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C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues
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C Dinthe21st Century Pedagocial Issues

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  • 1. CULTURAL DIVERSITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY PEDAGOGICAL ISSUES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN & DELIVERY M. Haire, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science & Director, TGOW Institute for Strategic Learning, Research & Development Itta Bena, MS Friday, January 11, 2008 Delaware Community College
  • 2. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
    • Our Goal : To examines pedagogical adjustments faculty must consider in designing & managing on-line courses that address the hard realities of cultural diversity in the 21 st Century.
    • Such adjustments must not only account for course content themes , such as the infusion of reliable data that address the dynamic interplay of race, ethnicity, class, and gender relations in America and globally.
    • Concerns must also center on such critical matters as:
    • Faculty professional development issues:
    • Global disparity in technological access;
    • Variances in computer-related skill levels;
    • Culturally-based learning styles; and
    • Creative & alternative pedagogy that value cultural diversity among distance learners.
  • 3.
    • Valuing Diversity in the Shift from the Traditional Classroom to Distance Ed
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
    • Traditional Classroom Activities
    • Required Physical Class Room
    • Meeting Space & Time
    • Required Text(s) & Materials
    • Formal Lectures & Moderated Group Discussions
    • Assessment Methods:
        • Quizzes/Tests
        • Homework Assignments
        • Research Papers
        • Projects/Demonstrations
    • Assessment Measures:
        • Oral & Written Feedback/Grades
        • Office Hours/Advisement
    • Distance Learning Activities
    • Internet Access: 24/7;
    • E-Mail & Video Conferencing
    • Required Text, CD-ROMs,
    • Assignment/Assessment Rooms w/ Supporting e-Tutorials
    • Bulletin Boards & Chat Rooms
        • HTML & PDF Files
        • Electronic Document Reader
        • On-line Syllabus: Interactive
        • Website(s): Faculty/Course
        • On-line Texts & Materials
        • Lecture Hall
    • Recommended Hot Links to WWW Course-specific Data
  • 4. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
    • Lingering Realities of the Digital Divide
        • “ Typical” Distance Learner:
        • The Non-traditional Adult Learner: A Profile
      • Average Age : 25-35 yrs. old
      • Gender : 60%+ Female
      • Ethnicity : Inconclusive!
      • Disability : 3 – 10%
      • Location : 67%+ live “w/in” 50 miles of campus
      • Life Roles : 57%+ F/T employed; 58 – 75% married
      • Socio-economic : Increasing enrollment of disadvantaged students [i.e., Black & Hispanic]
      • Equitable Access: A Myth
      • Hardware : Price Wars
        • Toshiba, Dell, Gateway & Apple, Sony, HP
    • Software:
      • MS Office 2007 & Vista v. Corel & Mozilla
    • ISP Access :
      • High-speed, Wireless or Dial-up;
      • DirectTV; AT&T; Comcast; EarthLink; HughesNet;
    • Designware :
      • WebCT & Blackboard.com, Moodle;
    • Communication/Networks:
      • Yahoo! MSN; Google;
  • 5. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
      • Noted Personal Traits:
      • Matured with digital entertainment age
      • Access to digital resources outside of schools
      • Accepts diversity
      • Assertive and self-reliant
      • Strongly independent
      • Emotionally/intellectually open
      • Inclusive
      • Freely expressive
      • Tendency toward innovation
      • Investigative
    • Noted Areas of Expertise:
    • Pac Man
    • Sega Game Boy
    • Play Station I & II
    • X-Box 360
    • Cell phone Text-messaging
    • Web Surfacing
    • MySpace.com
    • MyFaceBook.com
    • Hip Hop/Rap
    • Hard Rock
    • Acid Jazz
    • BET
    • VH I
        • Enter Net Generation X:
    Can teachers compete on-line for their attention v. mass media world?
