C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues


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C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues

  1. 1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN & DELIVERY M. Haire, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science & Director, TGOW Institute for Strategic Learning, Research & Development Itta Bena, MS Friday, January 11, 2008 Delaware Community College
  2. 2. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><li>Our Goal : To examines pedagogical adjustments faculty must consider in designing & managing on-line courses that address the hard realities of cultural diversity in the 21 st Century. </li></ul><ul><li>Such adjustments must not only account for course content themes , such as the infusion of reliable data that address the dynamic interplay of race, ethnicity, class, and gender relations in America and globally. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns must also center on such critical matters as: </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty professional development issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Global disparity in technological access; </li></ul><ul><li>Variances in computer-related skill levels; </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally-based learning styles; and </li></ul><ul><li>Creative & alternative pedagogy that value cultural diversity among distance learners. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Valuing Diversity in the Shift from the Traditional Classroom to Distance Ed </li></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><li>Traditional Classroom Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Required Physical Class Room </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting Space & Time </li></ul><ul><li>Required Text(s) & Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Lectures & Moderated Group Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment Methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quizzes/Tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homework Assignments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research Papers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Projects/Demonstrations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment Measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral & Written Feedback/Grades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office Hours/Advisement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance Learning Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Access: 24/7; </li></ul><ul><li>E-Mail & Video Conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Required Text, CD-ROMs, </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment/Assessment Rooms w/ Supporting e-Tutorials </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin Boards & Chat Rooms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTML & PDF Files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Document Reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line Syllabus: Interactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Website(s): Faculty/Course </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-line Texts & Materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lecture Hall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended Hot Links to WWW Course-specific Data </li></ul>
  4. 4. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><li>Lingering Realities of the Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Typical” Distance Learner: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Non-traditional Adult Learner: A Profile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Age : 25-35 yrs. old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender : 60%+ Female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity : Inconclusive! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability : 3 – 10% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location : 67%+ live “w/in” 50 miles of campus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Roles : 57%+ F/T employed; 58 – 75% married </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic : Increasing enrollment of disadvantaged students [i.e., Black & Hispanic] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable Access: A Myth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware : Price Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toshiba, Dell, Gateway & Apple, Sony, HP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS Office 2007 & Vista v. Corel & Mozilla </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISP Access : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed, Wireless or Dial-up; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DirectTV; AT&T; Comcast; EarthLink; HughesNet; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designware : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WebCT & Blackboard.com, Moodle; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication/Networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo! MSN; Google; </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><ul><li>Noted Personal Traits: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matured with digital entertainment age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to digital resources outside of schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accepts diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertive and self-reliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strongly independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotionally/intellectually open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely expressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendency toward innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noted Areas of Expertise: </li></ul><ul><li>Pac Man </li></ul><ul><li>Sega Game Boy </li></ul><ul><li>Play Station I & II </li></ul><ul><li>X-Box 360 </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phone Text-messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Web Surfacing </li></ul><ul><li>MySpace.com </li></ul><ul><li>MyFaceBook.com </li></ul><ul><li>Hip Hop/Rap </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>BET </li></ul><ul><li>VH I </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter Net Generation X: </li></ul></ul></ul>Can teachers compete on-line for their attention v. mass media world?
  6. 6. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… Values & Cultural Group Norms: A Simple Comparison American Indian European American African American Asian/Pacific American Hispanic America Relations with People Group Interdependence; Sharing & Giving Individual; Independence; Competitive Group Interdependence; Group Effort Leads to Progress; Some Individual Orientation Reserved & Formal; Group Interdependence; Group Effort & Progress Group Interdependence; Group Cooperation Time Orientation Present-oriented; Here & Now; Rational Order v. Deadlines Future; Time is Precise & Measured in Units Past & Present; In Time v. On Time Past, Present & Future; Time is not Always Specific Past & Present; Flexible, Vague & Relative Communication Style Silent Contemplation; Affection Not Displayed Publicly Soft-spoken Written Texts are Most Important Oral; Participatory; High-keyed, Animated & Confrontational; Designed to Generate “Effect” Emotions Controlled & Not Displayed Publicly; Formal Oral; Quiet & Low-Keyed; Introspective; Reserved Relation to Authority Seldom Challenged; Acceptance of Things as They Are; Deference & Silence = Respect Can be Challenged, Worked Around, & Avoided Beginning to Challenge Never to be Challenged; To be Obeyed & Respected Seldom, if ever, Challenged; Deference & Silence as Signs of Respect Activity Relationship –oriented; Doing through Sharing & Cooperation Task-oriented for Personal, Emotional & Material Rewards; Competition Task & People-oriented; Doing Through Cooperation; Task-oriented for Honor of the Group; Doing through Cooperation Relationship-oriented rather than Task-oriented; Cooperative Perception of Self-Worth Acknowledged Through One’ Existence & Behavior Based on Visible Material Possessions Acknowledged through One’s Existence & Behavior Acknowledged through Hard Work & Following Rules & Regulations One’s Value is Based On What One Does
  7. 7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><li>Dunn & Dunn: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Styles Model </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Sociological </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner, Cook & Mills: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul>The Diversity of Culturally-based Learning Styles & Intelligences in On-line Classrooms What affect do teacher styles & ideology have on student learning?
