Amorphous And Semi Crystalline

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  • Amorphous And Semi Crystalline

    1. 1. Amorphous and Semi-Crystalline Commodity Thermoplastics Materials, properties and applications. Prepared by the IAPD Education Committee (Module 3) Presented courtesy of Modern Plastics, Inc.
    2. 3. Amorphous Commodity Thermoplastics Key Characteristics <ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperature resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Low strength </li></ul><ul><li>Good dimensional stability </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds well </li></ul><ul><li>Typically transparent </li></ul>
    3. 4. Amorphous Commodity Thermoplastics Materials <ul><li>Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) </li></ul><ul><li>Polystyrene (PS) </li></ul><ul><li>Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulous acetate butyrate (CAB) </li></ul>
    4. 5. Acrylic (PMMA) Strengths <ul><li>Availability of all ranges of optical transparency, including opacity </li></ul><ul><li>Rigidity </li></ul><ul><li>Surface hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Half the weight of glass </li></ul><ul><li>Heat resistance </li></ul>
    5. 6. Acrylic (PMMA) Limitations <ul><li>Grain effect </li></ul><ul><li>Discolor with high UV exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Limited chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Poor wear and abrasion resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Low impact strength </li></ul>
    6. 7. Acrylic (PMMA) Applications <ul><li>Protective glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Point of purchase (POP) displays </li></ul>
    7. 8. Polystyrene (PS) Strengths <ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to bond </li></ul><ul><li>Quick to bond </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to decorate </li></ul>
    8. 9. Polystyrene (PS) Limitations <ul><li>Low impact resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle after UV exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used at elevated temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical stress </li></ul>
    9. 10. Polystyrene (PS) Applications <ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable beverage glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Medical devices </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable laboratory products </li></ul><ul><li>Wood replacement products </li></ul>
    10. 11. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Strengths <ul><li>Good impact resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Easily formable </li></ul><ul><li>Many different formulations </li></ul>
    11. 12. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Limitations <ul><li>Grain effect </li></ul><ul><li>Will discolor with high UV exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked by organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture) </li></ul>
    12. 13. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Applications <ul><li>Aircraft interiors </li></ul><ul><li>Computer housings </li></ul><ul><li>Cassette holders </li></ul><ul><li>Mass transit components </li></ul><ul><li>Wall coverings </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul>
    13. 14. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Strengths <ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Good chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Versatile </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally UV resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Good strength </li></ul>
    14. 15. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Limitations <ul><li>Heat sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>Low impact strength </li></ul><ul><li>Poor wear resistance </li></ul>
    15. 16. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Applications <ul><li>Pipe, valves and fittings </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoformed parts for transportation, exhibits and machinery parts </li></ul><ul><li>Point of purchase displays </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution control equipment parts </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul>
    16. 17. Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG) Strengths <ul><li>Optical transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Good toughness </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to fabricate </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to form </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to be sterilized </li></ul>
    17. 18. Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG) Limitations <ul><li>Limited UV resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used above 60 ° -66 ° C/140 ° -150 ° F range </li></ul><ul><li>Low softening point precludes sterilization </li></ul>
    18. 19. Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG) Applications <ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic arts </li></ul><ul><li>Point of purchase (POP) displays </li></ul>
    19. 20. Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB) Strengths <ul><li>Tough at low temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Compounded easily for unique applications </li></ul>
    20. 21. Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB) Limitations <ul><li>Not compatible with other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Not self-extinguishing </li></ul>
    21. 22. Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB) Applications <ul><li>Cash register keys </li></ul><ul><li>Tool handles </li></ul><ul><li>Windshields </li></ul><ul><li>Thermoformed signs </li></ul><ul><li>Trim stripping </li></ul><ul><li>Window well covers </li></ul>
    22. 23. Semi-Crystalline Commodity Plastics Key Characteristics <ul><li>Low cost, strength and temperature resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Low COF </li></ul><ul><li>Near zero moisture absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Very good electrical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Good toughness </li></ul>
    23. 24. Semi-Crystalline Commodity Plastics Materials <ul><li>Polyethylene (PE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High density polyethylene (HDPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low density polyethylene (LDPE), (LLDPE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polypropylene (PP) </li></ul><ul><li>Polymethylpentene (PMP) </li></ul>
    24. 25. Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) Polymethylpentene (PMP) Key Characteristics <ul><li>Partially crystalline, partially amorphous </li></ul><ul><li>Largest family are the polyolefins </li></ul><ul><li>Cost, benefits and limitations are different for each </li></ul>
    25. 26. Polyethylenes (PE) Key Characteristics <ul><li>Classified by density and molecular weight </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Zero moisture absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Light weight (1/8 weight of steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent insulator </li></ul><ul><li>Low COF </li></ul><ul><li>High impact strength </li></ul>
    26. 27. Polyethylenes (PE) Applications <ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Wire and cable </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul>
    27. 28. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Key Characteristics <ul><li>Good chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Very flexible </li></ul><ul><li>High impact strength </li></ul><ul><li>Low heat resistance (60-79 ° C/140-175 ° F) </li></ul><ul><li>Used extensively in packaging industry and for prosthetic devices </li></ul>
    28. 29. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Key Characteristics <ul><li>Higher rigidity and tensile strength than low and medium density polyethylenes </li></ul><ul><li>Good formability </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly lower impact strength than LDPE </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin grades are FDA and USDA approved </li></ul>
    29. 30. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Applications <ul><li>Films </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial trash bags </li></ul><ul><li>Liners </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping bags </li></ul><ul><li>Marine industry </li></ul><ul><li>Playgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Bathrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Pipe </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul>
    30. 31. Polypropylenes (PP) Key Characteristics <ul><li>Excellent chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent fatigue strength — referred to as “living hinge” </li></ul><ul><li>Lower impact strength than polyethylenes </li></ul><ul><li>Available in homopolymer and co-polymer </li></ul><ul><li>Co-polymer offers better impact, clarity and cold temperature properties </li></ul>
    31. 32. Polypropylenes (PP) Applications <ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer/durable goods </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum formed parts </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber/carpet </li></ul>
    32. 33. Polymethylpentene (PMP) Key Characteristics <ul><li>High transparency, even in thick sections </li></ul><ul><li>Very light weight (.83 specific gravity) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher heat resistance than other grades in this group—compares favorably to PTFE up to 148.89 ° C/300 ° F </li></ul><ul><li>Good electrical properties </li></ul><ul><li>Low-temperature impact strength </li></ul><ul><li>Very brittle </li></ul><ul><li>Poor UV resistance </li></ul><ul><li>USDA compliant </li></ul>
    33. 34. Polymethypentene (PMP) Applications <ul><li>Medical products </li></ul><ul><li>Food processing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Microwavable packaging </li></ul>
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