  • 6. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY… Values & Cultural Group Norms: A Simple Comparison American Indian European American African American Asian/Pacific American Hispanic America Relations with People Group Interdependence; Sharing & Giving Individual; Independence; Competitive Group Interdependence; Group Effort Leads to Progress; Some Individual Orientation Reserved & Formal; Group Interdependence; Group Effort & Progress Group Interdependence; Group Cooperation Time Orientation Present-oriented; Here & Now; Rational Order v. Deadlines Future; Time is Precise & Measured in Units Past & Present; In Time v. On Time Past, Present & Future; Time is not Always Specific Past & Present; Flexible, Vague & Relative Communication Style Silent Contemplation; Affection Not Displayed Publicly Soft-spoken Written Texts are Most Important Oral; Participatory; High-keyed, Animated & Confrontational; Designed to Generate “Effect” Emotions Controlled & Not Displayed Publicly; Formal Oral; Quiet & Low-Keyed; Introspective; Reserved Relation to Authority Seldom Challenged; Acceptance of Things as They Are; Deference & Silence = Respect Can be Challenged, Worked Around, & Avoided Beginning to Challenge Never to be Challenged; To be Obeyed & Respected Seldom, if ever, Challenged; Deference & Silence as Signs of Respect Activity Relationship –oriented; Doing through Sharing & Cooperation Task-oriented for Personal, Emotional & Material Rewards; Competition Task & People-oriented; Doing Through Cooperation; Task-oriented for Honor of the Group; Doing through Cooperation Relationship-oriented rather than Task-oriented; Cooperative Perception of Self-Worth Acknowledged Through One’ Existence & Behavior Based on Visible Material Possessions Acknowledged through One’s Existence & Behavior Acknowledged through Hard Work & Following Rules & Regulations One’s Value is Based On What One Does
  • 7. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
    • Dunn & Dunn:
    • Learning Styles Model
    • Environmental
    • Emotional
    • Sociological
    • Physiological
    • Psychological
    • Gardner, Cook & Mills:
    • Learning Intelligence
    • Linguistic
    • Logical-Mathematical
    • Spatial
    • Musical
    • Bodily-Kinesthetic
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
    The Diversity of Culturally-based Learning Styles & Intelligences in On-line Classrooms What affect do teacher styles & ideology have on student learning?
  • 8. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
    • Teacher Attitudes & Instructional Techniques:
    • Beyond the Euro-centric Canons & Bias
    • Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Students:
    • Deficiency Orientation:
      • Prime Assumption - There is a single standard of knowledge, & a single way of knowing.
      • Focus = Students’ deficiencies
      • Result = Lowered expectations
    • Difference Orientation:
      • Prime Assumption = Student differences = potential strengths.
      • Focus = Self-examination of teaching style;
      • Result = Adjusts to builds on uniqueness of students
    • Desired Privileged Cultural Styles Among Students:
    • Communication Style:
      • Direct expression; Serial Exchange; Assertive & Competitive
    • Organizational Style
      • Individual Achievement; Self-motivation; Personal competence
    • Intellectual Style
      • Objective; Analytical; Detail-oriented; Cognitive v. Affective; Trust in written word forms
  • 9. CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
      • Professional Development Issues:
      • Faculty Matters
        • Course design & development release time
        • Stipends & other incentives
        • Course load reduction v. increase
        • Dual-load+ publishing or perish
      • Administrative Systems
        • Marketing & recruitment
        • Admissions/Orientation
        • Enrollment management
        • Course & faculty evaluation
        • Student support services
      • Academic Capitalism & Distance Education
      • Final Note: The Profit Motive
      • Competition w/ & Pressure from Corporations:
        • To offer education/training at advanced levels;
        • Investing $ Millions in course design – penetrating college markets & replacing faculty in the design phase
        • To capturing the “digitizing” dimension e-text development
        • Leading in audio/visual course enhancements that mirror mass culture.
    Valuing Cultural Diversity in the Shift from the Traditional Classroom to Distance Education
  • 10.
    • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
    • A Few Recommendations, Part I
    • Costner’s Seven Principles for Training Culturally Responsive Teachers
    • Principle 1: Structure Professional Development Activities That Focus on Cultural Responsiveness
    • Principle 2: Ensure That All Teachers Respect the Culture of Their Students
    • Principle 3: Value and Celebrate Culture—Promote Cultural Sensitivity
    • Principle 4: Embrace an Empowerment Culture
    • Principle 5: Communicate to the School’s Commitment to Cultural Responsiveness
    • Principle 6: Take Away Barriers that Impede Progress
    • Principle 7: Help Teachers Use Effective Pedagogical Methods for Teaching (Culturally Diverse Students)
    • Adapted by Costner from her 2004 co-authored "Seven Principles for Developing a Culturally Responsive Faculty."
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  • 11.
    • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
    • A Few Recommendations, Part II
    • Costner’s Five Principles for Culturally Responsive On-line Instruction:
    • Principle 1: Online communication is a culture in itself, so watching your written “tone” is key.
    • Principle 2: Do as you would in the classroom when you are face to face—show value and respect. Always remember, there is a human being on the other end although you cannot physically see the person. Promote mutual respect
    • Principle 3: Avoid making assumptions based on names. We do not, intentionally or unintentionally, want to offend our (students).
    • Principle 4: No one can tell you more about a person than that person! I promote going to the source because there may be some aspect(s) of a culture that the individual may not identify with.
    • Principle 5: Always remain open and committed to learning new things. Ensure you honestly assess your own beliefs about diverse populations.
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  • 12.
    • Where Do We Go From Here? Chaos or Community?
    • A Few Recommendations, Part III
    • On-Line Instructional Techniques for Educators
      • Faculty & administration professional development and training
    • Promoting Curriculum Design “Best Practices”
      • Mechanisms that do more than identify the areas in which the potential learner needs to improve or change .
      • Course and interface designs that addresses individual learner characteristics to provide a more learner-centered experience:
      • A distance-learning course should provide connections among the learner’s prior experiences that relate to course content.
    • Viable Release-time and Course Load Reduction Formula
    • Nurturing International University Partnerships
      • Distributive learning collaborative projects by discipline
    • Program Evaluation & Continuous Improvement
      • Commitment to On-going self-study of academic & student support systems w/ annual external evaluations
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  • 13.
    • A Few Suggested Readings :
    • James A. Banks, Cultural Diversity & Education: Foundations, Curriculum & Teaching, 4 th Ed ., Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
    • Alan Brinkley, et. al., The Chicago Handbook for Teachers: A Practical Guide to the College Classroom . Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1999.
    • David W. Brooks, et. al., Web-Teaching: A Guide for Designing Interactive Teaching for the World Wide Web . NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001.
    • Robert A. Cole , Issues in Web-Based Pedagogy: A Critical Primer . NY: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001.
    • Paulo Freire, Teachers as Cultural Workers: Letters to Those Who Dare to Teach . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
    • bell hooks, Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom . NY: Routledge, 1994.
    • Jana Noel , Developing Multicultural Educators . Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. 2000.
    • Peter Sacks, Generation X Goes to College . Chicago: Open Court, 1996.
    • Betty Collis. Flexible Learning in a Digital World: Experiences and Expectations . NY: Routledge Falmer, 2001.
    • Wim Jochems, Ed., Integrated E-Learning: Implications for Pedagogy, Technology and Organization . NY: Routledge Falmer, 2003 .
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…
  • 14.
    • A Few Suggested Web Links :
    • Gary Rhoades & Sheila Slaughter, “Academic Capitalism in the New Economy: Challenges and Choices” , http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_academic/issues/june04/Rhoades.qxp.pdf
    • Julia D. Harbeck, “Community College Students Taking On-Line Courses: The Student Point-of-View”, http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-02052001-164701/unrestricted/finaletd.pdf
    • Melody Thompson, “Distance Learners in Higher Education”, http://www1.worldbank.org/disted/Teaching/Design/kn-02.html
    • K. A. Murrell, “Human Computer Interface Design In a Multi-cultural Multi-lingual Environment”, http://www.und.ac.za/users/murrell/classrm/paper1.html
    • Patricia McGee, “Web-based Learning Design: Planning for Diversity”, http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/MAR02_Issue/article03.html ,
    • Annette Valenta, et. al ., “Identifying Student Attitudes and Learning Styles in Distance Education”, http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/pdf/v5n2_valenta.pdf
    • Steven R. Van Hook, “Universal Learning at a Distance: Can We Plug It In?”, http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer82/vanhook82.htm
    • Kelley L. Costner, “Seven Principles for Training Culturally Responsive Teachers - http://www.teachermagazine.org/tm/articles/2007/12/04/07principles_web.html?print=1
    • Ray Barnhardt, “Teaching/Learning Across Cultures: Strategies for Success”, http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Curriculum/Articles/RayBarnhardt/TLAC.html
    • Mary Rose Grant & Heather R. Thornton, “Best Practices in Undergraduate Adult-Centered Online Learning: Mechanisms for Course Design and Delivery”, http://jolt.merlot.org/vol3no4/grant.htm
    •  
    CULTURAL DIVERSITY & PEDAGOGY IN THE 21ST CENTURY…

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