERS
  • Applying the Value Chain to Cost Analysis (continued)
    • PRCHSNG PARTS R&D COMPONENT ASSMBY TESTING GOODS SALES DSTRBTN DLR
    • INVNTRS DESIGN MFR QUALITY INV MKTG CTMR
    Consolidation of orders to increase discounts, increases inventories Designing different models around common components and platforms reduces manufacturing costs Higher quality parts and materials reduces costs of defects at later stages Higher quality in manufacturing reduces warranty costs STAGE 5. RECCOMENDATIONS FOR COST REDUCTION STAGE 4. IDENTIFY LINKAGES
  • Dynamic vs. Static Approaches to Manufacturing
    • Artisan mode: Scientific Management Mode:
    • - problem solving - quest for “one best way”
    • - employee knowledge creation - people matched to tasks
    • - employee control over product - incentives and penalties to
    • - product and customer ensure conformity to objectives
    • orientation - planning and control by staff
    • - continuous incremental - science driven
    • improvement - focused around corporate R&D - market needs pull technology departments
    • - product and process innovation- emphasis on product Innovation
    • - teamwork and cross-functional and big projects collaboration
    PRODUCTION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY DYNAMIC STATIC
  • Recent Approaches to Cost Reduction
    • Dramatic changes in strategy and structure
    • to adjust to the business conditions of the 1990’s
    • Key elements:
    • Plant closures
    • Outsourcing
    • Delayering and cuts in administrative staff
    • The fundamental rethinking and radical
    • redesign of business processes to achieve
    • dynamic improvements in performance. e.g.:-
    • Several jobs combined into one
    • Steps of a process combined in natural order
    • Minimizing steps, controls, and reconciliation
    • Use case managers as single points of contact
    • Hybrid centralization/ decentralization
    CORPORATE RESTRUCTURING BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING
  • The Nature of Differentiation TOTAL CUSTOMER RESPONSIVENESS differentiation not just about the product , it embraces the whole relationship between the supplier and the customer. INTANGIBLE DIFFERENTATION Unobservable and subjective characteristics relating to image, status, exclusively, identity
    • TANGIBLE DIFFERENTATION
    • Observable product characteristics
    • size, color, materials, etc.
    • performance
    • packaging
    • complementary services
    DEFINITION: Providing something unique that is valuable to the buyer beyond simply offering a low price . (M. Porter) THE KEY IS CREATING VALUE FOR THE CUSTOMER
  • Differentiation and Segmentation
    • DIFFERENTIATION: is concerned with how a firm competes within
    • a market.
    • SEGMENTATION: is concerned with where a firm competes
    • within a market.
    • Does differentiation imply segmentation?
    • Not necessarily, depends upon the differentiation strategy:
    • BROAD SCOPE DIFFERENTIATION: Appealing to what is in common between different customers (McDonalds hamburgers, Honda cars, Sears)
    • FOCUSED DIFFERENTIATION: Appealing to what distinguishes different customer groups (BMW, Doc Marten footwear)
  • Differentiation and the Product Life Cycle New packages of hardware and software introduced SYSTEM Augmentation: repackaging of hardware and software PRODUCTS & SERVICES Decommoditization COMMODITY PRODUCTS & SERVICES Commoditization Desystematization: some packages unbundled
  • Analyzing the Demand Side
    • Techniques for analyzing product attributes and
    • positioning:
    • Multidimensional Scaling
    • Conjoint Analysis
    • Hedonic Price Analysis
  • Differentiation in Pain Relievers: Multidimensional Scaling of Competing Products in the U.S. High Low Low High EFFECTIVENESS GENTLENESS Tylenol Bufferin Excedrin Bayer Anacin Private label aspirin
  • Identifying Differentiation Potential: The Demand Side THE PRODUCT THE CUSTOMER What needs does it satisfy? By what criteria do they choose? What motivates them? What are key attributes? Relate patterns of customer preferences to product attributes What price premiums do product attributes command? What are demographic, sociological, psychological correlates of customer behavior?
    • FORMULATE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY
    • Select product positioning in relation to product attributes
    • Select target customer group
    • Ensure customer / product compatibility
    • Evaluate costs and benefits of differentiation
  • Differentiation of Hardware and Software SYSTEM PRODUCT SERVICE COMMODITY SUPPORT (SOFTWARE) Differentiated Undifferentiated Differentiated MERCHANDISE (HARDWARE) Undifferentiated
  • Consistency of Differentiation Strategy: Product Integrity
    • Key to successful differentiation is consistency of all aspects of the firm’s relationship with its customers.