  8. 8. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><li>Teacher Attitudes & Instructional Techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the Euro-centric Canons & Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Students: </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency Orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Assumption - There is a single standard of knowledge, & a single way of knowing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus = Students’ deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result = Lowered expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference Orientation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime Assumption = Student differences = potential strengths. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus = Self-examination of teaching style; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result = Adjusts to builds on uniqueness of students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Desired Privileged Cultural Styles Among Students: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Style: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct expression; Serial Exchange; Assertive & Competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Achievement; Self-motivation; Personal competence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective; Analytical; Detail-oriented; Cognitive v. Affective; Trust in written word forms </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… <ul><ul><li>Professional Development Issues: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty Matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course design & development release time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stipends & other incentives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course load reduction v. increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-load+ publishing or perish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing & recruitment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Admissions/Orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enrollment management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course & faculty evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student support services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic Capitalism & Distance Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Note: The Profit Motive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition w/ & Pressure from Corporations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To offer education/training at advanced levels; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investing $ Millions in course design – penetrating college markets & replacing faculty in the design phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To capturing the “digitizing” dimension e-text development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leading in audio/visual course enhancements that mirror mass culture. </li></ul></ul></ul>Valuing Cultural Diversity in the Shift from the Traditional Classroom to Distance Education
  10. 10. <ul><li>Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community? </li></ul><ul><li>A Few Recommendations, Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Costner’s Seven Principles for Training Culturally Responsive Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 1: Structure Professional Development Activities That Focus on Cultural Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 2: Ensure That All Teachers Respect the Culture of Their Students </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3: Value and Celebrate Culture—Promote Cultural Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 4: Embrace an Empowerment Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 5: Communicate to the School’s Commitment to Cultural Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 6: Take Away Barriers that Impede Progress </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 7: Help Teachers Use Effective Pedagogical Methods for Teaching (Culturally Diverse Students) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted by Costner from her 2004 co-authored &quot;Seven Principles for Developing a Culturally Responsive Faculty.&quot; </li></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  11. 11. <ul><li>Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community? </li></ul><ul><li>A Few Recommendations, Part II </li></ul><ul><li>Costner’s Five Principles for Culturally Responsive On-line Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 1: Online communication is a culture in itself, so watching your written “tone” is key. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 2: Do as you would in the classroom when you are face to face—show value and respect. Always remember, there is a human being on the other end although you cannot physically see the person. Promote mutual respect </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3: Avoid making assumptions based on names. We do not, intentionally or unintentionally, want to offend our (students). </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 4: No one can tell you more about a person than that person! I promote going to the source because there may be some aspect(s) of a culture that the individual may not identify with. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 5: Always remain open and committed to learning new things. Ensure you honestly assess your own beliefs about diverse populations. </li></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  12. 12. <ul><li>Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community? </li></ul><ul><li>A Few Recommendations, Part III </li></ul><ul><li>On-Line Instructional Techniques for Educators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty & administration professional development and training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promoting Curriculum Design “Best Practices” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanisms that do more than identify the areas in which the potential learner needs to improve or change . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course and interface designs that addresses individual learner characteristics to provide a more learner-centered experience: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A distance-learning course should provide connections among the learner’s prior experiences that relate to course content. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viable Release-time and Course Load Reduction Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing International University Partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive learning collaborative projects by discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation & Continuous Improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to On-going self-study of academic & student support systems w/ annual external evaluations </li></ul></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  13. 13. <ul><li>A Few Suggested Readings : </li></ul><ul><li>James A. Banks, Cultural Diversity & Education: Foundations, Curriculum & Teaching, 4 th Ed ., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Alan Brinkley, et. al., The Chicago Handbook for Teachers: A Practical Guide to the College Classroom . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>David W. Brooks, et. al., Web-Teaching: A Guide for Designing Interactive Teaching for the World Wide Web . NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert A. Cole , Issues in Web-Based Pedagogy: A Critical Primer . NY: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Paulo Freire, Teachers as Cultural Workers: Letters to Those Who Dare to Teach . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom . NY: Routledge, 1994. </li></ul><ul><li>Jana Noel , Developing Multicultural Educators . Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Sacks, Generation X Goes to College . Chicago: Open Court, 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Betty Collis. Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations . NY: Routledge Falmer, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Wim Jochems, Ed., Integrated E-Learning: Implications for Pedagogy, Technology and Organization . NY: Routledge Falmer, 2003 . </li></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  14. 14. <ul><li>A Few Suggested Web Links : </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Rhoades & Sheila Slaughter, “Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices” , http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_academic/issues/june04/Rhoades.qxp.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Julia D. Harbeck, “Community College Students Taking On-Line Courses: The Student Point-of-View”, http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-02052001-164701/unrestricted/finaletd.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Melody Thompson, “Distance Learners in Higher Education”, http://www1.worldbank.org/disted/Teaching/Design/kn-02.html </li></ul><ul><li>K. A. Murrell, “Human Computer Interface Design In a Multi-cultural Multi-lingual Environment”, http://www.und.ac.za/users/murrell/classrm/paper1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia McGee, “Web-based Learning Design: Planning for Diversity”, http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/MAR02_Issue/article03.html , </li></ul><ul><li>Annette Valenta, et. al ., “Identifying Student Attitudes and Learning Styles in Distance Education”, http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Steven R. Van Hook, “Universal Learning at a Distance: Can We Plug It In?”, http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer82/vanhook82.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Kelley L. Costner, “Seven Principles for Training Culturally Responsive Teachers - http://www.teachermagazine.org/tm/articles/2007/12/04/07principles_web.html?print=1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Barnhardt, “Teaching/Learning Across Cultures: Strategies for Success”, http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Curriculum/Articles/RayBarnhardt/TLAC.html </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Rose Grant & Heather R. Thornton, “Best Practices in Undergraduate Adult-Centered Online Learning: Mechanisms for Course Design and Delivery”, http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no4/grant.htm </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…