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Bibliography Of Theories Of Taste
 

Bibliography Of Theories Of Taste

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  • by Wolfgang Strietholt

Bibliography Of Theories Of Taste Bibliography Of Theories Of Taste Presentation Transcript

  • Bibliography of 18 th century theories of taste
  • The Century of Taste - Bibliography
    • Longinus Peri Hypsus. Traité du Sublime et du Merveilleux dans le Discours traduit du Grec du Longin , 1674.
    • John Locke. An essay concerning human understanding , 1706.
    • Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury. Characteristics of men, manners, opinions, times , 1711.
    • Francis Hutcheson. An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue , 1725.
  • The Century of Taste - Bibliography
    • David Hume. A treatise on Human Nature , 1739.
    • William Hogarth. The Analysis of Beauty , 1753.
    • David Hume. Of the Standard of Taste , 1757.
    • Edmund Burke. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful , 2nd edition, 1759.
  • The Century of Taste - Bibliography
    • Alexander Gerard. Essay on Taste , 1759.
    • Archibald Alison. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste , 1790.
    • Uvedale Price, Essays on the Picturesque , 1794.
    • Sir Richard Payne Knight, The Landscape. A Didactic Poem , 1794.
  • The Century of Taste
  • Francis Hutcheson David Hume Edmund Burke
    • Francis Hutcheson
    • (1694-1746)
    • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue
    • (1725)
  • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • simple ideas vs. complex ideas
    • The only Pleasure of Sense, which our Philosophers seem to consider, is that which accompanys the simple Ideas of Sensation: But there are vastly greater Pleasures in those complex Ideas of Objects, which obtain the Names of Beautiful, Regular, Harmonious. Thus every one acknowledges he is more delighted with a fine Face, a just Picture, than with the View of any one Colour, were it as strong and lively as possible; [...]. So in Music, the Pleasure of fine Composition is incomparably greater than that of any Note, how sweet, full or swelling soever. (7)
  • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • internal sense (of beauty)
    • beauty does not lie in the object itself but in a perceiving mind
    • gives pleasure
    • pleasure is felt immediately
    • independent of will
    • independent of knowledge
    • independent of advantage or usefulness
  • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • the beauty of theorems
    • people might be able to see but receive relatively little pleasure out of beautiful sights
    • men of genius own a finer taste, have a better developed internal sense
  • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • Let every one here consider, how different we must suppose the Perception to be, with which a Poet is transported upon the Prospect of any of those Objects of natural Beauty , which ravish us even in his Description; from that cold lifeless Conception which we imagine in a dull Critick, or one of the Virtuosi , without what we call a fine Taste . This latter Class of Men may have greater Perfection in that Knowledge, which is deriv´d from external Sensation; they can tell all the specifick Differences of Trees, Herbs, Minerals, Metals; they know the Form of every Leaf, Stalk, Root, Flower, and Seed of all the Species, about which the Poet is often very ignorant: And yet the Poet shall have a vastly more delightful Perception of the Whole; and not only the Poet but any man of fine Taste. (9-10)
    • neg. associations can keep people from seeing the beauty of certain objects
    • common taste, universal agreement
    • internal sense universal
    An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • uniformity amidst variety
    • deformity is “the absence of beauty, or deficiency in the beauty expected in any species”
    An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
  • An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Virtue and Beauty
    • “ If we descend to the minuter Works of Nature, what vast Uniformity among all the Species of Plants and Vegetables in the manner of their Growth and Propagation! [...] In the almost infinite Multitude of Leaves, Fruit, Seed, Flowers of any one Species, we often see an exact Uniformity in the Structure and Situation of the smallest Fibres. This is the Beauty which charms an ingenious Botanist. Nay, what vast Uniformity and Regularity of Figure is found in each particular Plant, Leaf, or Flower! In all Trees and most of the smaller Plants, the Stalks or Trunks are either Cylinders nearly, or regular Prisms; the Branches similar to their several Trunks, arising at nearly regular Distances, when no Accidents retard their natural Growth [...].” (22-23)
    • David Hume
    • (1711-1776)
    • Of the Standard of Taste
    • (1757)
  • Of the Standard of Taste
    • “ The great variety of Taste, as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation.”