    • Product Integrity : the total balance of product features
        • Internal integrity: consistency between function and structure
        • External integrity:fit between the product and the customers’ objectives, values, lifestyle etc..
  • Producer’s strategies High quality Low quality High 7 10 Consumer’s price 7 -5 strategies Low -5 3 price 10 3 Note : In each cell, the lower left number is the payoff to the consumer and the upper right number is the payoff t o the producer. The problem of experience goods : quality can only be ascertained after purchase. Hence: Prisoner’s Dilemma :- Equilibrium reached with consumer paying a low price for a low quality item. If producer can signal quality--- both consumer and producer can move to preferred position: high quality product carrying a high price Problem of Quality in Experience Goods: A “Prisoner’s Dilemma”
  • Using the Value Chain to Identify Differentiation Potential on the Supply Side FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT INBOUND OPERATIONS OUTBOUND MARKETING SERVICE LOGISTICS LOGISTICS & SALES MIS that supports fast response capabilities Training to support customer service excellence Unique product features. Fast new product development Quality of components & materials Defect free products. Wide variety Fast delivery. Efficient order processing Building brand reputation Customer technical support. Consumer credit. Availability of spares
  • The Industry Life Cycle
    • Drivers of industry evolution :
        • demand growth
        • creation and diffusion of knowledge
    Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Industry Sales Time
  • Types of Innovation and Innovation Streams T&O, Winning Through Innovation, figure 7.3 Inexpensive Mechanical Watch Smaller, Thinner Mechanical Watches Swatch Continuous Aim gunfire First Watch Quartz Watch New Existing Markets Incremental Small Extensions of Existing Technology Architectural Reconfigures Existing Technology Discontinuous New operating principles in Core Subsystems&/or Discontinuous Process innovation
  • Organizational Cycles The success syndrome FIT SUCCESS Size and Age Inertia: Structural Cultural Success in Stable Markets Failure in Market Shifts
  • Ambidextrous Organizations from WTI, figure 7.6
    • Executive Team
    • Provide Clear, Simple Vision
    • Balance Multiple Architectures
    • Makes Bets on Shifting Innovation
    • Manage Ambidextrously
      • Today/Tomorrow
      • Large/Small – Incremental/Discontinuous
    • Inc
    • Culture Promoting Continuous Improvement
    • Incremental Change
    • Eliminate Variability
    • Reward Volume & Cost
    • Arch
    • Culture Promoting Linkage Across Units
    • Adding and Linking Subsystems
    • Reward Integration
    • Disc
    • Culture Promoting Breakthroughs
    • Many Small Failures
    • Learn by Doing
    • Reward Experimentation and Innovation
  • Technology Cycles Rate of Innovation Time Product innovation Process Innovation Substitution Event DD DD
  • Examples of Technology Cycles
    • VCR
    • Audio Recording and Distribution
    • Computers?
    • Telecommunication?
  • Standardization of Product Features in Autos FEATURE INTRODUCTION GENERAL ADOPTION Speedometer 1901 by Oldsmobile Circa 1915 Automatic transmission 1st installed 1904 Introduced by Packard as an option, 1938. Standard on Cadillacs early 1950s Electric headlamps GM introduces , 1908 Standard equipment by 1916 All-steel body GM a dopte s 1912 S tandard by early 1920s All-steel enclosed body Dodge, 1923 Becomes standard late 1920s Radio Optional extra 1923 Standard equipment, 1946 Four-wheel drive Appeared 1924 Only limited availability by 1994 Hydraulic brakes Introduced 1924 Became standard 1939 Shatterproof glass 1st used 1927 Standard features in Fords 1938 Power steering Introduced 1952 S tandard equipment by 1969 Antilock brakes Introduced 1972 Standard on GM cars in 1991 Air bags GM i ntroduce s, 1974 By 1994 most new cars equipped with air bags
  • How Typical is the Life Cycle Pattern?
    • Technology-intensive industries (e.g. pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers) may retain features of emerging industries.
    • Other industries (especially those providing basic necessities, e.g. food processing, construction, apparel) reach maturity, but not decline.
    • Industries may experience life cycle regeneration.
    • Sales Sales
    • 1900 ‘50 ‘60 ‘90 1930 50 60 90
    • MOTORCYCLES TV’s
    • Life cycle model can help us to anticipate industry evolution — but dangerous to assume any common, pre-determined pattern of industy development.
    Color B&W Portable HDTV ?
