Bangladesh Had Only 4 Garment Factories

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  • 1. Measuring Gender Equality and Women’s Advancement through Indicators Geeta Rao Gupta International Center for Research on Women IWDA Symposium on the Harmonization of Gender Indicators Canberra , June 15-16, 2006
  • 2. The MDGs: Another Opportunity
    • To fill the gap between policy commitment and action
    • To take advantage of the demand for accountability and results
  • 3. MDG 3
    • To promote gender equality and empower women.
    • Success depends on the extent to which the priorities necessary to achieve this goal are implemented and the extent to which actions to meet the other MDGs address gender inequality.
  • 4. Ingredients for Success
    • Clarity of definition of concepts
    • Stated priorities for action
    • Country-level targets
    • Gender-specific indicators to monitor progress at the national level and within international agencies
  • 5. Target for Goal 3
    • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education no later than 2015.
    • Limited in scope
    • Insufficient to meet Goal 3
  • 6. Framework of Gender Equality
    • Three domains:
    • Capabilities : education, health and nutrition;
    • Access to Resources and Opportunities : access to economic assets and resources as well as political opportunity;
    • Security : reduced vulnerability to violence and conflict
    • Focus on the poor, adolescents, and women in conflict and post-conflict settings
  • 7. Definition of Empowerment
    • Ability of a woman to control her own destiny
    • Requires:
    • equality in capabilities;
    • equality in access to resources and opportunities;
    • the agency to use those to make strategic choices and decisions;
    • freedom from coercion and violence.
  • 8. Strategic Priorities
    • Strengthen opportunities for post-primary education for girls while simultaneously meeting commitments to universal primary education
    • Guarantee sexual and reproductive health and rights
    • Invest in infrastructure to reduce women’s and girls’ time burdens
    • Guarantee women’s and girls’ property and inheritance rights
    • Eliminate gender inequality in employment
    • Increase women’s share of seats in national parliaments and local government bodies
    • Combat violence against girls and women
  • 9. Indicators for Goal 3
    • Indicators listed:
    • Ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary, secondary, and tertiary education
    • Ratio of literate females to males among 15 to 24 year olds
    • Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector
    • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments
  • 10. Limitations of the Indicators
    • Inadequate for tracking all the strategic priorities
    • Technical shortcomings:
    • Ratio of girls to boys enrolled does not reveal what proportion of girls or boys of that age group are enrolled;
    • Great variability in the definition of literacy;
    • Females in nonagricultural employment is restricted to only one category of work and does not reveal other inequalities, in entry, terms of work, earnings, or security;
    • Proportion of seats does not measure women’s participation at the local level.
  • 11. Criteria for Selecting Indicators
    • Simplicity
    • Few in number for each priority
    • Policy relevance
    • Comparability
    • Affordability
    • Limitation: All measures of parity, not quality of outcomes or how they are achieved.
  • 12. Task Force Recommended Indicators
      • Education
      • The ratio of female to male gross enrolment rates in primary, secondary, and tertiary education
      • The ratio of female to male completion rates in primary, secondary, and tertiary education
  • 13. Task Force Recommended Indicators
      • Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights
      • Proportion of contraceptive demand satisfied
      • Adolescent fertility rate
      • Infrastructure
      • Hours per day (or year) women and men spend fetching water and collecting fuel
  • 14. Task Force Recommended Indicators
    • Property Rights
    • Land ownership by male,female, or jointly held.
    • Housing title, disaggregated by male, female, or jointly held
    • Employment
    • Share of women in employment, both wage and self-employment, by type
    • Gender gaps in earnings in wage and self-employment
  • 15. Task Force Recommended Indicators
    • Participation in national parliaments and local government bodies
    • Percentage of seats held by women in national parliaments
    • Percentage of seats held by women in local government bodies
    • Violence against women
    • Prevalence of domestic violence
  • 16. Gender-specific Indicators Essential
    • For making accountability mechanisms work to:
      • examine outcomes and results and assess them relative to expectations (and/or baseline conditions)
      • determine the causes for lack of success, learn from them and fix them
      • For making gender mainstreaming work
  • 17. What is Needed?
    • Infusion of resources into country statistical agencies
    • Technical support from international agencies
    • Harmonization of indicators and coordination across agencies
    • Continued funding for WISTAT and Trends in the World’s Women
    • Continue to fund the focal point on women in the UN Statistics Division