  • Of the Standard of Taste
    • “ The great variety of Taste , as well as of opinion, which prevails in the world, is too obvious not to have fallen under every one's observation.”
  • Of the Standard of Taste “ It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision afforded, confirming one sentiment, and condemning another.”
  • Of the Standard of Taste “ It is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste ; a rule, by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled; at least, a decision afforded, confirming one sentiment , and condemning another.”
    • sentiment = emotions
    • sentiment about an object is in everyone of us
    Of the Standard of Taste
  • Concept of Hume‘s theory
    • good critics
    • beauties & blemishes
    standard of taste agree on
  • Good critics I
    • “ Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, improved by practice, perfected by comparison, and cleared of all prejudice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character; [...] “
  • Good critics II
    • practice
    • comparison
    • no prejudice
    strong sense/ judgement delicate sentiment valuable character of a good critic
  • Good critics III
    • How will I recognize a good critic?
    • “ Though men of delicate taste be rare, they are easily to be distinguished in society by the soundness of their understanding , and the superiority of their faculties above the rest of mankind.”
  • Of the Standard of Taste good critics beauties & blemishes agree on
  • Beauties & blemishes I
    • belong entirely to the sentiment
    •  they are feelings
    • but: sentiment linked to “certain qualities in objects“
    •  objective judgement
    •  universal agreement
  • Beauties & blemishes II
    • good critics agree on some of them
    • examples of possible beauties:
      • force of expression
      • harmony
      • luster of colours
      • exactness of imitation ...
  • Of the Standard of Taste beauties & blemishes standard of taste
  • Of the Standard of Taste
    • standard of taste = agreed beauties
    •  not specified by Hume
    • objects can consist of various beauties and also of blemishes
    • for an object to be beautiful the beauties have to predominate
    • good critics
    • beauties & blemishes
    Of the Standard of Taste standard of taste agree on
    • What are the different values of common sentiment in the philosophical works of Hutcheson and Hume and what are their implications ?
    Brief summary
  • How is beauty perceived according to Hutcheson?
    • According to Hutcheson common sentiment is...
    • the proof of the universal sense of beauty.
    • triggered by a single principle of beauty
    • caused by uniformity amidst variety, which is sufficient to explain the beauty of an aesthetic object. (causal)
    • tantamount to positive judgement!
    • Hume‘s relativism contradicts each of the assumptions above!
  • How is beauty perceived according to Hume?
    • According to Hume common sentiment is...
    • subjective („it is fruitless to dispute concerning taste“)
    • no proof of a universal sense of beauty.
    • often general but not necessarily universal
    • guided by a plurality of value characteristics. (contributive)
    • not tantamount to positive judgement!
  • How is beauty perceived according to Hume?
    • „ The difference, it is said, is very wide between judgement and sentiment!“
  • How to find common agreement?
    • David Hume‘s prerequisites of judgement:
    • objectivity
    • the joint verdict of good critics
    • experience and practice
    • comparison
    • reason (reflected explanations)
    • agreement based on established standards
  • Relative ranking of instances of judgement
    • The following diagram illustrates three differences:
    • 1. The relative ranking of instances of judgement according to Hume.
    • 2. The low rank of common sentiment for Hume as opposed to Hutcheson‘s absolute basis of common sentiment.
    • 3. The difference between sentiment and judgement according to Hume.
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Degree of normative force Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement:
    • subjective and unjustified sentiments.
    • general principles of approbation and blame.
    IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: „ it is impossible men could ever agree in their sentiments and judgements, unless they chose some common point of view, from which they might survey their object, and which might cause it to appear the same to all of them.“ Common sentiment of human nature IV
    • Established principles and models.