  • Evolution of Industry Structure over the Life Cycle
    • INTRODUCTION GROWTH MATURITY DECLINE
    • DEMAND Affluent buyers Increasing Mass market Knowledgeable,
    • penetration replacement customers, resi-
    • demand dual segments
    • TECHNOLOGY Rapid product Product and Incremental Well-diffused
    • innovation process innovation innovation technology
    • PRODUCTS Wide variety, Standardization Commoditiz- Continued rapid design change ation commoditization
    • MANUFACT- Short-runs, skill Capacity shortage, Deskilling Overcapacity
    • URING intensive mass-production
    • TRADE -----Production shifts from advanced to developing countries-----
    • COMPETITION Technology- Entry & exit Shakeout & Price wars,
    • consolidation exit
    • KSFs Product innovation Process techno- Cost efficiency Overhead red- logy. Design for uction, ration- alization, low
    • cost sourcing
  • The Driving Forces of Industry Evolution Customers become more knowledgeable & experienced Diffusion of technology Demand growth slows as market saturation approaches Customers become more price conscious Products become more standardized Distribution channels consolidate Production shifts to low-wage countries Price competition intensifies Bargaining powe r of distributors increase s BASIC CONDITIONS INDUSTRY STRUCTURE COMPETITION Excess capacity increases Production becomes less R&D & skill-intensive Quest for new sources of differentiation
  • ROI at Different Stages of the Industry Life Cycle
  • Note: The figure shows standardized means for each variable for businesses at each stage of the life cycle . Strategy and Performance at across the Industry Life Cycle
  • Preparing for the Future : The Role of Scenario Analysis in Adapting to Industry Change
    • Stages in undertaking multiple Scenario Analysis:
        • Identify major forces driving industry change
        • Predict possible impacts of each force on the industry environment
        • Identify interactions between different external forces
        • Among range of outcomes, identify 2-4 most likely/ most interesting scenarios : configurations of changeforces and outcomes
        • Consider implications of each scenario for the company
        • Identify key signposts pointing toward the emergence of each scenario
        • Prepare contingency plan
  • 1880s 1920s 1960s 2000 Mail order, catalogue retailing e.g. Sears Roebuck Chain Stores e.g. A&P Discount Stores e.g. K-Mart Wal-Mart “ Category Killers” e.g. Toys-R-Us, Home Depot Internet Retailers e.g. Amazon; Webvan Warehouse Clubs e.g. Price Club Sam’s Club Innovation & R enewal over the I ndustry L ife C ycle : R etailing
  • Medical Cases
    • See Insert posted tomorrow
  • The SIMS Case
    • What accounts for The Sims being the best selling PC game? Why has enthusiasm lasted so long?
    • What marketing plan should the Sims pursue?
    • EA is the worlds largest game publisher. It supports a wide variety of games across many platforms. Is such a diversified strategy risky? What are the long term consequences?
    • Does it make sense for such a large investment in EA.com?
    • Who poses the greatest competitive threat to EA? What do we expect from this market over time?
  • What I expect from THE SIMS
    • Develop a marketing strategy from 5C-4P’s
      • Don’t miss the segmentation step!!
    • Analyze EA’s strategy and organizational structure. How is the game industry different from… say … Dell or Sunrise?
    • Use methods from Grant to analyze competition, assess resources and capabilities esp wrt EA.com and TSO
    • Figure out what to do with the key strategic decisions on TSO
  • Marketing Analysis (The 5Cs) Market Segmentation Target Market Selection Product/Service Positioning Marketing Mix (The 4P’s) Product & Service Place/ Channel Promotion Pricing Customer Acquisition Customer Retention Creating Value Capturing Value Sustaining Value Customers Company Competitors Collaborators Context
  • Tool walk through – IKEA
    • Porter 5 Forces and Competitive Analysis in Europe prior to IKEA entry
    • “ Industry Value Chain” prior to IKEA entering
    • 5Cs and 4P’s for how IKEA including Market Segmentation Analysis in Europe
    • Resources/Capabilities Analysis for IKEA to enter in the US with its Europe Concept
    • Congruence Analysis for Store Startup and for Geographic Management
    • As a group we will derive: 5Cs and 4Ps for how IKEA might operate in US (including Market Segmentation Analysis)
  • Tool walk through – Matching Dell
    • For each company:
      • R/C analysis for current strategy
      • Generic strategy and targeted market segment
        • Source of existing Competitive Advantage if any
      • For the three key markets:
        • Key Success Factors
        • Current 4Ps
      • TOWS