    • Universal beauties and blemishes
    III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III
    • normative judgements based on experience and reasoning.
    II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Verdict of posterity I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement: Common sentiment of human nature IV Standard of Taste III Joint verdict of true critics II Durable admiration of works that have survived the test of time: “ all the caprices of mode and fashion.“ I
  • Relative ranking of David Hume‘s instances of judgement:
    • Edmund Burke
    • (1729-1797)
    • A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful
    • (1757)
    • Burke in contrast to Francis Hutcheson and David Hume:
      • beauty does not exist in our mind, but in the objects themselves
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Burke's text A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: general survey of passions, properties of things which make objects either beautiful or sublime and their effect on human beings
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Burke’s main assumption for his inquiry:
      • “ And my point in this enquiry is to find whether there are any principles, on which the imagination is affected, so common to all, so grounded and certain, as to supply the means of reasoning satisfactorily about them. And such principles of Taste, I fancy there are.”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Burke’s main assumption for his inquiry:
      • “ And my point in this enquiry is to find whether there are any principles, on which the imagination is affected, so common to all , so grounded and certain, as to supply the means of reasoning satisfactorily about them. And such principles of Taste , I fancy there are.”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • three kinds of passion:
        • pleasure
        • pain
        • state of indifference/delight
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • What is meant by sublime?
    • “ Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant with terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime. […] When danger or pain press too nearly, they are incapable of any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances, and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful.”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • What is meant by sublime?
    • “ Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant with terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror , is a source of the sublime. […] When danger or pain press too nearly, they are incapable of any delight, and are simply terrible; but at certain distances , and with certain modifications, they may be, and they are delightful .”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Created feelings when confronted with the sublime
    • “ Astonishment, as I have said, is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior effects are admiration, reverence and respect.“
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Created feelings when confronted with the sublime
    • “ Astonishment , as I have said, is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior effects are admiration, reverence and respect .“
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • What is meant by beautiful?
    • “ (…) where women and men, and not only they, but when other animals give us a sense of joy and pleasure in beholding them”.
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • What is meant by beautiful?
    • “ (…) where women and men, and not only they, but when other animals give us a sense of joy and pleasure in beholding them”.
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Created feelings when confronted with the beautiful
    • “ By beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it.”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Created feelings when confronted with the beautiful
    • “ By beauty I mean, that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love , or some passion similar to it.”
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Objects have certain properties which make them either sublime or beautiful
    A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful
    • Terror
    • Obscurity
    • Privations: vacuity, darkness, solitude
    • Vastness
    • Infinity
    Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime Which properties of things are sublime?
  • Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime
  • Burke, Enquiry, part 2: The sublime
    • Smallness
    • Smoothness
    • Gradual Variation
    • Delicacy
    • Light colours
    Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty Which properties of things are beautiful?
  • Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty
  • Burke, Enquiry, part 3: Beauty
  • Secondary Literature
    • Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque. Studies in a Point of View , (London, 1983).
    • Denvir, Bernhard, The Eighteenth Century: Art, Design and Society, 1684-1789 , (London & New York, 1983).
    • Dickie, George, The Century of Taste: The philosophical odyssey of taste in the eighteenth century. (New York, 1996)
    • Jones, Robert W., Gender and the Formation of Taste in Eighteenth-Century Britain , (Cambridge, 1998).
    • Kivy, Peter (ed.), The Blackwell guide to aesthetics (Malden, 2004).
    • Kivy, Peter, The seventh sense: Frances Hutcheson and eighteenth century British aesthetics. (Oxford, 2003).
    • Norton, David (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hume. (Cambridge, 1993)
    • Robert Zimmer, Burke zur Einführung . (Hamburg, 1995).
    • Sambrook, James, The Eighteenth Century: The intellectual and cultural context of English literature, 1700-1789 , (London & New York, 1986).
    The texts treated in our presentation are available as eTexts on the Internet! The respective links are listed on: www.strietholt.de.ms !